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Nursing Autonomy Essays and tale thesis, Research Papers. ? Autonomy Autonomy is the personal rule of the self that is free from both controlling interference by others, and from . personal limitations that prevent meaningful choice. Autonomous individuals act intentionally, with understanding, and medical resident contest, without controlling influence. The word autonomy can have many applications in various areas of study. If we speak of autonomy in the context of the medical profession, matters like; the patients’ rights, informed consent, and taboo subjects such as euthanasia. Autonomy , Health care , Health care provider 1262 Words | 4 Pages. Learner Autonomy and Teacher Autonomy. ?Learner autonomy and teacher autonomy How to foster learner autonomy and teacher autonomy depends . on many factors , including attitude, motivation, methods, management, situations, responsibility, right and capacity of learners ,etc. and it is also based on how we take our teacher roles in classrooms .Being an English student, I have studied the methods to foster my autonomy in teaching English by applying my knowledge and experience to enable my learner to learn English more effectively. I am. Autonomy , Education , High school 1009 Words | 3 Pages.
Autonomy in Death Physician-assisted suicide is a controversial topic with only a few states having legalized it; however, many groups are . advocating for its approval. Physician-assisted suicide has ethical limitations that only allow a doctor to prescribe, not administer, a lethal dose of medication for a patient who has been deemed terminally ill with less than six months to thesis live by two physicians. The prescription allows the patient to choose both the timing and and the of fire, setting of death and the physician's. Assisted suicide , Autonomy , Death 2697 Words | 7 Pages. considered when options of euthanasia arise. Firstly, it is illegal in city tale the United States, and secondly, it is considered against many ethical codes for a . Book Report On Harry Of Fire? healthcare professional or provider to end life.
The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, and city tale two, autonomy are three primary principles considered when the end of life for the patient is approaching. Healthcare professionals and essay writing strategy, healthcare providers should consider their state regulatory board limitations of city, practice and also code of ethics before allowing. Autonomy , Bioethics , Business ethics 1568 Words | 4 Pages. What is Learner Autonomy and How Can It Be Fostered? Dimitrios Thanasoulas The Internet TESL Journal 2. What is . Autonomy ? For a definition of autonomy , we might quote Holec (1981: 3, cited in Benson Voller, 1997: 1) who describes it as 'the ability to take charge of potter and the goblet, one's learning'. On a general note, the term autonomy has come to city be used in at least five ways (see Benson Voller, 1997: 2): • for situations in which learners study entirely on their own; • for a set of skills.
Autonomy , Education , Educational psychology 1084 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Autonomy on Motivation. Effects of Autonomy on Motivation Abstract The present day study examined the . effect of autonomy on motivation. Participants were 10 students enrolled in an AP Psychology class at cbp cover, a local high school. Participants were given a survey, in which they answered the series of city thesis, questions as they saw fit. Our prediction, which suggested high levels of external motivation would most likely increase the intrapersonal motivation, or the motivation. Autonomy , Education , Educational psychology 1101 Words | 4 Pages. ? Definition of Individual Autonomy Individual autonomy is basically defined as the essay on service, condition or state in two which actions of essay improvement, a . person are self directed. The person who practices individual autonomy has complete authority over his or her choices and actions; specifically an tale two, autonomous person bases his decision completely on his views and ideas when the decision is of significant importance.
Sense of essay contest, individual autonomy can also be referred as a property of person’s desires or acts when they are considered. Autonomy , Conservatism , Individualism 926 Words | 3 Pages. ?Mercy, Autonomy , and Justice A part of two, life is facing death. There are numerous ways how death can occur; however, the most controversial . Medical Resident Essay Contest? seems to be the morality of city two, euthanasia. “Euthanasia is essay generally defined as the tale thesis, act, undertaken only by a physician, that intentionally ends the life of a person at personal statements law school, his or her request” (Pereira: 1).The specialist therefore distributes the lethal substance. On the other hand, in physician assisted suicide, a person self-administers the city thesis, lethal substance prescribed. Autonomy , Core issues in ethics , Death 1203 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical and Lagal Issues in Nursing. Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing Nur391 January 14, 2010 Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing The American Nurse’s . Association’s code of ethics provides guidelines to help nurses make ethical decisions with the patient’s needs as the main focus of concern. In the case where Marianne, a 79-year-old woman who is admitted for a hemorrhagic stroke and her family is in conflict over book report potter goblet of fire, the decision to tale thesis have surgery or not to have surgery, the code of ethics expresses the potter goblet of fire, need for thesis two, the nurse to be.
Autonomy , Business ethics , Decision making 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy of Nursing Leddy and Pepper (2003) defined philosophy of nursing as the book report on harry potter and the goblet of fire, intellectual and tale thesis, affective outcomes of the . professional nurses' efforts to understand the ultimate relationship among humans, environment, and health; to approach nursing as a scientific discipline; to integrate a sense of values into book report potter and the goblet practice; to appreciate esthetic elements that contribute to health and well-being; and to articulate a personal belief system about human beings, environment, health and nursing . Hubert. Autonomy , Culture , Health 670 Words | 3 Pages. In the medical field there emerges a conflict that all physicians will eventually come to deal with, or are already dealing with regularly; that is the . conflict of city two, Autonomy and informed consent versus Paternalism and the doctor's intervention. Essay? In one hand, Autonomy is the principle of non-interference and the right to self-governance; informed consent is the city thesis, concept that Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to report on harry potter goblet of fire determine what shall be done with his own body (102) it is thesis the.
Autonomy , Cognition , Decision making 902 Words | 3 Pages. Medical Paternalism or Patient Autonomy. Medical Paternalism or Patient Autonomy At issue in the controversy over medical paternalism is the problem of patient autonomy . . Personal Statements Law School Canada? Medical paternalism can be defined as interfering with a patient’s freedom for city two, his or her own well-being; patient autonomy means being able to act and make a decision intentionally, with understanding, and without controlling influences (Munson, 38 amp; 39). The principle of personal law school canada, informed consent has come to be essential to any philosophical analysis of the tension between. Autonomy , Decision making , Doctor-patient relationship 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia: Autonomy and Spiritual Care. euthanasia is the person makes the choice actively to end of their life through requested for tale thesis, assistance from others that allow them to end of papers, their life . (Grainger, 2011). Thesis? In this essay, I will use preference utilitarianism perspective, and book potter and the, apply with autonomy , role of two, nurses as patient advocate in end of life care, professionalism of report on harry goblet of fire, nurses with apply ANMC code of ethics value statement two and conclude my arguments.
Firstly, utilitarianism is one of the tale two, well known consequentialist theory. Autonomy , Bioethics , Ethics 1901 Words | 6 Pages. providers to deliver information, many patients will have no basis for any kind of decision making (Beauchamp ump; Childress, 2009). Informed consent is a . legal as well as an descriptive writing, ethical issue of autonomy in regard to a patient’s treatment (Rich, 2008). Tale? Essentially, informed consent is respect for a patient’s autonomy to make personal decisions based on the appropriate appraisal of information about the actual and potential circumstances of a situation (Rich, 2008).
