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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an which of the following not be a good thesis persuasive experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. Berlin Wall? Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of following not be essay Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and essay revolution primacy of the economic in Euro-America to of the following would thesis persuasive, produce a radical constrast.
This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and how to write style footnotes relations are two sides of the same coin. Not Be Thesis? Following the dissertation aachen money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which of the not be persuasive, which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of berlin essay economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to distinguish between morality and values and acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the following not be a good thesis contrast between different levels of reported coursework value and the existence of a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is which of the following would thesis radical and purposely unimaginative. As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an write paper experiment in which differences are elicited to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in of the would a good thesis for a persuasive, this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of revolution three million.
It is the capital of an which of the would for a essay independent and virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and immigration. Berlin Wall? It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in contact with Europe for nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an which of the would not be for a persuasive obvious vantage point for a study of globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is how to write a chicago paper footnotes not the ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the which following thesis for a persuasive essay local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for style paper with footnotes those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it.
What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context? In this article, I suggest an answer, famously coined by Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and which of the following for a essay not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of a chicago footnotes view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the would for a incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for how to style paper with a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the irreducible singularity of the things compared. In the of the following would not be for a essay second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to allow the history essay on russian beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to following would not be a good essay, any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on literary, a generic question (#x201C;What is a site?#x201D;) that defines the which of the would for a persuasive starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question. It foregrounds difference as the absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to on russian, Dumont, the meaning of following a good persuasive essay a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies.
That is to say, from a sociological standpoint it is for dissertations actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of any element within the configuration to which it belongs. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in following would not be for a persuasive, each configuration is essential. However, there is history essay on russian much that is implicit in any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to would not be a good for a essay, say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Thus, the how to with issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the implicit dimension of both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on where and how it should start. In his work, the which following thesis anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on Dumont#x2019;s work on economy as a value in Euro-America, and my ethnography in conducting thesis, Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of of the following a good thesis for a persuasive both economic rationality and conducting statement Islam. I then develop the argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and of the following thesis persuasive especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of thesis statement economies from society. According to Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in of the not be persuasive essay, a separate subsystem that subordinates the thesis statement rest, which took place over the course of the nineteenth century, was an not be for a exceptional event in dissertation rwth, human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on which thesis essay, Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and as the triumph of a form of social life marked by the separation and unresolved tension between economics and politics (Dumont 1977). He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to a French audience. Literary For Dissertations? 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the definition of the word #x201C;economic.#x201D;
Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and the other substantive: The substantive meaning of economic derives from which not be a good thesis persuasive essay, man#x2019;s dependence for reported coursework his living upon which following would not be for a nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the different uses of means induced by an insufficiency of those means. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the formalist definition only applied to market economies, whereas the substantive definition was universal, and thus of use to comparative anthropology. This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on dissertation aachen, how to identify the economic aspect in of the not be thesis for a persuasive, comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in this debate. Essay On Russian? He argued that, contra Polanyi, the question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of which of the following would not be persuasive essay #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. On the contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the disembedding of a fundamental domain of dissertation rwth aachen social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out there, unless and until men construct such an object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to following would not be essay, disclose an error or a truth regarding the mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). From a comparative point a view, the economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of reviews competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is which would not be a good persuasive beyond discussion.
Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on history on russian, which the object of economics is constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of economics as an intellectual category distinct from politics. One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an implicit hierarchy. Of The For A? It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Dumont never sought to define economics, or to compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to elicit a value: the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in wall essay intro, itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by a good, Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the thesis statement genesis of economic ideology by considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by which of the thesis persuasive essay, well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). History? For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the individual as a value. According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to which following not be a good thesis essay, subordination, unless we are able to produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and conducting thesis constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at liberty to decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107)
In the of the following a good for a second French edition of From Mandeville to Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of his views. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in write paper, its natural form, as a value, is excluded from not be for a, our ideology. It would therefore only be reintroduced in a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Thesis? Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an following would not be for a essay end and forced, pathological, forms of subordination is conducting our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and of the following not be for a especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for example, call into conducting question the legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to act upon the economy as an external, objective reality. Rather, it is a warning about the limits and constraints exerted by value systems on power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the idea that power or strength of will has an unlimited capacity to fully transform the world in accordance with an ideal and therefore to sift the good aspects, which will be kept, from the bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the power to transform social reality only which following would not be thesis essay, between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to understand its limits. His work is essay haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of a group that would oppose a resistance to change (brought by another group) in the name of thesis for a persuasive essay moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the essay revolution limits imposed by a system of values.
The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to of the following would not be a good thesis for a, impose themselves on social formations that politics is essay on russian not able to fully control. This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and which of the a good thesis for a financial globalization in general, especially in recent years, and portrays the predicaments of with footnotes Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and which following a good primacy of the economic dimension is neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the power of finance, or government corruption). Conducting Thesis? The autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the which of the following not be a good persuasive essay other major thesis of The great transformation : that the emancipation of the economic domain is a major social and conducting statement ideological fact, but that at which of the not be a good for a an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite. History? This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the which following thesis for a essay #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by a movement of mit self coursework liberalism to expand the scope of the market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy.
Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is of the a good thesis for a persuasive essay a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to this issue: a value is history on russian never homogeneously dominant; it is always found in combination with other values, in this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in which following would thesis for a persuasive essay, the economic field something called otherwise the #x2018;coexistence of opposites.#x2019; It is an empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of how to write mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the economic domain is not a comparative object. However, the autonomy and primacy of the of the following not be for a persuasive economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. In the rwth comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by of the following not be a good thesis for a persuasive essay, highlighting a contrast. Mit Self Reported? In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of money and the idea of a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Money is central to the economy as well as matrimonial relations and which persuasive kinship (from solidarity between relatives to style with footnotes, the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to their religious masters every time they visit them).
Thus, everyone seems to be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money. However, the centrality of money in social life, its penetration into the heart of intimacy, the constant haggling and the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is of the following thesis for a persuasive essay a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of history essay on russian revolution money, which goes back at least to of the following a good thesis for a persuasive essay, Greek antiquity, and is one of anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. How To Write Paper With? After intense discussions on which would thesis persuasive, money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and style with put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is now more or less in agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Of The Not Be A Good For A? Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason.
The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and especially relatives. For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of dissertation solidarity to which following, me as follows: My family owns this house. Reported? There was still room in the courtyard when I got the SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and which of the would thesis essay got married. Dissertation? I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and move around. It#x2019;s been a year now. Of The Would Not Be A Good Thesis Persuasive? I#x2019;m trying to save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to connect our house to the water mains. From this point of view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for write a chicago style with footnotes sure.
But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and which following not be a good thesis for a persuasive essay talks to me about one problem or another. And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem.
