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books and advanced placement resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Is it a good idea if I put the an essay on unemployment books I read on my resume, or at least those related to essay rubric, software development? locked by ChrisF #9830; Aug 1 '13 at 8:10. This question exists because it has historical significance, but it is not considered a good, on-topic question for this site , so please do not use it as evidence that you can ask similar questions here. Critique Paper? This question and its answers are frozen and cannot be changed. More info: help center. Essay? I've read a lot of resumes, some good, some bad, and they've never had a list like this. Honestly, it would indicate to do i essay about, me a candidate who has extremely little hands-on experience and is desperate to pad a thin resume.
And a candidate who hasn't bothered to advanced, research common resume formats. Such a resume would most likely be circular-filed. By me, anyway. Save it for person is unique, the interview. When you get to interview, it's highly likely you'll discuss certain topics like algorithm choice, refactoring, effective teamwork, etc. This'd be the time to discuss your experiences and optionally give references to widely-recognised books on those topics. Placement Essay Rubric? As an employer, I wouldn't be able to on unemployment in nigeria, tell from placement essay rubric listing the books on your CV whether you'd read them or just pasted them into your CV after copying from flowchart a 'recommended reading list' on Programmers/StackOverflow. Don't. A book is the source of knowledge, but it's the demonstration of that knowledge that really matters.
Linked-In has an area for you to put books you read. You can just link your Linked-In profile from advanced placement essay your resume. Then if they are interested in nursing article critique paper the books you read, they have the option to look. I see it as very tacky and opening yourself to a lot of advanced placement, problems you can avoid. For example, say you list Programming Pearls as a read book.
What if the article critique interviewer happens to rubric, remember something very specific in that book because he has also read it. He asks you a question about it, and then you can't remember that specific bit. But hey, you read the book. Cloning? It says so right here. You're immediately labeled as a liar in his head.
Just don't do it. I got a computer engineering degree without ever reading a single programming book. Placement? Did I learn a decent amount in what my college essay about college? Sure. Did I learn as much as I could have? No, not even close. Placement? Having read books on the subject is an added bonus. something that shows you are interested in learning from the experts. You don't just copy paste code or write code that seems good enough. You went out cloning essay there and read about advanced why certain solutions are better than others, etc. Should you put C++ for Dummies on your resume?
Of course not. If those are the vaughan williams writings books that you've read, then the advanced placement rubric answer is definitely not. However, if you've read some of the more respected books, then I would say yes. Essay? Bill Gates on Donald Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming : If you think you're a really good programmer . . . read (Knuth's) Art of Computer Programming . . . Advanced? You should definitely send me a resume if you can read the on unemployment whole thing. My guess is placement, that it just depends -- though when ranking knowledge over experience, experience always wins. I'd suggest focusing on mapping and expanding the real world experience you have, instead of the books you're read.
If you do end up listing them, I'd suggest having a personal website -- with reviews of the every person is unique essays books posted, and how you've applied the placement knowledge provided by the book in the real world. No. Essays Writings? Having read a book doesn't mean you've comprehended it or retained any of it. It doesn't demonstrate knowledge or aptitude, which is what employers are trying to determine. If you demonstrate your value in advanced an interview, then want to mention that you acquired said value by cloning humans essay, reading books, that's perhaps useful information. What if the three books Joe Resume Reviewer think every developer should have read aren't on it? You're just opening a can of worms you don't need to.
I have never seen it either, but it may not be a bad idea.. you could list it under education, self taught section. Beta test it, let us know how it works. I really can't see it doing much harm. Placement Rubric? Considering most programmers out williams essays writings there haven't read any programming books it might not be such a bad idea. Maybe a favorite programming book section, would certainly make for a good conversation in an interview. Consider it from the reader's point of view. Nobody reading a resume is going to say Oh, wow, this guy read Code Complete and The Pragmatic Programmer ! We'd better bring him in for an interview. A list of books read in your CV sounds like a bad idea. Big deal, you read the book - did you understand it?
Can you apply it? But what I think would be a good thing is to advanced placement, mention how you read something in a particular book, and did something interesting with it: maybe you applied Chris Okasaki's Purely Functional Data Structures to humans, Java, or something. This could work if you have inside information about the person or company with whom you are interviewing. If you read on LinkedIn that the hiring manager is a big fan of a certain book, then putting that on your resume would be a way to get noticed by them. I agree that most company's won't look at this as helpful, but I could see how it could work in isolated cases. I never saw a book (list) on a CV, either, but I think it's a good idea.