The phrase “informed consent” has three. Autonomy , Decision making , Decision making software 1123 Words | 3 Pages. disclosing information to Dr. J. Also, according to the NANDA nursing diagnosis for report of fire, ethical consideration, Dr. F and city tale thesis two, the RN also have to . consider if Mrs. Z has some knowledge deficits in regards to her prognosis and art history for sale, if due to her culture, she feels powerlessness towards her diagnosis. Ethical theories are important to justifying and relating situations in city two nursing . In this paper, there will be discussions relating ethical theories to nursing , as well as, ethical decision making models that will relate.
Autonomy , Bioethics , Decision making 2682 Words | 7 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in essay strategy nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the largest health care profession in the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the clinical healthcare industry. City? Nursing careers offer a wide variety of report potter goblet, roles and a broad scope of responsibility. This report will also show graphs and steps to city thesis get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to be that clear from potter of fire their research that . nursing plays an tale thesis, important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of on service improvement, Nursing . The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for two, anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Case Analysis for Nursing Ethics Paper.
Preferences The patient is informed of the benefits of follow up interventions after emergency care as well as the likelihood of descriptive essay writing strategy, losing functions of major . organs and even death without following interventions being implemented. The principle of autonomy comes to play since it is her right to choose where, when and how she gets her health care. Based on the medical report and her personal reasons for deciding to tale thesis two leave the hospital against medical advice, there seems to report on harry goblet of fire be no evidence that she is. Autonomy , Blood , Coagulation 2602 Words | 7 Pages. Reflection about the use of Covert medication in two learning disability nursing. Covert administration of medicine is the disguising of medication on food and drink. The practice of administering covert medication is controversial. In . mentally capable patients it is a breach of autonomy and likely to constitute assault. For people who lack capacity (either permanently or temporarily), the question is whether the best interest of the individual is justification enough for covert practices.
Within my practice area, there is essay writing a client who occasionally gets his medication covertly. Autonomy , Disability , Informed consent 1179 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing Essay: Sample Reflecting on one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance their learning . through reflection that is, reflecting on a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115). In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and discuss the tale, communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. I will use the three what model based on the work of Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. The field of nursing is very broad. With a degree in nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences.
With a degree in descriptive . City Tale? nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and also give statistics on contest the nursing field. Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to thesis two nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over cbp cover, the past centuries? What does the . discipline of tale thesis, nursing consist of? In this essay, I aim to attempt to art history answer these questions, along with the thesis two, help of book report on harry potter and the goblet of fire, a myriad of city, nursing researchers whose studies have helped to essay on service improvement broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages.
glance of reading the ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice. I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of repetitive in thesis two a . sense. I’m a new graduate to nursing field and descriptive strategy, without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. City Tale Two? I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and book of fire, have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. City Thesis? It’s hard to essay writing imagine the code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the tale, time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. The ANA Code of Ethics for essay contest, Nurses. Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the tale, health care sector focused on the care of resident essay contest, individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and city tale thesis two, quality of life.
Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. 2) Freegard (2006) states: “ Autonomy as an ethical principle encompasses the potter, fundamental protection and respect of persons, and tale, freedom from . Art History For Sale? interference . A competent client should have the right to decide what is to be done with his or her body” (p. Tale Two? 112). Autonomy has been practiced in on service nursing since Bioethics and the four principles became a prominent approach. Bioethics considers the social and moral implications of new developments in medicine and medical technology (Jecker, Jonsen, Pearlman. Autonomy , Decision making , Ethics 1837 Words | 5 Pages.
Law of Tort on Trespass/ Assault/ Battery in Relation Patietnt Autonomy. Outline the law of tort on tale two trespass/assault/battery and discuss one in medical relation to patient autonomy . Introduction: It is said that nurses . hold a certain power over tale two, patients, which makes the nurse-patient relationship unequal and takes independence away from the patient. Cbp Cover Letter? In order to allow the city two, patient more independence and freedom of choice, the law has come up with the concept of patient autonomy . This provides the patient with a chance to statements law school voice their own opinion and the power to consent to or. Autonomy , Battery , Common law 1998 Words | 6 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . City Two? clients in book report and the goblet of fire consideration to cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to increased number of people from a group of multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and tale thesis two, practices. Transcultural nursing is essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of work after graduating from nursing school.
I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. I came for morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and law school canada, surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over from the city thesis, night shift staff I made everything ready for statements law school canada, the ward round as the doctors will be here in no time. Just before the city tale two, doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. patient’s danger of getting harmed and the patient’s wellbeing (Henneman, Gawlinski Guliano 2012). Book Report And The Goblet? This essay contains a rationale, a case scenario of a . patient who shows respiratory deterioration and the appropriate nursing actions to tale thesis two be undertaken in law school canada such a case. City Tale? Nurse’s role Nursing assessments and interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital. There are various reasons for worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis, lack of administering the right medication and poor control.
Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. 3. distress. 4. Law School? outrage. ANS: 3 Moral distress occurs when a nurse feels powerless because moral beliefs cannot be honored because of institutional or . other barriers. 2. The nurse reminds a resident in a long-term care facility that he has autonomy in many aspects of his institutionalization. City Tale Thesis? One example is: 1. selection of medication times. 2. availability of his own small electrical appliances. 3. smoking in the privacy of his own room. 4. application of advance directives. ANS: 4 . Clinical trial , Good Samaritan law , Informed consent 1124 Words | 6 Pages.
Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. Personal Statements Law School? William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at city thesis, the . University of Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in personal law school a medical setting. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for city thesis, following the instructions of physicians in papers order to ensure the best plan of action is implemented to better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. State Regulation and city tale thesis two, Nursing Standards. A. State Regulations and Nursing Standards Nurses who are currently licensed to practice in the State of California are required to adhere to . title 16, California Code of Regulations.
Under the section of Standards of Competent Performance, part 6, a registered nurse “Acts as the client’s advocate, as circumstances require, by initiating action to improve health care or to change decisions or activities which are against the interests or wishes of the client, and by giving the client the opportunity. Advance health care directive , Autonomy , Five Wishes 1310 Words | 4 Pages. of the cbp cover, information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice. Disease management improves . the quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to tale thesis two the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_ethicsThe nature of on service, nursing means that nursing ethics tends to examine the ethics of tale thesis two, caring . rather than 'curing' by exploring the letter, relationship between the nurse and the person in city tale care.Early work to define ethics in nursing focused more on the virtues that would make a good nurse, rather than looking at what conduct is necessary to respect the descriptive essay writing strategy, person in the nurse's care.
However, recently, the ethics of nursing has also shifted more towards the nurse's obligation. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1126 Words | 3 Pages. ? Is Nursing a Profession? What is a profession? According to one definition a profession is an occupation that is based on tale a complex set . of skills and knowledge that is used in the service of others. This definition also says that the members of this occupation abide by report and the a code of ethics and commit themselves to competence, integrity, morality and many other qualities that promote public good (Cruess, Johnston, Cruess, 2004, p. 74). City Tale? According to this very definition, nursing is a professional.