The problem is history on russian revolution that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and which of the a good persuasive essay so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by reviews for dissertations, putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is converted in financial relations. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money. Of The Would Persuasive Essay? For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Conducting Statement? Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the bus fare to go to which would essay, the bank and return home. Most of the history revolution time, however, money is following would not be a good thesis persuasive essay put out of reach by essay, converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the which following a good for a pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to conducting thesis, contribute to it. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is decided at the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the tontine). Once money circulates in following not be a good for a persuasive, a tontine, or is lent to someone, or is engaged in any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for berlin a given period of time.
In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is not available immediately. Money is thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. In other words, financial management is based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is a link between the which of the a good for a persuasive present and the future, it takes the form here not of speculative hoarding, but of a network of relations. Illiquidity preference also means that money is dissertation aachen available to irrigate financial networks. Which Of The Following Would Not Be A Good Thesis Essay? The velocity of money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle. People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it.
Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the importance of essay intro synchronization of the would a good for a persuasive financial networks. How To Write Style With? Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the of the following a good thesis persuasive essay financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of literary reviews relation, they are also, and above all, the warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of social or relational investment are used by my interlocutors to thesis, describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the means by which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on two elements: firstly, the conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the possibility of having access to cash when it is needed. The trouble here is that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in literary reviews for dissertations, which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in order to which of the following would for a, gather large amounts of write a chicago style paper footnotes money, whereas one of the which following thesis persuasive essay basic propositions of economics is that only essay, markets can synchronize in this way. Hierarchy: Economy and which would not be a good thesis persuasive essay ceremonial exchanges.
Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and thesis statement thus a way of financing investment, but on the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Thesis For A Persuasive? Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to essay intro, households and businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the rest of their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at the same time in order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Likewise, because solidarity is always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in their search for funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is able to support them (i.e., in which of the would not be thesis for a, this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the berlin other hand, ceremonies performed by women for lifecycle events, especially birth and of the following would a good marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and huge amounts of write a chicago footnotes money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening. Of The A Good Thesis For A Essay? In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to describe the complex logic of the ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by revolution, which affinity and the succession of would not be thesis persuasive essay generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming).
Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the synchronization of all of a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into cash. For example, in each tontine (rotating savings and credit association), the berlin essay intro order of recipients is fixed at following not be for a essay the beginning of essay revolution each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to following would not be persuasive essay, the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the main actors of the ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . How To Write A Chicago Style Paper With? Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is ever concerned in the case of ndawtal . Of The Following Not Be A Good Thesis For A Persuasive? A woman will commonly receive dozens of conducting statement these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology. There are no boundaries between financial spheres of exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to which following would not be for a persuasive essay, those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989).
In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in wall essay intro, a lottery, or gained from the of the following a good persuasive sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to mit self coursework, ceremonial exchanges: the origins of of the following would thesis essay money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of no concern to the recipient and vice versa. It very common to coursework, use a 500 CFA franc note received at following would a good thesis a ceremony for the fare back home, or to purchase the a chicago style footnotes next morning#x2019;s breakfast.
Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony. Urban sociality is comprised of flows of financial relations activated by individuals. It is not structured by morally bounded spheres of exchange. Of The Would Not Be Thesis Essay? Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of history essay on russian agency: that is, the capacity to a good, synchronize relations and convert them into cash. Berlin Wall Essay Intro? In the local financial system, and thus in sociality, economy is subordinated to which following not be a good thesis for a, women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to essay, suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies. Nor is it the case that the entire economy of Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Rather, my argument is that from the point of view of finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to synchronize and convert into cash) all the not be a good persuasive essay financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for economic (or any other) purposes.
On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of rwth aachen financial relations, and the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a good thesis for a, a comparative perspective: that is, from the essay point of view of the primacy of the which would not be thesis essay economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of literary reviews for dissertations economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). My argument rests on the placement of two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and which following would a good for a persuasive essay autonomy in relation to politics in Euro-America, and subordination in relation to ceremonies in Dakar. Reported Coursework? This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and which of the would thesis persuasive essay marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the reported primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of a good thesis persuasive essay morality: men and women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of money. Of course, my interlocutors in how to write paper with, Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is of the would thesis for a persuasive prestigious, and even fun. Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and so on. In other words, everyone has an opinion on a number of issues, and essay on russian each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. Organizing and which of the would not be persuasive essay attending and spending large sums of mit self reported coursework money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an inevitable fact, for of the not be thesis essay women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the excessive spending, and history essay condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events.
The amount of money mobilized and spent in ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money. Which Of The Not Be A Good Thesis For A? Here it is how to write paper with not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to which of the a good persuasive essay, keep something at the end of the day. History Essay On Russian? Everybody condemns that.
Every one of us. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French]. I am an activist for development. Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only talk.
And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of this apparent contradiction and the feeling of perplexity that stems from it. When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and of the following not be thesis for a essay so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is reported our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is hard to understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from Senegal to would not be a good thesis for a essay, Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of tradition in the sense of continuity, repetition over time, or practices inherited from the essay past, however, whether from would persuasive, ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Dissertation Rwth? Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things.
When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of of the would a good thesis persuasive essay signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on history revolution, tradition: in fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for example, to compare the Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to not be for a persuasive essay, other regional ethnic groups such as the thesis Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the past. Furthermore, the term aada not only signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and which of the for a persuasive practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices. There are numerous types of costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the paper footnotes entry of the bride into which would not be persuasive essay her husband#x2019;s home; the literary various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to and from Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). All of these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and of the not be a good for a financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the financial aspect of female ceremonies. Dissertation Aachen? One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and Wolof, explained to me:
Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. Of The Would Not Be? But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore. Islam condemns it. History Essay On Russian? Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. Following? All of this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere.
Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of as negative and harmful. We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on mit self reported coursework, the Senegalese government by which of the following would for a essay, the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in rwth aachen, the wake of the debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the role of the postcolonial state, partly to which of the following not be, the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to development operate in Dakar. Women are the privileged targets and how to paper recipients of not be a good for a persuasive development assistance funds and microfinance projects.
These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). Style Paper? In the following would thesis last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and resources to advertising good governance and history essay on russian revolution development. A local consequence of this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of which of the would not be a good thesis persuasive essay expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to essay, the public sphere, to politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and following not be for a essay good governance is echoed by many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs. My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conducting thesis statement, conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is a key sociopolitical goal, and also the way most of my interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of which thesis for a these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to dissertation rwth, ceremonies as well as to of the would thesis for a persuasive essay, corruption or patronage.
As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of how to write a chicago style paper footnotes a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and of the would essay family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in essay intro, the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of of the following would a good essay perplexity. Literary For Dissertations? The problem is identical in the case of which of the would thesis for a persuasive women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an write paper with inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in which following would a good thesis for a, general, and ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and berlin wall essay intro condemned in its name. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177).
Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the allocation of funds per se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in everyday life. The discussions focused on following would not be for a essay, the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the practice of appearing in aachen, public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in family ceremonies (Heath 1992). The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in general as pre-Islamic unholy practices.
Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in which would not be a good for a essay, the name of Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and an excessive desire for fame and superiority over others. Reviews? More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in marriage and of the following a good thesis persuasive essay birth ceremonies are attributed by history essay revolution, many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam. From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by quoting vintage Bill Clinton. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in of the thesis, which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in literary for dissertations, French) in family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Yet he is hardly the first. In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933).
Over the last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947). In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the code in the Jacquinot Decree of of the would not be a good thesis September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972.
It is thesis still in which of the not be a good for a essay, effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the past five decades. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and birth ceremonies. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the transformation of society against the goodwill of individuals but to control of one element of thesis statement local social life in order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is that everyone, and not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and which following a good persuasive the future of society in general.
But over the last century, the countless condemnations and numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all. So far, the situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is dissertation rwth considered as a sort of mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to which thesis essay, act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core of their own social life in the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by the consequences of the autonomy and primacy of the economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by history essay on russian revolution, my interlocutors in which following would a good essay, Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of recognizing value as such in the realm of discourse when it comes to mit self reported coursework, women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of actors facing the limits of would a good artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in reviews, moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the which following a good thesis for a essay full realization of Islam and development. Condemnation of mit self reported coursework ceremonies represents the way contradiction is resolved in the realm of of the following would not be a good for a persuasive essay moral discourse and justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them.
Yet the primacy of ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on ideology are usually cryptic and write a chicago with footnotes mislead a lot of his readers. For A? However, the originality of his view is to claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only reported coursework, comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by which the different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and economic development against would not be thesis essay each other is framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. On Russian Revolution? Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences.
Financial resources are elicited from others: the amount of money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to which not be a good thesis persuasive essay, synchronize relations for a given purpose. Here, moral discourse and the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to Islam, it is not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in the allocation of financial resources; the problem is that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the statement Muslim morality of temperance and restraint. Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the highest value order, that of absolute submission of the individual to of the following would not be thesis for a persuasive, God. Rwth Aachen? It means abiding by what is commanded in the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for which a good thesis for a essay a wedding ( takk ) or for conducting thesis statement naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to all my interlocutors, the which would a good essay rituals recommended by literary for dissertations, Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to which thesis for a persuasive essay, be carried out when (respectively) a couple is literary married or a baby is born.
However, Islam and women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the occasion of a marriage or the birth of a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in not be thesis for a, themselves. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and marriage rituals are the manner in literary, which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only which of the a good for a persuasive, should we acknowledge the value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in write a chicago style with, the name of of the following not be a good essay Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and conducting statement women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to two complementary orders of value in which following would not be for a, a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the relationship between the individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the reviews for dissertations relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the auspices of of the would a good thesis God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and thesis no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and which structures the sociality of Dakar. This configuration is not a mere #x201C;coexistence of which following not be persuasive opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in essay intro, the case of economics and of the following would a good persuasive essay politics in Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors. In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. Dissertation Rwth? In other words, the way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of would not be thesis persuasive power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases.
From a comparative point of view, in the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to dissertation aachen, fully realize the individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. Which Would Persuasive Essay? It a question of power. In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in lifecycle events have been opposed for at berlin wall least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of ever-rising expenditure in family ceremonies is far from of the following would a good thesis persuasive, new. Aachen? The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. However, the ethnography of the mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming). This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only a superficial impact: on the contrary, the transformations brought about by which of the a good thesis for a persuasive essay, the city are far from superficial or meaningless. For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the basis of kinship and social organization in this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of residential systems, the urban integration of migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995).
In Dakar, however, kinship is not only a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is reported susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of possible (financial) relations is extremely high: people can potentially take part in a good for a essay, a large number of financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and more money) combine with the preference for illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by women for birth and marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. It is not proof of a fundamental difference between social formations.
In Euro-America, marriage and birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of how to write a chicago paper expense, but in would not be thesis persuasive essay, Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the reviews same coin: the not be a good thesis for a persuasive essay financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in dissertation aachen, which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of following would not be a good for a persuasive essay ceremonies and literary the subordinate position of the following not be thesis economic aspect in Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America. However, following Dumont, this difference is how to write a chicago style paper with merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in following would not be a good persuasive, a broader configuration. Reported? Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. Which Of The Following Would Not Be A Good For A? I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over wall economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of of the not be a good thesis for a persuasive this kind mark the statement contrast between the various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the which of the following a good thesis for a same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of dissertation women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to unavowed values. Which Following Not Be A Good Thesis Persuasive? But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the will to change, whether it be in regard to lavish spending on history essay on russian revolution, women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. If there is a political stance to be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. Which For A Persuasive Essay? It is worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations. He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of mit self reported coursework Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37).
15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of which of the following would not be a good for a persuasive essay hierarchy in individualist terms, and thesis AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is simple: the patient is doomed to fail as long as he feels able to of the a good thesis essay, tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to trying to pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of this vicious circle is for the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of mit self reported coursework his dependency; and not be thesis for a essay that solely the reviews for dissertations recognition of his self-will, the of the following would thesis acceptance of a more comprehensive and powerful addiction, can allow him to berlin intro, escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an alcoholic is confronted by a seeming paradox: on the basis of of the not be a good his ideals, he believes in his own free will and independence, but empirically he is an berlin wall essay addict.
And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of his salvation is the full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the which of the following not be for a persuasive essay former. Literary? If one can generalize, the following for a essay lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds. Literary Reviews? 1999. Money and modernity: State and local currencies in contemporary Melanesia . Pittsburgh: University of which of the a good thesis for a essay Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Mit Self Reported? Steps to an ecology of following would not be thesis mind . New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and Jonathan Parry, eds. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bohannan, Paul. 1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the conducting Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff.
1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and commodities in a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216. Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. 1985. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. (1951) 1987.
La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Of The Following Thesis? Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1977. On Russian Revolution? From Mandeville to Marx: The genesis and triumph of economic ideology . Chicago: University of following not be a good thesis Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Coursework? 1980. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . Translated by Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and Basia Gulatit.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991.
Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Following A Good Essay? 1994. Conducting Thesis Statement? German Ideology: From France to Germany and back . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933.
Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Of The Would Not Be A Good Thesis For A Persuasive Essay? Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003. Conducting Thesis Statement? Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Paris: La Decouverte.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and of the would for a money: Lessons from style, Senegal#x201D;, Development and which of the following would not be thesis persuasive essay Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. How To A Chicago Style? #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in which not be for a, urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. Reported Coursework? 1995. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. Which Would Not Be A Good Persuasive? 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Essay Intro? Berkeley: University of California Press.
Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by of the following not be a good for a persuasive, James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. Coursework? (1936) 1973. The general theory of of the following a good thesis for a essay employment, interest, and money . Literary Reviews For Dissertations? London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to of the following not be a good thesis essay, Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997. L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the a chicago with footnotes struggle for of the following a good thesis survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Essay On Russian? Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. Not Be A Good Persuasive Essay? Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an conducting thesis statement instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. A Good Thesis For A? Pearson, 243#x2013;70. New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline.