People I interview regularly list languages even though they only placement, learned them for fun, so why wouldn't you list books, if you read them throughly, did all the exercises, etc. Essay? Judging by the other answers here, it would probably depend on the person who reads the CV, though. Another option would be to mention books in the cover letter. For example, if you apply for a job at a company that creates speech recognition software, you could write that you've read [insert standard literature about advanced placement essay rubric speech recognition here] and that you found it very interesting and would be excited to work in flowchart this field professionally. Of course, that only advanced rubric, works for books that have some connection to the job you're applying for. Not on essay writing, a resume. I could picture there being a case of it making sense in advanced placement essay a cover letter or interview to make a point from a book if it seems applicable. For example, if a company mentions refactoring in a job description and you know a good quote from the book Refactoring by Martin Fowler, it may be useful to demonstrate this. Resumes generally are more for showing what experience you have rather than just having some knowledge on a subject. Like most of the other respondents, I think it's a bad idea. What I would do is start a blog and review the cloning essay books.
Or write reviews on Amazon and essay come up with a clever way to link them on your blog. Mention the things you learned from the nursing article critique books and try to advanced rubric, tie it back to article critique paper, your experience or side projects. To me this would show that you're interested enough to be an active programmer, but not desperate. It will look strange on a resume. Advanced Essay Rubric? I don't think anybody does that.
However, books are a great thing to vaughan williams, talk about advanced placement rubric during an interview. In fact, I was once asked by an interviewer what my favorite book on C++ was. If you really need some resume filler, how about taking some of the knowledge that you learned from all those books and making a cool application. Essay Flowchart? You can probably squeeze in personal projects somewhere on placement essay, the resume. I think it depends how you present that books on your resume.
If it just a list, than it can smell like you have nothing to add or don't know what to add to your cv. But if you add it more like IT courses or certificates, it can be interesting. If you have to put it some where . Do it on your profile in an essay on unemployment a professional networking site. They have widgets for books you swear by, currently reading or your bible's. Don't do it. Advanced? It won't make your CV look more impressive. You can mention the books that you have studied (in contrast to read) during your interview. But be prepared to answer which parts did you like and which you didn't.
An answer like it's the nursing article critique best X programming book is placement, not sufficient and will make things worst.
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odyssey hubris essay In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the placement essay, Human Place in Nature , New York: W. W. Norton Co., 1995, 69-90. The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the do i write my college application essay, idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenetindeed, a passionof the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the advanced placement, earth. It is an do i my college about, island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for rubric, escape from vaughan essays, our own too-muchness. Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to advanced essay, save the what do i my college application about, planet. As Henry David Thoreau once famously declared, “In Wildness is the preservation of the World.” (1) But is advanced essay rubric it? The more one knows of its peculiar history, the essay writing, more one realizes that wilderness is not quite what it seems.
Far from being the one place on advanced, earth that stands apart from humanity, it is cloning essay quite profoundly a human creationindeed, the advanced essay, creation of very particular human cultures at very particular moments in human history. It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization. Instead, it’s a product of that civilization, and could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is write an essay on unemployment made. Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural. As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for advanced placement essay, us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of our own unexamined longings and desires. For this reason, we mistake ourselves when we suppose that wilderness can be the solution to our culture’s problematic relationships with the nonhuman world, for critique, wilderness is itself no small part of the advanced placement, problem. To assert the unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to many readers, so let me hasten to add that the nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and writing flowchart sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories. Advanced Placement Essay Rubric! Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to others. Nursing Article Critique! Remember this? The torrents of mist shoot out from the base of a great waterfall in the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to placement essay, the roar of the vaughan williams essays, water and gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach. Advanced Essay! Remember this too: looking out across a desert canyon in the evening air, the only sound a lone raven calling in the distance, the cloning essay, rock walls dropping away into a chasm so deep that its bottom all but vanishes as you squint into the amber light of the setting sun. And this: the moment beside the trail as you sit on a sandstone ledge, your boots damp with the morning dew while you take in rubric the rich smell of the pines, and the small red foxor maybe for an essay, you it was a raccoon or a coyote or a deerthat suddenly ambles across your path, stopping for a long moment to gaze in your direction with cautious indifference before continuing on advanced placement rubric, its way.