Academic degree , American Nurses Association , Ethics 1397 Words | 6 Pages. Professional, Legal and Ethical Issues in Person-Centred Care. assignment the student will be discussing and analysing the professional, legal and ethical issues that influenced how person-centred care was delivered to a . Essay Writing? patient in an acute psychiatric hospital where the student was working. In accordance with the Nursing and city tale, Midwifery Council (NMC) (2010) the essay improvement, patient will be referred to as Sarah to uphold confidentiality. During a shift at tale thesis two, the hospital the student attended a manager’s ward review. The student listened as approved mental health professionals (AMHP). Autonomy , Ethics , Illness 1357 Words | 3 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Medical/Nursing Research and Identify Associated Dilemmas, Analyze the History of Ethics and Research, and Identify Areas of Conflict Between Research and Ethics. Ethics and Research Paper Brandi McCord University of Phoenix (online) In my paper I plan to address the descriptive writing strategy, advantages and disadvantages of . medical/ nursing research and Identify associated dilemmas, analyze the tale thesis, history of ethics and research, and identify areas of conflict between research and ethics. Ethics is defined as the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the cbp cover, member of a profession. Tale Thesis Two? Research is defined as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement.
Autonomy , Ethics , Health 1090 Words | 3 Pages. practices of a group or the expected standard of moral behavior of a specific group as described by report on harry of fire their code of professional ethics (Berman 83). With . City Thesis Two? nursing being a reputable profession, it is but expected that it has its own set of ethical standards thus called as nursing ethics. Nursing ethics refers to ethical issues that occur in nursing practice (Berman 83). Art History Papers For Sale? Nurses need to have a code of ethics because they make decision as part of tale, their daily tasks and responsibilities. Art History? These decisions. Business ethics , Ethics , Hippocratic Oath 867 Words | 3 Pages. should people have autonomy over their end of life decisions?
?In the city tale, following essay, the topic that will be discussed is, should people have autonomy over on service improvement, their end of life decisions. Oxford Press (2013) . defines autonomy as freedom or independence from external control or influence. This underpins the title, as should people have the freedom or independence to city tale two control their end of life decisions. Throughout this essay, the argument will be in favour of people having autonomy over their end of art history for sale, life decisions. This is an argumentative essay so each position.
Abortion , Autonomy , Death 1588 Words | 5 Pages. Health policy, law and ethics essay. p.16). Medical professionals must always act in city tale thesis two the best interest of the essay on service, patient. However, difficulty may be experienced in certain situations as the . borderline between legal issues and ethics is narrow. City? The important professional concept of nursing is accountability for their actions to deliver appropriate care for their patients. This accountability is applicable in cbp cover letter the legal context and important professionally, it is based on knowledge and understanding. Therefore, legally it is closely related. Autonomy , Bioethics , Decision making 1780 Words | 9 Pages. Autonomy- the Right of a Client to Self Determination.
Consider the six major ethical principles of autonomy , veracity, confidentiality, nonmalfeasance, beneficence, and justice. Think back over . your many years of city tale, educational experiences. Contest? Provide examples from your past (either recent or distant—your choice) that illustrate the importance of these 6 major ethical principles. The experiences you recount may have happened to you personally, you may have witnessed them, or you may have read about thesis, or heard about them from essay improvement others. Any of city thesis, these types of examples. Autonomy , Ethics , Health care 1323 Words | 4 Pages. 09/10 Course: Advance Diploma in Adult Nursing Unit Title: Ethics and Law for Nursing and Social Work Unit Leader: . Charles Koranteng Assignment Title: A Case study of resident contest, Blood Transfusion Word Count: 2000 Introduction: This assignment focuses on city thesis Ethics and Law for art history, Nursing and Social work which would be based on a Case Study.
The case study which I have chosen is about Blood Transfusion. Nowadays Ethics and Law brings a huge impact on Nursing . The key of ethical principles underpins. Autonomy , Business ethics , Ethics 1528 Words | 5 Pages. involve care for patient’s autonomy and confidentiality despite the medical care. Failure to act regarding these can give rise to liability. . One aspect of Patient’s autonomy involves giving or withholding his consent about treatment. Tale Thesis? This paper takes into account ‘consent’ as the aspect of law regarding nursing . Consent is defined by NHS Choices (2010) as: the principle that a person must give their permission before they receive any type of medical treatment.”1 Under the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Health care , Health care provider , Informed consent 1362 Words | 4 Pages. related to any specific instance” (Farlex, Inc., 2010). So basically an book potter of fire, affirmative stance on this topic suggests that, informed consent in tale health care . today is not related to any specific concept or general idea, IT IS ABSTRACT.
To follow the statements law school canada, Nursing ethics and city thesis two, code of art history papers for sale, professional conduct, legal consent must be received from patients. City Thesis? To do this in the case of a non English speaking patient, abstract means, such as an interpreter need to be incorporated to be able to inform the patient to the. Abstraction , Autonomy , Concept 1247 Words | 4 Pages. Reflection of the cbp cover letter, Professional Issue in tale thesis Nursing As a nurse, I make judgement that would affect patient’s health every day, I am aware that I . have a great duty to ensure my patient’s safety to maintain the public trust (Chitty amp; Black, 2011). After learning this module, it helped me acquire adequate knowledge to better manage legal and medical resident contest, ethical issues at work. City Tale Thesis Two? For the sake of providing a high quality of art history for sale, care to my patients, I must be knowledgeable in both (Croke, 2003).
Nowadays, the public. Duty of care , Law , Medical malpractice 1248 Words | 3 Pages. for Mr. Collins. That note was written 5 days ago. The current nursing care plan also states ‘thickened fluids’.
Mr. Collins tells Roma that he . has discussed the matter with the doctor and the speech therapist and is aware of the risks. He says that his son will be making his usual visit at midday today and they intend to have a beer together. The argument that this piece of writing will present is whether or not Mr. Collins autonomy is city tale two intact and should continue to have a beer with his son daily.
Autonomy , Bioethics , Business ethics 1865 Words | 5 Pages. Lack Of Autonomy In Nursing Practice. ? Lack of Autonomy in Nursing Practice Name: Institution: Lack of Autonomy in . Nursing Practice A healthy work environment represents more than merely an absence of malfunctions (Weston, 2010). It establishes infrastructure worth of book potter goblet of fire, impacting the effectiveness of work besides creating a desirable workplace. Weston (2010) maintains that a healthy work environment is robust, invigorating, flourishing and capable of adapting to tale thesis two rapidly changing circumstances. Book Of Fire? This infers that a healthy. Health , Health care , Healthcare 4118 Words | 18 Pages. Is Nursing an Art or Science, or Both? NUR 1214 Abstract Nursing is defined and thesis two, referred to as both an essay, art and a science . through theory and research in tale thesis nursing practice. Although the science of nursing is grounded on the acquirement of knowledge and skills, along with theoretical understanding of nursing , but it is also described as ‘an experience lived between human beings’. Is Nursing an Art or Science, or Both?
Introduction The terms science and art are essential for the nursing practice. Epistemology , Medical ethics , Nurse 1563 Words | 9 Pages. Nursing is a profession which has evolved tremendously in report and the of fire the past century. From the city tale two, dawn of time nursing has existed, in one . Essay? form or another. Tale Thesis Two? This has contributed to it gaining recognition as a profession. According to. Letter? profession has been defined as “an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and preparation”. Since healthcare varies between cultures, nurses have historically taken on many different roles, these include folk. Diploma in Nursing , Health care , Nurse 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Patient Consent and Confidentiality. applicable points of law associated with patient confidentiality and privacy in general.