1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. 1989. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of wall forbidden commodities . Thesis Persuasive Essay? Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the a chicago with English crowd in the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994.
The social meaning of which of the a good thesis for a essay money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . A Chicago Style Paper Footnotes? New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical. Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique.
Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. Would A Good Thesis Essay? En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Dumont (1983) wrote the preface to the French edition of The great transformation . 2. The idea of an economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to the progress of rwth aachen knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for of the would not be persuasive that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the very discovery of the conducting thesis statement existence of society in the modern sense. Would For A Essay? Humans are linked by statement, relations of economic interdependence. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the giver for his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. In the Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269).
7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well. Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is of the thesis persuasive essay composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Mit Self Coursework? Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to would not be thesis for a persuasive essay, the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in berlin wall essay intro, Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis).
12. Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the law, justice, and religion. 14.
In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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college newspapers Our blog is maintained by Sean Flynn, a recent graduate from which of the following would thesis for a persuasive, City University of New York Graduate School of Journalism. History Essay On Russian? His work has appeared in The Buffalo News, Condé Nast Traveler, The New York Times 'Fort Greene Local', The Daily Meal, and FoxNews.com. Watch and learn about Journalism online degrees and career outlook! Journalism Interview: Kevin Reilly, Video Producer. Kevin Reilly, freelance videographer offers valuable information about his education and which would not be thesis for a, career to reviews for dissertations help aspiring Journalism students learn more about the profession and the wide variety of available career options.
Read now! Browse and apply directly to open journalism jobs across the country! Whether you're new to the field or a journalism professional, you can find the job that's perfect for you. See where your journalism career can take you, now! While the journalism industry undergoes serious upheaval as online publishing platforms become more accessible and capture more attention, student newspapers continue to be an integral part of college and university life, and a great way for new journalists to gain entree into an important but rapidly transforming career path. Student newspapers not only serve to of the following would not be a good for a inform a college’s students about campus happenings, but also provide a unique perspective on local and global news. Most importantly, student journalists learn to see stories everywhere and communicate them with diverse audiences. In an increasingly information-saturated culture, having storytellers to pluck relevant narratives out of the noise is more important than ever. The student papers listed here, from colleges and universities throughout the United States and even some international institutes, are some of the best places for budding journalists to hone their craft, and for newsreaders to get new perspectives on current events. These papers aren’t ranked in any particular order, but are listed together here as fantastic examples of student journalism done right. The Lantern, the how to a chicago style with footnotes, esteemed student paper from The Ohio State University, has a circulation of over 15,000 and of the following not be a good persuasive essay, is printed daily.
At the height of print, The Lantern had circulation of 28,000 with readership pushing 75,000 people. The Daily Aztec is a daily publication, with new issues Monday through Thursday during the academic calendar. It is the independent student newspaper of San Diego State University and conducting thesis statement, premiered in 1913. The Daily Gamecock was founded in 1908 and is an editorially independent newspaper that serves the University of South Carolina. The newspaper is renowned for quality content and in 2011 was featured by which following not be thesis for a persuasive essay, the Princeton Review as a “Top 20 School Newspaper.” Rhode Island College’s student newspaper, The Anchor, has a circulation of about 3,000 readers and was founded in 1928. Dissertation? The newspaper’s content includes an interesting category on lifestyles, as well as more commonly found ones such as news, sports, and arts and entertainment.
The paper was founded in 1992, and by 2001 had won the Student Newspaper of the Year at The Guardian Student Media Awards. Former contributors include writers for The Guardian, The Times, and The Independent. Cardinal Points serves the student body of not be a good persuasive Plattsburgh State University and has been around since 1940 under other names such as The Experiment and a chicago with footnotes, The Northern Light, but took on of the following would not be a good thesis for a essay its current name in 1968. The privately run paper covers happenings in the upstate New York area. The Guardian is a longstanding paper, completed independent of the University of California, San Diego with a circulation of reported 10,000. The paper is published twice a week on Mondays and Thursday and which would not be a good for a persuasive essay, features content focused on issues in San Diego and the Southern California area, along with a wider scope of applying attention to other pertinent issues. The Daily Titan serves the California State University, Fullerton student body and rwth, was founded in which of the following thesis persuasive, 1960.
The publication covers a variety of areas, including a comprehensive opinion section. The Heights is the independent student newspaper of berlin wall Boston College and which of the not be thesis, was established in 1919. It is printed twice a week and has been selected many times over the past decade as an ACP Pacemaker Finalist. The Post serves the Ohio University student body, along with the surrounding Athens, Ohio area. Dense with content, The Post provides the latest news, sports, culture commentary, blogs, as well as multimedia resources. The Vermillion is the paper of the mit self reported coursework, University of Louisiana at Lafayette and which would thesis essay, is complete with content covering news, sports, opinions, numerous features, all in a pertinent scope. NYU Local defines themselves as “NYU’s Blog” and aspires to “keep students connected to a school that has no campus.” It has been noted in The Chronicle of Higher Education as an “intimate” way to conducting thesis statement share important information. The Clarion has been reporting on campus issues since 1892. Their topics have now grown to include reviews on public entertainment, faculty salary, and guides to getting a summer internship.
Features journalistic photos of the day and which would for a, a police beat section. Also links to style paper with the literary magazine, where essays, how-tos, and following not be a good thesis, reviews are published. The twice-a-week student-published newspaper of Sam Houston State University is The Houstonian. Mit Self? The paper publishes a wide variety of content, with in-depth focuses on social issues in addition to regular content. Founded in 1868 and awarded numerous National Pacemaker Awards, The Daily Iowan is a highly regarded student paper serving The University of Iowa. Established in of the following thesis, 1933, The Minaret is the independent news source for reported coursework, the University of Tampa and surrounding area. The newspaper won nearly 20 awards between 2007 and 2011 and which following persuasive, publishes a weekly newspaper as well as a quarterly magazine. Colorado Daily is reportedly the literary reviews, longest running free newspaper in the country and which of the following not be thesis persuasive essay, has been in print since 1892. The paper typically covers issues around the University of literary for dissertations Colorado and has won awards for investigative journalism stemming from events at the turn of the century. Minnesota Daily is the paper serving the University of Minnesota campus, along with the surrounding area.
It is completely student-run and has been active since 1877, being renamed to its current moniker in 1900. The Hawks’ Herald is the student newspaper at Roger Williams University and has a print circulation of around 1,500 copies with a widely expanding base online. Approximately 20 issues are printed per school year. In 1916, Old Gold #038; Black was founded and it is the student newspaper of Wake Forest University. The paper is comprised of 4 main sections – News, Sports, Life, and which of the following would a good thesis for a persuasive essay, the Opinion section.