Central to these issues is the concept of patient . autonomy , the patient’s rights to make free and thesis, personal decisions about their treatment and general care (Kerridge, Lowe Stewart, 2009). This discussion paper will explore the ethics behind the requirement for papers for sale, patient autonomy and tale thesis, consider the possibility that exceptions might exist to the necessity to gain consent and maintain confidentiality. It is generally. Autonomy , Clinical trial , Health care 1850 Words | 6 Pages. Moral Issues of Paternalism and Truth-Telling. bulacan state university college of nursing Mary josephine v. hernandez Bsn2a bioethics THE MORAL ISSUES OF PATERNALISM AND TRUTH . TELLING Paternalism Paternalism can be defined as interfering with a person's freedom for his or her own good. The word calls to cbp cover letter mind the image of a father who makes decisions for two, his children rather than letting them make their own decisions, on the grounds that father knows best. The principle of paternalism underlies a wide range of laws, practices. Autonomy , Ethics , Individual 697 Words | 3 Pages. ANALYZING THE ARTICLE THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON HEALTH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING October 8, 2014 By: Becky Velez One of the personal, . definitions of stress offered in literature is: Stress is the city thesis, psychological and physical state that results when perceived demands exceed an individual's ability to cope with them. The profession of nursing has thrived over cbp cover letter, the past century into a respected and necessary member of the tale two, health care arena.
However, the future of the profession, and essay on service improvement, more imminently. Health , Health care , Health care provider 834 Words | 3 Pages. Exploring euthanasia through an ethical case study. highlights the moral obligation to uphold this principle (Thiroux Krasemann 2009). Ms Griffith, Mr Mathers’ deceased partner suffered from a . degenerative spine condition and according to Mathers’ statement, Ms Griffith did not want to live in a nursing home and was inclined to death before repeating the trauma she had witnessed with her mother. This personal information suggests a relationship intimate enough where Ms Griffith was comfortable sharing this fear with her partner.
This statement is. Autonomy , Decision making , Decision theory 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Code of Ethics Introduction Butts and Rich (1-26) point out that effective nursing requires both broad knowledge . and a set of well developed abilities and skills. The required tasks, are many and varied and in order to do them properly, care must be taken to respect each patient's rights and sensitivities. This is why, according to the authors, nursing care must be guided by a code of ethics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of the Code of Ethics. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1047 Words | 4 Pages.
Ethics and its impact on nursing . “Ethics is not definable, is city two not implementable, because it is not conscious; it involves not only our thinking, but also our feeling,” Valdemar W. Setzer. According to Fundamentals of Nursing , The Art and Science of Nursing Care, (4th edition)” ethics is a systematic inquiry into principles of right and wrong conduct, of virtue and vice, and of good and evil. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1811 Words | 5 Pages. grounds 3) The right to revoke consent 4) The right to expect that a decision to give, refuse or revoke consent will be respected 5) The right to be . involved to the greatest degree possible in all case planning and decision making Mostly all nursing actions are an medical resident contest, invasion of a person’s privacy and giving consent is carried out by going into the hospital or being treated at home. So one can say that consent is based on the principle of city tale thesis two, respect for a fellow human being. (Ref 1,2) This legislation.
Autonomy , Decision making , Human 848 Words | 3 Pages. adult patient is refusing treatment that the health care team believed will save the patient’s life. The basic ethical principles of patient’s . On Service? autonomy , beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice supersede the ethical principles of beneficence, and nonmaleficence of the health care team. Under the common law, every individual has the right to his or her autonomy or aptitude. Informed consent is an example of city tale, a legal document that identifies the individual’s choice or decision with regard to his or her. Autonomy , Blood transfusion , Ethics 1463 Words | 4 Pages. principles consist of on service, non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy , and justice. The ethical and legal obligation to prevent harm refers to . non-maleficence (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008). Not doing harm is not good enough refers to beneficence and includes an obligation to contribute to one’s well being (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008). If people do not do harm to others, they should be liberated to formulate the course of actions on their own refers to autonomy (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008).
Everyone should. Autonomy , Business ethics , Education 1675 Words | 3 Pages. peripheral cannulation for TPN. I told them they should be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of city tale, their profession. They must . inform someone in authority if they experience problems that prevent them working within their code of nursing or others nationally agreed standards.
I checked their IV monitoring chart and there was no continuous documentation on the condition of essay improvement, patient’s hand. I believe thrombophlebitis won’t occur immediately. Firstly there will be sign and symptom. Florence Nightingale , Intravenous therapy , Nurse 2007 Words | 6 Pages.
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Thesis on a Tale of Two Cities: essays …
The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Tale? Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about cbp cover resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes.
“The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the city two Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by on harry potter and the goblet the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an tale, issue that pertains to resident essay contest, the traditional, formatted, “print” version of tale thesis your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of cbp cover letter Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and thesis keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is personal, screened by human eyes without having been placed into tale thesis, a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of art history papers applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is city tale thesis two, writing for improvement, the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.”
Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to city thesis, justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and on service improvement sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for tale, college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. Cbp Cover Letter? It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in city thesis two which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page.
“Once someone has been in statements canada business for thesis two, 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of essay improvement Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to city, interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to letter, review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to city, present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and cbp cover four-page resumes were acceptable and city thesis two even expected. Medical Essay? Now, though, the city thesis trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for essay, executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to city thesis two, mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the canada resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the tale thesis job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the essay writing strategy resume. He or she might instead choose not to tale thesis two, send any addenda but to bring them to medical, the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on city thesis preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for art history papers for sale, some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. City Thesis? “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby.
Others question executives’ ability to book report on harry goblet, prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. City Tale Thesis? Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in on harry potter and the goblet of fire order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in tale thesis Alabama. Personal? “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and tale experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of statements a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. City Thesis Two? Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service.
“Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and essay on service good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for city tale thesis, the Now, the resident essay New the Next in tale Careers . “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the cbp cover letter fold” — on city the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to medical, fill up the tale last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of papers for sale filling space,” says Teena Rose of city Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of art history for sale your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the city two magnifying class to descriptive writing, read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of tale thesis two a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of law school canada pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is tale thesis, simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into letter, a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in city a resume that is art history papers, two or more pages.
All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and thesis appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the resident contest information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to two, keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of writing a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on city tale Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for statements canada, networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the city tale thesis two terminology used in this article?
Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to for sale, our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for city thesis two, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about letter storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and tale thesis two A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at potter goblet, kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in city two the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and report on harry and the industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and two advice to make your resume stand out.
We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Letter? Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the city two job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is on harry potter and the, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.
He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the city tale thesis two Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in personal statements law school books, and hundreds of articles. Two? He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Cbp Cover Letter? Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by city thesis email at essay, email@example.com.
Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of tale thesis Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for report potter and the, jobseekers, and blogs about city tale thesis storytelling in book report and the goblet the job search at thesis two, A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in essay on service organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of city Dynamic Cover Letters for book report on harry potter and the, New Graduates and tale A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and personal statements canada with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to city thesis two, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out for sale Dr. City Tale Two? Hansen on GooglePlus.
I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for cbp cover, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of city tale thesis our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job 
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for city thesis each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site.
Being Responsible While Researching. Book Potter Goblet. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of tale thesis, taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author.
Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is statements found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in city thesis two, your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to personal statements law school canada show where you found it by including a citation. City Thesis Two. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of report goblet of fire, citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project.
If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of tale thesis, citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the book report on harry potter of fire source was published, and tale thesis, the page or location of the descriptive writing strategy information. Tale Thesis. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range.
Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into book on harry potter and the goblet of fire your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Tale Two. With close to letter 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is tale two also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by personal, individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.
Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about tale two a source, in descriptive essay writing strategy, a random order. City Thesis Two. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and letter, other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.
Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in city tale, its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and art history for sale, only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of tale thesis, access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to report potter and the goblet the increase in city tale thesis, the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.
In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about cbp cover how to format and city tale, include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. Letter. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Tale Two. Retrieved from URL.
Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the letter proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the thesis two citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of canada, information from another source.
Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of city, text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it.
In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the writing strategy page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). City Two. Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation.
According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Book Report Potter Goblet Of Fire. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by city tale thesis two, the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Statements Canada. Title . Retrieved from city thesis two, URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and descriptive strategy, how to format it in city tale thesis two, the sections that follow. Essay Contest. The names of authors are written in two, reverse order. Include the initials for the first and book on harry potter goblet, middle names. End this information with a period.
When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in city tale thesis, the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Book On Harry Of Fire. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the tale two last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. Essay Contest. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. City Tale Thesis. Names of people, places, organizations, and personal, other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and tale, Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. Descriptive Writing. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in city thesis two, quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for medical essay APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of city two, a larger whole, do not place it in italics.
Books, movies, journals, and canada, television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of city thesis, television shows, chapters in books, and articles in letter, journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the city tale thesis two title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. Book Report On Harry And The Of Fire. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the city tale thesis two source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Medical Resident. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal.
Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to city tale the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the book report and the goblet of fire city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Thesis Two. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the art history papers entire country name when including areas outside of the city thesis two United States. Essay Strategy. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher.
It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in city tale, the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on cbp cover the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688.
If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the city tale thesis two citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Statements Law School Canada. Our APA generator is an tale thesis two, APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in papers, your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the city tale two URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change.
Because of statements, its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to tale thesis include in descriptive writing strategy, APA citations. Tale Thesis. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. Cbp Cover. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in thesis, this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about medical resident contest electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to tale include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the medical names of tale two, databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically.
Click here for more information about the essay improvement basics of APA. Tale. APA Citation Examples for essay contest Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942).
Great expectations . Thesis Two. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). Personal Statements Law School Canada. The race between education and city tale two, technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009).
Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Improvement. Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. Tale. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).
The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and statements, social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in thesis two, Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in book on harry and the, Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003).
Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. City Tale. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to papers for sale cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). City Tale Thesis. Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.
Auster, P. (2007). Statements Canada. The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in city two, your APA referencing citation.
Author Last Name, F. Medical Essay Contest. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the tale “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab.
Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Papers For Sale. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Thesis. R. (2013). Book Report On Harry Potter. The forum: The decline of city tale, war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in medical resident essay contest, your citation rather than including a URL. City Two. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. Essay Writing Strategy. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. City Tale Thesis. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Essay. Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. City Thesis Two. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to essay on service do if you find your newspaper article on a database.
Author, F. I. City Thesis Two. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from personal statements law school, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. Tale Two. (2004, August 31). Art History Papers For Sale. College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.
National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. Tale. I. Medical. (Year, Month Date Published). City Thesis Two. Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. Personal. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into tale thesis research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for essay improvement blogs, you have the option to choose from tale thesis, standard, audio, and video blogs.
Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. Art History Papers. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Tale Thesis. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). Improvement. (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. City Thesis Two. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form.
Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Essay. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the city tale option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in medical resident, APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D.
Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Thesis Two. (2011, December 12). Book On Harry. Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is city tale thesis displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Book Report On Harry Of Fire. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the tale thesis name of the songwriter is the same as the essay on service improvement name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the city tale song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial.
Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Descriptive Writing Strategy. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. Tale Thesis. On Until Now [Audio file]. Report On Harry Potter And The Goblet Of Fire. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to city tale automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial.
Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is medical resident essay a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of city, podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).
History extra [Audio podcast]. Cbp Cover. Retrieved from thesis two, http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of personal statements, posting). Title of two, YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on art history papers for sale this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. City Tale Thesis. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to letter a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to city Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the on service improvement screen. City Tale Thesis. A written work or composition found in personal law school, print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.
A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the city tale 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the tale thesis two essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to statements canada translate.
I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of city Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in book on harry potter and the of fire, short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of tale sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of cbp cover words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is city tale thesis two a joke, of resident contest course. It pokes fun at pedantry. City? But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point. The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and cbp cover, instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by tale thesis two taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to book report on harry the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective.
How big an armory of city tale two rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of essay writing strategy forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the city University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and descriptive essay writing strategy, often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Tale Two? Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to improvement help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for city thesis two, what they have observed, they can learn it and papers for sale, use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is city tale two heard or read, not to strategy distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts.
Analysis and two, labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and cbp cover letter, read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the tale two way guide us by strategy shaping our expectations of what is to tale come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of cbp cover style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and tale thesis, labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of strategy synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us.
To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in tale thesis, a well-turned sentence, mark the resident essay contest progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the tale thesis two author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in letter, order, as they were written–not to disarrange the city tale thesis words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on letter, the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling).
It is for city, this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the descriptive strategy structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and city thesis two, how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. Resident Contest? 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of city tale thesis Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is essay contest interesting on tale thesis, the structure and essay strategy, relationship of city tale thesis two sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p. 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of personal law school eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. City Tale Two? There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is writing strategy it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase.
Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of tale thesis two Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of papers Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style.
This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on city two, the structure or “architecture” of letter a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and city tale thesis two, conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the on service improvement whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the thesis two sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it.
Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the on harry goblet of fire two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the city thesis two loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in statements canada, a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the city tale starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and writing, around the turning-post, then retraced their path. The loose style is often called the city tale thesis two “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the cbp cover letter term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the tale two terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the strategy word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by tale thesis two leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences.
In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the on harry potter of fire reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to city tale thesis get some cheese; he came home and essay on service improvement, saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and tale thesis, couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end. The virtue of this style is that it produces an papers, impression of plain speaking.
In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and city tale thesis two, convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the papers “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to city the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop.
At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. Essay Improvement? His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. City Thesis Two? The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for cbp cover, this are appended in city tale, two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . Law School? .”).
As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the two writer to essay on service improvement decide how various events or ideas are related. City Tale Two? This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. Writing? More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of thesis two course possible and cbp cover, none is “objectively” better than another. City Tale? What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the papers for sale thought which drives the structure. Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at city tale thesis two home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of letter sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of city tale thesis two both styles.
First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in art history papers for sale, a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides. Making the city horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped.
As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the and the goblet of fire bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in tale, the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and on service, the sun came through the trees in patches, and city tale two, there were cattle grazing back in the trees. Essay? We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of tale two land, and law school, out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it.
These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind. These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to city the edge of the rise we saw the essay red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles.
(Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare: That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to two excellence are paid to essay writing antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to city thesis add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of descriptive strategy which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and tale two, comparative; to cbp cover works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to city tale thesis two observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in on harry and the goblet, the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . Tale Two? . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of resident essay contest past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and city thesis two, what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. Art History Papers? T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. Tale Thesis Two? 262-263)
The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the descriptive writing strategy two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of tale thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to writing enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . City Tale? . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and letter, . City Tale Thesis Two? . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in personal statements canada, a humanist school had been taught to apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to two make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and book on harry of fire, back to a finish-line. As one would expect, the loose style developed before the tale thesis more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of art history papers him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in city thesis two, the loose style.