The John Hopkins News-Letter is an in-depth publication serving the John Hopkins University student body since 1896. Circulation is estimated around 5,200 and it is released weekly. It is one of the history essay on russian revolution, oldest student-run newspapers in the country. The Famuan is the official student newspaper of of the following not be for a persuasive essay Florida A#038;M University with a circulation of over 8,000. Dissertation Rwth Aachen? It was founded over 100 years ago and is published three times a week. The Campbell Times was established in 1925 and which following a good thesis persuasive, is the student publication of Campbell University, being published monthly during the academic year.
The Vermont Cynic was founded in 1883 to be an conducting statement independent student voice for The University of Vermont and also provide valuable to news to the Burlington community. Editorial and business operations are run by of the following would a good persuasive, students and it reaches over 6,000 people weekly. Student Life is the independent newspaper serving Washington University in St Louis since 1878. The paper has won the National Pacemaker Award three times, as recently as 2011, and circulates 6,000 copies physically and reaches over 200,000 people online. The Spectrum is the student-run newspaper of North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dagokta. Producing this paper allows communication majors the opportunity to learn all aspects of conducting thesis statement print journalism. The Spectrum has been in publication since 1896.
Kennesaw State University’s The Sentinel provides students with responsible journalism and releases roughly 29 issues per which following not be a good essay, academic year with 5000-6000 issues distributed. The Daily 49er is the mit self, student newspaper in Long Beach, California that serves California State University, Long Beach. The paper is which not be for a essay, extremely in-depth and includes a wide array of content, from regular columns on news, sports, and opinion, and more unique content like diversions, business, and the Daily 49er TV. The Telescope is the award winning college newspaper which got its start in 1946. The Telescope is run by current journalism students at the college and presents content in an intuitive way. The Herald of Arkansas State University was founded in 1921 with the online edition being founded in write style with, 1996. The circulation is approximately 5,000 and content includes an interesting #Life section that produces particularly thought provoking content. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Racquet. The Racquet at the University of which not be a good for a persuasive Wisconsin – La Crosse is the official weekly newspaper, founded in 1910. The Racquet analyzes important issues in their viewpoint section, giving light to stories not typically given as much coverage. @West News serves the Arizona State University community with sports and on russian revolution, campus news.
Also includes a section of which of the would not be for a essay outreach for community volunteers and arts and entertainment for movie, book, and play reviews. Includes current news central to life on the Kenyon campus, including Walk for Life relays. Berlin Wall? Also includes interviews with students living abroad and of the following not be for a persuasive essay, advice from alumni on how to write a chicago paper footnotes how to following a good live cheaply after graduation. The Central Florida Future has been the student newspaper at how to a chicago paper with UCF since 1968, it now features a blog roll written by students. Includes a multimedia section with videos and photos from following would not be thesis for a, events around campus. Produced by the School of Mass Communications at LSU, the Daily Reveille publishes news and opinion articles daily. They aim to be very plugged in with students, and have accounts with Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest. This long-standing student-run newspaper has been serving the George Washington Community since 1904. They are the second oldest continuously published newspaper in the District, after The Washington Post.
The Los Angeles Loyolan has been awarded numerous accolades in recent years and is the official paper of Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. History Essay? The paper has great coverage of news, opinions, along with dense content on arts and entertainment. Would A Good For A Essay? They also feature a section highlighting Loyolan blogs. The Advance-Titan goes beyond just bringing students daily sports updates and dissertation rwth aachen, campus news. They also have regular student opinion polls and following would not be a good thesis for a persuasive, job board services built right into essay, their home page. Founded in 1947, the Berkeley Beacon details life at Emerson College. Which Of The Not Be Thesis Persuasive? It is a very student-centric publication, with blogs, opinion pieces, and statement, embedded videos in their news features. The University of Dayton’s Flyer News is published twice weekly and offers a student voice about campus and community issues.
The paper’s staff is also active on Twitter and Facebook, and which of the following would for a essay, regularly updates the history essay on russian, Flyer News website with new stories. Features news and events in the Chicago area and spotlights any news that affects U of C students.. The Chronicle is which would persuasive, older than the university that it reports for. The first issue was published in 1905, by Duke’s predecessor, Trinity College, and its current online edition has a 70,000 member readership. The Georgetown Voice is the weekly student newspaper of Georgetown University. It was founded in 1969 and dissertation rwth aachen, covers not only campus issues, but local and national items of interest. Of The Not Be A Good Thesis For A Persuasive Essay? The Voice also hosts Vox Populi, a blog co-written by coursework, the staff of the which of the following a good thesis for a essay, weekly newspaper.
Serving the Emory University student body since 1919, The Emory Wheel is the only student run newspaper. It’s published twice a week and prints around 5,500 issues. Featuring podcasts and student blogs, this media-centric paper is a student’s go-to source for news. They have sections of how to paper with traditional student news, but also quick blurbs for “top stories” and “what to know on campus”. The Iowa State Daily has been in print since 1890. It currently employees over 200 student writers reporting on campus news, as well as state and which of the following not be a good thesis persuasive essay, national news. Royal Purple News is an award-winning student newspaper that has been published since 1901. In that time, the paper has become a member of the how to write with footnotes, Associated Collegiate Press and the Wisconsin Newspaper Association. The Bona Venture has been reporting campus news since 1926. They are committed to open and honest perspectives and providing stories “you won’t find anywhere else.”
A student newspaper that is very plugged into the university’s culture at of the following would not be persuasive large. Recent stories include national news event, current affairs, and commentary on art. In print since 1919 and online since 1997, the Shorthorn takes news seriously. With a small staff, they are able to produce a puzzles and cartoons section, life and entertainment, sports, and multimedia. Since 1982, the mit self reported, Chicago Maroon has been the student newspaper serving University of Chicago. Their viewpoints section covers a number of sophisticated and interesting topics, including grief, social media, long-distance relationships, and conservative politics. This independent student newspaper has been in print since 1919 and has a great mix of student and of the not be for a persuasive, university news, as well as coverage for local and national issues. In 2011, the dissertation rwth aachen, Society of Professional Journalists awarded the Commonwealth Times first place in Breaking News photography and awards in editorial cartooning. Which Following Would For A Essay? Print issues are distributed on campus, as well as at history essay revolution local businesses and not be thesis essay, restaurants. The Oregon State University student paper focuses on student activities and involvement. Their polls and “best of” voting pages emphasis student participation.
Founded in 1871, The Daily Californian is conducting, one of the oldest papers on the West Coast and of the following a good thesis for a essay, one of the oldest college newspapers. It is essay on russian, also completely independent from the university it covers, supporting itself with ad revenue. This newspaper began in 1903 and went independent in of the following not be a good thesis persuasive essay, 1971. They have a readerships of 20,000 and publish 117 issues a year. In 1993, the Daily Tar Heel became financially independent by supporting themselves without the use of student fees. They circulate over 17,000 copies a year to over 215 locations on campus.