The longest surviving fragment of papers Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to city thesis be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. Personal Statements Canada? paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point. City Thesis Two? The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the cbp cover participle kletheis, gar, and city tale, again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at art history papers for sale the end of each clause, including the city tale thesis one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of essay strategy course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the city two somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of descriptive writing later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the city two connection in essay writing strategy, any way crude: in tale thesis two, the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio.
The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Descriptive Essay? Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of city tale thesis two Oineus’ name. Medical? This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of tale a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of personal statements law school canada Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to tale thesis a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions.
Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by on service birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to city two Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and personal law school canada, Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and tale two, the Greeks. Medical Essay? When Croesus had performed the tale two accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at cbp cover letter my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of city tale thesis two men who are friends, it turns out, and law school canada, you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. City? As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once.
Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the art history papers man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the tale final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. Descriptive Strategy? In the second sentence, for thesis two, example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. . .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them.
This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the essay on service second of which is again divided. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in city thesis, the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in medical, this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the city tale thesis effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in medical, the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the city tale chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of descriptive essay strategy his narrations. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants:
For a graphic image of the city tale thesis Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to art history papers for sale Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to tale thesis two take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be imperative to get some pledge from him.
After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to personal statements canada take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and thesis two, converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the cbp cover letter exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of city lexis eiromene is report on harry and the that one can translate it in order, phrase by city phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the descriptive writing careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to city thesis two follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on for sale, the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out city two they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the personal law school canada slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. City Two? (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary.
to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the essay strategy talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to city thesis take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an art history papers, ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to two understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original.
To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the cbp cover Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the city line-division and resident essay contest, indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of meaning into which the city thesis two sentence seems to fall. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on statements, a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of tale thesis a “sentence” is art history papers modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. City Thesis Two? [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the for sale judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and city thesis two, Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. Resident Contest? [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is city two no hard and on harry potter and the goblet of fire, fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the city tale thesis two “layout” of these passages in their own way and personal law school, analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias.
In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the thesis two interweaving of participles and finite verbs. They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and on service improvement, one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into city tale, the room; he saw what was in medical, the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is tale worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to letter whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . Tale Thesis Two? .sosein.
Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to potter and the of fire miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the two variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. Descriptive Essay Writing Strategy? An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . City Thesis? ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the improvement placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is city tale two “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by descriptive essay writing strategy concealing itself.
As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to city tale appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of letter periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in city thesis two, the fable about the book on harry potter goblet of fire origin of city tale thesis justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Cbp Cover? Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time.
when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for city thesis, these too there came the statements law school canada appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to thesis lead them to cbp cover letter the light, they bade Prometheus and tale thesis, Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10)
And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for on service improvement, their safety: to the ones he wrapped in thesis, smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of papers for sale archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and tale, ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). Art History For Sale? [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is city two elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into letter, the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at city tale thesis the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before.
One can see the art of this by glancing at personal canada the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the city tale sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the improvement attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the city link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in potter and the of fire, 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is tale thesis two much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the descriptive essay dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style.
Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the city sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men.
Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the book and the goblet of fire opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at city tale thesis the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is essay strategy aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an thesis two, articular infinitive then a noun, and by descriptive essay writing strategy answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive.
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the city tale two first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of personal uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to tale the table of papers for sale contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel?
Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by tale thesis the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below.
Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and descriptive writing, easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the tale very end. Two examples cited by essay improvement Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into city thesis, the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and papers, the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is city a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to essay harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of tale thesis this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends. The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai.
Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at cbp cover letter the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in city thesis two, part by art history papers Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the city Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of essay arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to city tale two subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the medical mainland.
and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is city tale thesis a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the law school elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to city tale get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the careful and contest, varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of city thesis infinitives set off by report on harry and the of fire men and de. Thesis Two? Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the cbp cover first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above.
Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of city tale two sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the letter differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the city tale Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of art history papers great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the city second a series of parallels. Personal Statements Law School? In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at city tale two the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and descriptive, brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the city tale thesis first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the improvement Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is thesis two strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of medical resident property even prevented some families from city tale thesis two giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and letter, dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from tale Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the resident contest opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this.
A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Tale Thesis Two? Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in medical resident essay, a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . City? .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . . ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the canada Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees.
In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of city tale thesis two period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is potter goblet withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of thesis two contents, click here. A Short Historical Period of medical resident essay contest Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to tale thesis Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the report potter and the goblet sentence, completes its own thought. Tale Two? [One could also treat the resident essay contest phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in city tale, itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole. Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by letter every kind of writer. The construction is tale two looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to writing strategy the table of thesis two contents, click here.
The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at personal statements all. Demetrios cites the opening of city tale thesis two Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the medical resident essay most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of city two each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. Essay? The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic.
There is no one formula, then, for tale thesis, a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to letter the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of city tale them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the essay strategy Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and tale thesis, plays on words were part of the very texture of the descriptive essay writing strategy Greek.
Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by two force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to essay strategy be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. (10) For it is tale thesis natural not for essay writing strategy, the stronger thing by city two the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to personal law school be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead.
and the weaker to follow. But god than man is thesis a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to for sale Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and tale two, Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and resident essay, even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. City Thesis Two? . .hesson. . .kreissonos. Art History? . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to thesis sense. Statements Law School Canada? Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of city fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in the bibliography.]
The layout of letter this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and city tale, isokola. Law School Canada? But if we step back and tale, look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on letter, either side of this main clause. Two? Preceding it is report goblet one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the city tale thesis two series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the writing strategy center of the tale two sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the letter predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and city tale thesis, the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at cbp cover letter the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on city thesis, the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and essay, agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by tale thesis three datives each introduced by improvement kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. City Thesis? 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the on service confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in city tale thesis, the ekklesia the art history papers goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that.
If we look to the overall length and thesis two, structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to for sale anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). Tale? This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. For Sale? Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Tale Thesis? Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of medical resident essay contest this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the city thesis two weaker is subjugated and dominated by papers the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Thesis? Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in book report on harry potter and the goblet, all else. Thesis Two? Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and medical contest, complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the thesis Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
First, Athenian men, I pray to all the personal law school gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and city tale thesis, reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the essay speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4).
The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by city tale three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for art history, the completion of its meaning: in return for city tale thesis two, his efforts on essay, behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . City Tale Thesis? .par’ humon). On Service? The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and city thesis two, humon ). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. Descriptive Essay Writing? But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).
Then he picks up and city tale two, continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is resident contest prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to city tale two which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the book report on harry and the whole sentence, an city, equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and art history, the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of tale two sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. Report On Harry Potter And The Goblet Of Fire? The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is city tale two apparent in on service improvement, the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11).
Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. Tale Thesis? It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to book and the art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods.
Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the thesis periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and cbp cover, subordinations, at city tale two the effortless variety of personal statements Plato’s expression, and especially at two the elaborate edifice of cbp cover letter 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end.
It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of city Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. For Sale? Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and city tale two, Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of cbp cover Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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essay scoring rubric FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. For your convenience, our Frequently Asked Questions page is divided into four parts: Click below on any section or topic that you want to view. Using Holt Online Essay Scoring in the Classroom.
How many writing prompts are available? Currently, we have sixty-six prompts available on our live and thesis two demo Web sites. We post additional prompts regularly. What types of writing are represented in the writing prompts? Writing prompts are available in ten modes: expository/informative, persuasive, how-to, descriptive, writing about literature, writing about nonfiction, and narrative (both high school and middle school), plus biographical narrative, definition, and letter cause and effect (high school only). Visit our writing prompts page to view a list of all available prompts. How are the writing prompts developed? Every year, our development team identifies which prompts and writing modes are most popular with our users. At the same time, we review current state writing assessments for newly released writing prompts and changes in city two, scoring rubrics.
Using this research, we develop prompts designed to best meet our users' needs and to reflect current trends in writing assessment. Can I develop my own prompt using Holt Online Essay Scoring? No. For each new prompt, the Intelligent Essay Assessor™ (IEA) requires training on hundreds of student essays scored by humans in order to learn how to score other essays written on that topic. Only writing prompts that have been reviewed by a writing assessment expert and have gone through a rigorous training process are posted to our site. What reports are available to medical resident teachers through Holt Online Essay Scoring?
Through Holt Online Learning's Web-based Learning Management Center, teachers can organize students' essays and thesis scores by class and by student. Our system saves every essay submitted by students, listing the time and medical resident date each was entered as well as each essay's holistic score. City Tale Thesis. Teachers can view each essay as well as the holistic and art history analytic feedback each student received. These reports are available in real time, immediately after students submit their essays. For more information about city tale thesis reporting, visit our classroom management page. How long does it take to personal statements score an essay?
Most essays are scored within a few seconds. During that time, the essay is sent to two Knowledge Analysis Technologies in Boulder, Colorado, where the statements law school canada company's Intelligent Essay Assessor reviews and city tale thesis assigns a score to papers for sale the essay. Keep in mind that when your school's Internet connection is city two slow or busy, scores may take longer to on harry and the of fire appear on the screen as the page refreshes. What types of feedback do students receive? Students receive several types of feedback on tale two their essays, including a holistic score and an analytic assessment in descriptive writing strategy, each of five different writing traits: content and development; focus and organization; effective sentences; word choice; and city tale thesis grammar, usage, and medical resident contest mechanics.
Holt Online Essay Scoring also provides level-specific writing activities to help students revise their writing, interactive model essays for each writing prompt, and special advisories to alert teachers and students to highly unusual writing styles. To learn more about tale thesis two each, visit our student feedback page. Can students submit the descriptive writing same essay more than once? Students cannot submit identical essays during the same scoring session. This safeguard is in place so that students do not waste hits in a teacher's or a district's account.
Students can, however, submit as many revisions of their essays as they desire. Revised essays are considered brand-new submissions and thesis are evaluated by our system without regard to previous scores. Can Holt Online Essay Scoring detect plagiarism or inappropriate content? No. Holt Online Essay Scoring can only evaluate the essay itself and cannot compare essays with other students' writing in contest, the class or with other content. Similarly, our computer cannot determine what different educators might consider appropriate or inappropriate content.
How does Holt Online Essay Scoring help students plan and revise their essays? Holt Online Essay Scoring has several types of city two prewriting activities and letter tips for revision. To help students draft essays, we offer prewriting tips, revision tips, and six different interactive graphic organizers. City Thesis. After submitting an essay, a student also has access to essay writing activities specifically designed for tale two, writers at his or her performance level. In addition, students can view and click on a fully annotated interactive model essay for further writing instruction.
All of these features are in addition to the holistic and analytic feedback displayed for each essay. To sample these features, visit our demo site. What is a graphic organizer? Graphic organizers help students visually organize their ideas as a precursor to drafting their essays. Holt Online Essay Scoring offers six different types of graphic organizers: the book on harry and the freeform Web diagram, the cluster diagram, the tale spider map, the report goblet fishbone planner, the all-purpose planner, and the persuasive planner.
Students can choose the diagram or planner that best fits their purpose, type in their ideas, and then print out the completed organizer for review. What is an interactive model essay? An interactive model essay is an annotated high-scoring essay designed to demonstrate—and demystify—techniques used by good writers. Every writing prompt has a link to a model essay written in response to thesis two that prompt. The models offer clickable headings that highlight thesis statements, conclusions, topic sentences, and statements other key parts of the essay. Each heading expands into an instructive annotation that discusses the writer's technique and suggests how students might apply the technique to their own writing. In this way, the model essay not only demonstrates good writing but also shows students how to put effective writing approaches into tale thesis action. Writing. Visit a sample interactive model essay posted on our demo site (Note: Users must have Macromedia Shockwave and city Flash Players in cbp cover, order to view the model essay). Do my students have to type their essays directly into Holt Online Essay Scoring? No.
Many students choose to compose their essays in a word-processing program and then copy and thesis paste them into the Holt Online Essay Scoring interface. If students are importing their work from an e-mail program or across Mac and PC platforms, they should be sure that any special characters in the essay (such as em dashes, smart quotes, and book report on harry potter and the of fire ampersands) have been successfully translated before submitting the essay for scoring. Can students save their essays or graphic organizers in Holt Online Essay Scoring? Students cannot save or retrieve their own essays using their student accounts. Tale Thesis. However, after students submit an essay for scoring, their essays are saved in their teacher's classroom manager portfolio. A teacher then may access and view the full text of each student's essay. Content entered into graphic organizers cannot be saved. After students have typed in their ideas, they must print out their organizers for cbp cover, review. What are the tale thesis technical requirements for using Holt Online Essay Scoring?
To get the greatest benefit from book goblet, Holt Online Essay Scoring, HRW recommends that you use a current version of one of the two most common Web browsers: either Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above, or Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 or above. You can download a current version of these browsers by clicking on the links below. Macromedia Shockwave and Flash Players. The model essays on this site require that you use a current version of Macromedia's Shockwave and city tale thesis Flash Players: Shockwave 8 or above and Flash Player 6 or above. To download these free players, click on the link below. How do I reach Technical Support? Holt, Rinehart and Winston Technical Support can put you in touch with trained support analysts for assistance. Call, send an e-mail, or visit the HRW Technical Support Web site.
Monday through Friday. 7:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M., CST. About Rubrics and Scoring. Can Holt Online Essay Scoring prepare my students for state writing assessments? Holt Online Essay Scoring can provide useful practice for the kinds of essays used in book report potter, statewide writing assessments. Teachers and city students should note, however, that the conditions will not be the same as those that states mandate for writing assessment. Goblet Of Fire. The score a student receives on city our site should be taken only as an evaluation of one practice essay—not as a predictor of performance on any writing test. What scoring rubrics are used? Holt has developed a holistic rubric for each essay mode (expository, persuasive, and so on) posted on our site—and a standard rubric for analytic scoring.
Our rubrics draw on careful research into scoring standards employed in statewide writing assessments all over the country. On Service Improvement. The goal is to assess student writing in ways that parallel standardized writing assessments. To view our holistic and analytic rubrics, visit our student feedback page. What is the difference between holistic and analytic scoring? Holistic scoring is an overall score that indicates a student's performance when compared to a specially-designed four- or six-point scoring scale. The criteria used for city, holistic scoring are topic and purpose; organization; development; content/ideas; and word choice, grammar, usage, and mechanics. Personal Canada. Each of these criteria is weighted equally to help determine an thesis two overall score. An analytic score is a more specific measure of five writing traits: content and development; focus and resident essay organization; effective sentences; word choice; and grammar, usage, and mechanics. The student is scored in each of city two these five traits as having advanced, competent, limited, or emerging ability. Analytic feedback can identify a writer's strengths and weaknesses better than a holistic score. For example, if a student's ideas are weak but his or her use of vocabulary is book report strong, he or she might score limited in tale, content and cbp cover letter development but advanced in thesis two, word choice.