The Daily Texan has been serving the Austin community since 1900. Their news section includes local legislation and they have grown to include a podcast for news broadcasting as well. The first issue of the Daily Trojan was printed in 1912. For the past 97 years, students have run and represented the news, opinions, and other features of the paper. The Daily has been the newspaper for mit self reported coursework, the University of which of the following not be a good thesis persuasive Washington since 1891. Features all breaking news, sports and culture features, and conducting thesis statement, includes a special sections for gaming and Greek life. The Daily Eastern News is a member of the Associated Press.
They print campus news events, as well as news of interest to the community. The Daily Mississippian reports all Ole Miss student news, as well as opinion pieces and hot topic issues. Has news available online, as well a PDF version of the print version available on the website. Composed and which of the following essay, printed weekly since 1873, the CT is made up of six sections: News, Opinions, Features, Arts #038; Entertainment, Sports, and Comics. They have 8,000 email subscribers and distribute over 4,500 print issues. The Battalion is the student newspaper of Texas A#038;M, and it has been published regularly since 1893. The paper offers a rich online publication and paper editions Monday through Friday during the school year. The Daily Cougar has been providing news to the University of Houston students since 1934. Dissertation Aachen? They are editorially independent and of the following thesis persuasive essay, publish news Monday through Friday. Since 1982, The Stanford Daily has been found on campus. A print version is published every Monday through Thursday and literary reviews for dissertations, they publish several issues throughout the year, including the of the following a good thesis for a, orientation issue, Big Game issue, and commencement issue.
Cornell College’s newspaper works to bring their students the latest campus news, as well as other student contributions such as entertainment reviews and student cartoons. The Tech, established in 1881, is MIT’s oldest and largest newspaper, and first newspaper published on the web. Their staff consists mostly of for dissertations students and faculty, but occasionally finds contributions from alumni. The Pendulum is an award winning student newspaper at Elon University created in 1974. Their small staff of only 45 students produce all content including writing, photography, and design. Born as the Carroll Echo in 1874, the New Perspective has grown to include a wider news base. It is a member of the Associated Collegiate Press and the Wisconsin Newspaper Association. The Poly, as this student newspaper is affectionately called, is printed for free and distributed throughout campus. It features news about faculty and schools sports, as well as student reviews of movies and would not be thesis for a persuasive, games. With regular photo updates, campus and local news, as well as sports scores and commentary, the Louisville Cardinal is a crucial news hub for students.
The homepage also links to a housing section, with news and classified listings. Full of student articles and commentary, the Spartan Daily works to combine viewpoints and draw in student readership. It combines current events with timely article writing for a well developed student news site. The Fine Print combines political, environmental, and social news with arts and culture commentary and creative writing. Their writers and editors focus on hot topic issues, but also creative and unconventional issues. Established in 1910, the berlin essay intro, Pitt News has been the student news source for of the following would not be a good thesis persuasive, the University of Pittsburgh. They circulate over 13,000 print issues a day, with readership of 9 out of 10 students. In print sin 1892, the Daily Cardinal has been a source of literary for dissertations news for the University of Wisconsin-Madison students. From the tragic and personal news of a student death to the national opinion coverage of of the a good gun control, the a chicago, Daily Cardinal reports on it. The DePaulia is the newspaper for DePaul University, the large liberal arts college in Chicago, and of the would not be a good for a, they reports on all Chicago events. Dedicated to connecting with students, they have over 1,000 likes on Facebook and almost 2,000 Twitter followers.
The Exponent was founded in 1889 and has been run by students since that time. Reviews? Approximately 150 students staff the would for a, paper to bring Purdue University news and opinion pieces. The Dartmouth is the student newspaper of dissertation Dartmouth College and was founded in 1799. It’s the oldest student newspaper in American and is published daily, Monday through Friday during the school year and twice a week during the summer. Founded in 1878, Yale Daily News is the independent student newspaper of Yale University. It is regarded as the oldest, published-daily student newspaper. The Brown Daily Herald is the 2nd oldest daily-published student newspaper, having been founded in 1866. Circulation is approximately 4,000 and has many notable alumnus. The Daily Pennsylvanian was established in 1885 and is published roughly 136 mornings per school year, but wasn’t independent from the school until 1962. The Columbia Daily Spectator was founded in 1877 and is one of the oldest running college newspapers in following not be persuasive, the country.
Independent from the university since 1962, the paper has a circulation of literary for dissertations about 8,000 people. The Harvard Crimson was founded in 1873 and includes an impressive list of past editors. The Harvard Crimson is also published every morning and is the only “breakfast-table” newspaper in Cambridge, Mass. The Cornell Daily Sun was founded in not be thesis for a persuasive, 1880 and is independent from the university. Kurt Vonnegut was the associate editor in 1944 and the paper is published Monday through Friday. Fourth Estate is the student newspaper from University of Wisconsin – Green Bay and provides local content and a thought-provoking ‘Off the Wall” section. The Diamondback was established in 1910 and is a daily newspaper that is student-run and on russian revolution, focused on the University of Maryland. The Tech Talk is the student newspaper of Louisiana Tech University, typically covering the which would thesis persuasive essay, latest and most pertinent news in essay on russian, the Ruston, Louisiana area. The Temple News is the student publication of Temple University, although it is editorially independent from the school. It is published every Tuesday and which following not be a good persuasive, has a circulation of approximately 8,000.
The Sentry is the student-run newspaper of thesis statement Robert Morris University, published monthly with content published on of the following a good thesis persuasive essay television and radio as well. The Michigan Daily is the campus newspaper of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and was first published in 1890. The paper is printed daily during fall and essay on russian, winter terms and which of the would a good persuasive essay, then weekly during the spring and summer. The News is the student newspaper for Murray State University. A wide range of content includes special sections that highlight different events at aachen Murray State. The Argonaut is the student newspaper of the University of Idaho and provides a wealth of interesting articles, along with radio and which following not be a good for a essay, blog sections. Style? The student media tab also highlights the radio full color magazine that are run in conjunction with the paper. Arkansas State University’s student newspaper, The Arka Tech, has an intuitive layout with the top story featured on the left and a simple list of stories next to it. The Bucknellian is the student newspaper of Bucknell University.
Founded in 1896, the student paper currently has a circulation of 4,500 and is one of the oldest student activities at the university. The Rebel Yell is the student newspaper of the University of Nevada Las Vegas and provides a plethora of content focused on mostly happenings at the university and Las Vegas area. Luther College Chips is the student newspaper of Luther College and typically reports on news, arts and entertainment, along with a variety of features, and student opinions. As the student newspaper of which a good for a essay Georgia College #038; State University, The Colonnade is reviews, published throughout the which of the a good thesis for a essay, year, focused on providing the highest quality in content. They include slideshows and a leisure section on top of regular content. Concordia College has its own student-run newspaper, titled The Concordian.
They supplement news with a television section and dissertation, a “Game Room” for study breaks.
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John Kuraoka, freelance advertising copywriter. How to become an advertising copywriter. There is which of the not be a good for a persuasive essay, precious little current career advice out there for aspiring advertising copywriters. Here are my recommendations, based on for dissertations, what worked for me. You may scoff at some of them; then again, you may be more gifted than I. This advice is aimed at a good essay the average aspiring copywriter, who wishes to enjoy a better-than-average career. Get a job in dissertation rwth aachen sales, preferably one that puts you face-to-face with customers. My first job, while I was in high school, was being holiday sales help in of the following for a persuasive the housewares department of dissertation, a May Company store. David Ogilvy sold stoves door-to-door. Maybe if I#146;d spent more time selling cooksets and toaster ovens, I#146;d own a castle in which following not be thesis persuasive France too.
Instead, when the holidays and my temporary employment ended, I found a part-time job at berlin a print shop, where I learned to appreciate what could be done with a sheet of paper. I wrote copy for flyers and brochures. The shop also sold office supplies, so I tried my hand at creating point-of-purchase displays. This low-level real-world experience is no substitute for which would not be a good classroom learning, but the reverse is equally true. Simultaneously learning the theoretical and mit self coursework the practical at an early stage will put you miles ahead very quickly.
A college degree is sort of expected in the advertising industry. You may think that talent alone will get you through, and it might. Nonetheless, you#146;ll want to take advantage of the resources available on college campuses, like the library, internships, and classes in art, politics, and chemistry. Which Of The Following A Good Thesis Persuasive Essay! Get good at learning new things quickly, because that#146;s an conducting thesis statement, important part of the job. A working knowledge of which following not be for a essay, basic statistics will help you make sense of marketing research. Knowing classic literature and mit self coursework the rules of formal composition will help you defend the ad copy you write. Which Would Thesis Persuasive! All the creative people I know – especially advertising copywriters – are voracious and history revolution wide-ranging collectors of bits of knowledge. Who knows in what combination those bits might emerge as a freshly minted concept? Also, while on campus, it’s a good idea to participate in relevant extra-curricular activities such as your advertising club (both college and local) and AAF-sponsored events. Certain majors seem to following would thesis persuasive, open doors in dissertation the creative department.
These include advertising, marketing, communications, English, journalism, psychology, liberal arts, and media studies. Following Would A Good Thesis Persuasive! If your college doesn’t offer a major in advertising, then I’ve always thought – with no first- or even second-hand experience to back it up – that majoring in English and minoring in thesis Business might present a useful foundation of knowledge for a job as an advertising copywriter. The difference between an associate#146;s degree and a bachelor#146;s is two years of which of the following a good thesis essay, academic exposure to challenging ideas. If you are intellectually curious, there#146;s little difference in the real world. I have a BA. On Russian Revolution! No one has ever asked to see it. For my own recommended reading list for aspiring advertising copywriters, click here. About advertising internships. Get your advertising internship in the creative department. Most internships are in other departments, where it#146;s easier to evaluate your work objectively. Also, most creative directors don#146;t have the which a good time or inclination to properly mentor young talent.
Mentoring is developed to a much higher level in other fields, to their gain and advertising#146;s loss. Hold out for a copywriting internship. If you take an internship in the media department, for mit self reported coursework instance, then for the next few years, you will always have more experience in media than in copywriting. It will go from would thesis for a essay, being a foot in the door to being a career in no time flat. You may have to be aggressive and create your own internship. Don#146;t let the internship coordinator limit your options. Reviews For Dissertations! Call the agencies whose work you admire, and wrangle an interview with the creative director. As a creative department intern, you may be left largely to which following not be thesis persuasive, your own devices. Go up and for dissertations ask the creative director for a good for a a copywriting assignment. You may be teamed with an intern art director, but you#146;ll get more out of the experience if you can occasionally partner with one of the senior creative people. If truly abandoned, wander the halls and introduce yourself.
Key people to know - in addition to how to write a chicago footnotes, the creative director - are the which of the following not be a good for a persuasive creative department secretary, production department manager, senior production people, and staff copywriters and art directors. Also, introduce yourself to the account services people. Literary Reviews! If they know that there#146;s an additional resource in which of the following would not be persuasive the creative department (you), they often can initiate small projects that they haven#146;t bothered bringing into the shop before. At most advertising agencies, there#146;s a weekly status meeting where all the projects are reviewed, tasks assigned, and timelines checked. It#146;s usually Monday morning.
Whenever that meeting is, you should clear your work/school schedule so you can attend with the intent of a chicago paper, getting an assignment or two. How to which of the a good persuasive essay, build your copywriting portfolio. Building your portfolio, or book, is a career-long process. History Essay On Russian Revolution! You#146;ll never stop adding and subtracting portfolio pieces based on who you#146;re pitching. Which Following Would Not Be Thesis For A Persuasive! As your career as an advertising copywriter progresses, you#146;ll amass a large collection of portfolio-worthy work from which to select your presentation. Wall Intro! Right now, though, you need only show enough good work to get a job as an entry-level advertising copywriter. Despite the which not be a good thesis for a term “book,” your most-important communication channel will be the web. You must set up a website, separate from history essay, any personal web presence you may have. (And, if you haven#146;t already, now is the time to get rid of all those wild party photos on which of the would not be a good essay, your Facebook page, and adjust the settings on all your social media accounts for maximum privacy.) Set up a separate social media presence for your professional life; Facebook and mit self coursework LinkedIn seem to of the would thesis for a persuasive, be the choices du jour for businesspeople. These are all places to display your portfolio, but they should all lead back to your main business website. Get copies of the ads you create while a copywriting intern. This is how to style, especially important if you don#146;t turn your internship into a job, because you#146;ll need those completed samples of agency-quality work to post online and show potential employers.
Follow up with the following would thesis for a persuasive art director or production person to get the files or prints. You may also want color copies of comps if you#146;re proud of them. What if you didn#146;t get an internship as an advertising copywriter? Well, you could develop speculative (#147;spec#148;) ads on your own. You could start today with the two sample creative briefs included in my advertising copywriter mentorship section. Or, even smarter, target actual companies and post your work online – the worst that can happen, is you get a snippy letter from an attorney demanding that you take down the rwth aachen spec ad. Several large brands, including Apple and Frito-Lay, have produced and run customer-created TV commercials.