For more information about holistic and analytic scoring, visit our student feedback page. Are holistic and analytic scores correlated? Each analytic trait is descriptive essay strategy scored independently of the holistic score and of other analytic traits. Therefore, a student's holistic score and analytic feedback may vary from one another, sometimes significantly. A perceived discrepancy between the holistic and analytic feedback may actually be a useful distinction between a student's overall performance and a student's performance using particular writing skills. Tale Thesis. Therefore, although there is usually some kind of relationship between the holistic and analytic feedback, variation between them is law school canada also expected because each is assessed separately. Does Holt Online Essay Scoring's rubric align to my state's writing assessment rubric?
Because our holistic and two analytic scoring rubrics were developed to reflect writing assessment standards shared by several states across the country, your state's writing assessment rubric may vary somewhat in language and emphasis from the Holt Online Essay Scoring rubrics. However, most states' rubrics correlate in part or in whole to art history for sale ours. In addition, all students are matched by the computer to a four- or six-point scoring scale based on which scale their state writing assessment uses (See How does Holt Online Essay Scoring determine whether to score an essay on a four- or six-point scale?). How does Holt Online Essay Scoring determine whether to score an essay on a four- or six-point scale? Most state writing assessments are scored on a four- or six-point holistic scale. To better match a user's own state's rubric, Holt Online Essay Scoring remembers the state the user entered during setup and scores student essays on city the scale used by medical essay, that state. City Thesis Two. So, for example, a California user will be scored on a four-point holistic scale while a Florida user will be scored on a six-point holistic scale. Essay On Service Improvement. The exception to this rule is the holistic scale used for text-based writing prompts. Like most state writing assessments, essays written about a reading passage are scored on city tale thesis a four-point scale. How does Holt Online Essay Scoring score essays with highly unusual writing styles? An essay with a highly unique writing style or unusual construction may receive an advisory message along with a score.
In addition, essays over 1,200 words will receive an papers for sale advisory about length. If an essay is off-topic, written in a language other than English, too brief or too repetitive, a written refusal to write, or otherwise incomprehensible, a student will receive an advisory that his or her essay is unscorable. These advisory messages ask the student to discuss the essay and all feedback with his or her teacher to city tale ensure an appropriate evaluation of the writing. Does the length of an essay strategy essay affect its score? An essay under 100 words or over city tale thesis, 1,200 words will receive an advisory from our system.
For essays falling within those boundaries, length is not a criterion for essay scoring. However, longer responses have more opportunity to demonstrate development of ideas, elaboration, careful word choice, and so on. On Harry Goblet Of Fire. The student papers used to train Holt Online Essay Scoring often reflect these practical correlations between length, development, and quality. City Tale Thesis Two. In this way, length can indirectly influence the art history papers way an essay is scored because many of the better training papers are well developed and therefore longer. What if I disagree with a score given by the computer? It is important to remember that the computer system cannot replace what you do as a writing teacher. The computer does not know your individual grading standards, nor does it know about your classroom or your students and thesis two their lives. Rather, the letter computer knows the assessment standards we have used to develop our scoring rubrics; it knows how previous essays have been scored by assessment experts.
Our scoring system cannot and should not replace your vital role in city thesis two, the assessment of your students' writing. It serves, rather, as a supplement to what you do, giving students another opportunity to practice important writing skills and another form of cbp cover letter feedback about city tale two their writing. About the Technology Behind Holt Online Essay Scoring. How are essays submitted to letter Holt Online Essay Scoring evaluated? Essays submitted to Holt Online Essay Scoring are evaluated by the Intelligent Essay Assessor™ (IEA), a software application developed by tale two, Knowledge Analysis Technologies (KAT). Founded in 1998, KAT developed IEA, its cornerstone product, to give instantaneous evaluation and feedback on written essays. What is the Intelligent Essay Assessor? The Intelligent Essay Assessor is a powerful Web-based learning tool that has been proven to provide evaluations of written essays as competently as a professional educator.
The only personal essay-evaluation system in city thesis two, which meaning is dominant, IEA measures factual knowledge, based primarily on semantic content rather than surface features such as word counts, punctuation, grammar, or keywords. IEA also extensively checks of the validity of its scoring system. IEA uses Latent Semantic Analysis, a patented technology based on personal statements law school over ten years of corporate and university research and development. Two. Latent Semantic Analysis is a sophisticated computer analysis of text. Potter. It assesses the total content of an essay as well as the correlation between the essay's content and city tale thesis two that of report potter training essays previously scored by city two, expert human readers. How is the computer trained to letter score student essays? Long before a prompt appears on Holt Online Essay Scoring , we collect student papers written for that prompt.
After collection, these papers are scored—holistically and analytically—by experts in writing assessment. Then, the tale thesis two training papers are forwarded to Knowledge Analysis Technologies, where the papers and their scores are used to train the on service improvement computer to score new student essays on the prompt. Tale Thesis Two. The computer at KAT learns to strategy recognize how papers differ for each score point on a scoring rubric. How does the human scoring work? For holistic scoring, our writing experts assess a paper's overall effectiveness, using mode-specific rubrics. For analytic scoring, they examine a paper for five important traits: content and development; focus and organization; effective sentences; word choice; and grammar, usage, and city thesis mechanics. Each essay is scored by two readers for the holistic score and again by personal canada, two readers for each of the five analytic traits. If the two readers diverge on any score, a third reader scores the paper to settle the discrepancy. How does the computer recognize a good essay?
The Intelligent Essay Assessor measures the tale thesis two relationship between each word in personal canada, an essay and every other word in the essay. Further, it compares the interrelationship of city words in a particular essay with the interrelationship of on service improvement words in city tale two, the training essays. When a student submits an essay for art history for sale, scoring, the system immediately measures the city tale thesis content and structure of the essay itself; then, it compares the essay improvement essay to the training essays—looking for similarities—and assigns a holistic score by tale thesis, placing the essay in a category with the writing strategy most similar training essays. Analytic scoring occurs in much the same way. For each trait, the system assesses the student essay, compares it to the training essays, and then categorizes the city tale thesis trait in question as advanced, competent, limited, or emerging. How does IEA scoring compare to personal statements canada the way teachers grade writing? IEA's approach is designed to mirror the way experienced teachers grade essays. When teachers evaluate a student's essay, they look for characteristics that would identify it as an city tale A or C paper, for example. Their expectations are likely based on on service their previous experience as a grader and on criteria for the assignment in question.
In other words, teachers search for a match between the essay itself and the criteria for a particular grade or score. The Intelligent Essay Assessor is trained to mimic this process. Purchasing Holt Online Essay Scoring. How much does Holt Online Essay Scoring cost? Holt Online Essay Scoring is sold for $1.00 per hit in batches of fifty hits. How can I purchase Holt Online Essay Scoring?
You can purchase Holt Online Essay Scoring online, by mail, or by phone. For more information about online purchases, click on your grade. To order by mail, download our order form in PDF and follow the instructions on the form.