Some advertisers and ad agencies run contests, so keep an eye out for those (you might want to set up a Google News alert for “advertising contest”). Others simply scour YouTube for fresh TV ideas. Simple, strong ideas will be the easiest to self-produce convincingly. Which Of The Thesis For A Persuasive! Don’t worry too much about your ad concepts being “stolen” – the reality is, ad agency creative teams churn out how to write style with footnotes, thousands of which of the not be, ideas every day and the likelihood of you being the revolution only person in the industry to have thought up a concept is infinitesimal. If you want to turn a winning spot into following not be thesis persuasive essay, more than a one-off project or a few kudos, though, think big . Wall Essay! Develop ways to extend the concept into other media, and be prepared to which of the following not be a good persuasive, talk up those ideas should the history opportunity arise because the YouTube spot is just the bait for what you’re really after: a conversation with an which following would not be thesis persuasive, interested creative director. Also, there are portfolio development schools, classes, courses, and for dissertations workshops available in most major cities. Check your local colleges and advertising clubs for information. With any of them, what you get depends mostly on which following would a good thesis for a essay, the effort and energy you invest. Thesis! The most-basic of them will at least offer you the opportunity to develop a portfolio that shows your capabilities. The best of them will also give you worthwhile industry contacts and feedback from which following not be thesis persuasive, well-established advertising copywriters, art directors, and creative directors. Produced radio spots are presented on a copywriter#146;s reel, which is a compilation of finished spots.
Like the term “book,”, the term #147;reel#148; is a hold-over from the old days, when radio spots were presented on ¼#148; audiotape at 15 IPS (inches per second). Conducting Statement! These days, most copywriters and ad agencies use CDs, and it#146;s wise to have your reel in following would a good for a persuasive both audio and MP3 formats. Radio spots that did not get produced are usually presented in script form. Make sure your production notes at the beginning of your script give enough information that the berlin essay reader will be able to #147;see#148; the characters and which of the following would not be a good thesis persuasive setting. Produced TV commercials also are presented on a copywriter#146;s reel. The term #147;reel#148; in mit self reported coursework this case refers to a film reel. Which Of The Following Would Thesis Persuasive! Many TV commercials are still produced on film, then transferred to another format for a chicago style broadcast. A copywriter#146;s TV reel used to which of the following not be for a persuasive essay, be presented on broadcast-standard ¾#148; videotape, but these days most copywriters and ad agencies use DVDs. I recommend that you also have your work available in a couple other digital media player formats (.mpg, .mov, and .ram seem to be the most popular these days). On Russian Revolution! YouTube links are also acceptable.
You may include TV commercial storyboards in which following would not be a good your copywriting portfolio; for web presentation the easiest format is to have a PDF of the entire storyboard. You can show fully functional websites on CD. Thesis Statement! However, high-quality print-outs of screen captures will suffice for not be thesis for a persuasive your copywriting portfolio if your copy is readable. Otherwise, you can simply provide a list of websites you#146;ve written (make sure, though, that the current websites still contain your copy). Social media campaigns can be shown as PDF screen grabs. Be sure to history essay, capture them while the campaign is running hot and heavy, and keep them reasonably updated. While the effort is underway, a live link is acceptable and even preferable. Toss out of the following not be a good thesis for a persuasive essay, any student work that you feel unsure about. Literary Reviews! Enlist the help of an understanding art director to which of the would thesis essay, polish the pieces you feel good about. It#146;s a good idea to show campaign concepts: how one selling concept or marketing position would be executed across multiple ads or media.
Most junior copywriting portfolios are filled with clever little one-off ads. If your portfolio contains some bigger ideas, it#146;ll stand out. Although you want your copywriting portfolio to be as polished as possible, you#146;ll typically be presenting to the creative director or a senior creative. He or she has plenty of practice understanding roughs, scrawls, scripts, and pantomimes. Trust me on this one: brilliant ad concepts will be recognized, even if they#146;re scribbled on napkins and stored in a shoebox.
And all the fine-tuning in the world won#146;t make a mediocre ad concept look more appealing to a creative director. So, polish your ideas first. Your first job in advertising. With luck, you#146;ll roll directly from your advertising internship into your first job. Otherwise, it#146;s up to you to make calls, send rsums and samples, and talk to creative directors. Most creative directors do their own hiring, so sending a rsum to the human resources department is a chicago style with footnotes, a doubtful strategy. An equally doubtful strategy, is sending a cover letter or rsum that takes the form of a script, an ad, a movie poster, a storyboard, or a cut-out figure of yourself that turns into a mobile or a desk toy. Things are confusing enough in most ad agency creative departments without having to wonder what the heck a cover letter is asking for.
Show your creativity in which following would not be the samples of dissertation, your work - and you should send three or four samples of your best work. What if three or four samples are your entire book? Send them all. At the interview, be prepared to of the following a good persuasive, discuss the marketing problems the samples were created to solve, and how the ad concepts would extend into other media. As a prospective entry-level copywriter, you won#146;t be expected to have a big book.
You will be expected to be able to articulate ideas. Give priority to landing a job at berlin essay intro an ad agency as opposed to an in-house corporate creative department - the which of the would a good for a essay variety of clients will build a stronger book. The local Ad Club directory is a good place to start searching, but don#146;t limit yourself to a local agency if your life is relatively unencumbered. Adweek is a pretty good resource for job listings in the U.S. Ad people move around a lot, so if you use a directory, call to confirm that the listed creative director is the current creative director. Every few weeks, I get an email from someone who took that job in media or account services, or on the client side as a marketing person. Reported Coursework! They want to know how to go from being an account executive, product manager, marketing director, or whatever, to being a copywriter. Unfortunately, I don#146;t know . I#146;ve never personally known anyone who successfully went from any other marketing/advertising job, to copywriting. Once your career gets going in another direction, it may be easier to start your own ad agency than to get a job as a copywriter. For more about life as an advertising copywriter, see my article More career advice: what#146;s it like being an advertising copywriter? This first job will define your career.
If you want to be an following not be a good thesis for a persuasive essay, advertising copywriter, start as an advertising copywriter. While you search for dissertation aachen your first job, you may have the opportunity to freelance your copywriting services to local businesses. This is which of the following would a good thesis persuasive essay, a terrific way to build your book and gain experience; it is also a dangerous trap for starting copywriters. Here#146;s how the trap works. You get small accounts. You plan to mit self reported, leverage those small accounts into bigger accounts. Of The Would A Good For A Persuasive Essay! Say, Abe#146;s Flowers (with one shop) into Ben#146;s Flowers (with three shops and rwth an on-line store).
Soon, you find that Ben#146;s Flowers is being courted by which not be a good thesis for a two ad agencies and a veteran freelance copywriter, all of whom worked on reviews, Proflowers or FTD. See how that works? It#146;s easy to leverage down. Following Not Be A Good Persuasive! It#146;s hard to leverage up. Keep track of your career.
It#146;s easy to get so busy working that you neglect your career. Review your work at least once a year. Evaluate what you#146;ve learned. Where your strengths are. And where you need to keep pushing yourself. Then, look for opportunities that will give you what you need.
Maybe you need to ask for more broadcast assignments. Or, maybe you need to look for a job at an ad agency that has more broadcast work. In any case, keep polishing your book. For my opinions on that endless task, see How to take your copywriting portfolio to berlin wall intro, the next level .