Remember the feelings of write an essay on unemployment in nigeria, such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too. And yet: what brought each of us to the places where such memories became possible is entirely a cultural invention. Go back 250 years in American and European history, and you do not find nearly so many people wandering around remote corners of the planet looking for advanced essay, what today we would call “the wilderness experience.” As late as the eighteenth century, the most common usage of the word “wilderness” in the English language referred to landscapes that generally carried adjectives far different from the ones they attract today. To be a wilderness then was to be “deserted,” “savage,” “desolate,” “barren”in short, a “waste,” the word’s nearest synonym. Its connotations were anything but positive, and the emotion one was most likely to feel in its presence was “bewilderment” or terror. (2) Many of the vaughan essays, word’s strongest associations then were biblical, for it is used over and over placement essay again in the King James Version to every, refer to places on rubric, the margins of civilization where it is nursing article critique all too easy to lose oneself in moral confusion and placement essay despair. The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for forty years, and what do i write application about where they had nearly abandoned their God to worship a golden idol. (3) “For Pharaoh will say of the Children of Israel,” we read in Exodus, “They are entangled in advanced placement essay the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.” (4) The wilderness was where Christ had struggled with the devil and endured his temptations: “And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. And he was there in nursing critique the wilderness for forty days tempted of placement essay rubric, Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.” (5) The “delicious Paradise” of John Milton’s Eden was surrounded by “a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides /Access denied” to all who sought entry.” When Adam and Eve were driven from that garden, the world they entered was a wilderness that only their labor and pain could redeem.
Wilderness, in short, was a place to which one came only against one’s will, and always in fear and trembling. Whatever value it might have arose solely from the possibility that it might be “reclaimed” and flowchart turned toward human endsplanted as a garden, say, or a city upon a hill. (7) In its raw state, it had little or nothing to offer civilized men and women. But by the end of the advanced rubric, nineteenth century, all this had changed. The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for what application, some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in 1862 could declare wildness to be the preservation of the advanced essay, world suggests the sea change that was going on. Essays Writings! Wilderness had once been the antithesis of advanced essay, all that was orderly and goodit had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the garden walland yet now it was frequently likened to Eden itself. When John Muir arrived in the Sierra Nevada in 1869, he would declare, “No description of Heaven that I have ever heard or read of seems half so fine.” (8) He was hardly alone in expressing such emotions.
One by one, various corners of the American map came to be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to my college application about, visit and see them for themselves. Niagara Falls was the first to essay, undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. Yosemite was deeded by the U. S. government to the state of California in 1864 as the nation’s first wildland park, and Yellowstone became the first true national park in 1872. (9) By the first decade of the vaughan williams essays, twentieth century, in the single most famous episode in American conservation history, a national debate had exploded over whether the city of San Francisco should be permitted to augment its water supply by essay, damming the an essay on unemployment, Tuolumne River in Hetch Hetchy valley, well within the boundaries of Yosemite National Park. The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is that so many people fought to prevent its completion. Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an emerging movement to preserve wilderness. Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Few would have questioned the merits of “reclaiming” a wasteland like this in order to put it to advanced, human use. Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by vaughan essays writings, portraying such an act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and vandalism.
Lest one doubt that the old biblical metaphors had been turned completely on placement essay, their heads, listen to John Muir attack the dam’s defenders. “Their arguments,” he wrote, “are curiously like those of the vaughan writings, devil, devised for the destruction of the first gardenso much of the very best Eden fruit going to waste; so much of the best Tuolumne water and Tuolumne scenery going to waste.” (10) For Muir and the growing number of Americans who shared his views, Satan’s home had become God’s Own Temple. The sources of placement rubric, this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for the purposes of this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings: the sublime and article critique the frontier. Of the two, the sublime is the older and more pervasive cultural construct, being one of the most important expressions of that broad transatlantic movement we today label as romanticism; the frontier is more peculiarly American, though it too had its European antecedents and advanced placement parallels. The two converged to on unemployment in nigeria, remake wilderness in their own image, freighting it with moral values and cultural symbols that it carries to this day. Indeed, it is not too much to say that the modern environmental movement is itself a grandchild of advanced, romanticism and post-frontier ideology, which is why it is write an essay on unemployment in nigeria no accident that so much environmentalist discourse takes its bearings from the wilderness these intellectual movements helped create. Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it in placement essay fact serves as the foundation for a long list of other such concerns that on critique, their face seem quite remote from it. That is why its influence is so pervasive and, potentially, so insidious.
To gain such remarkable influence, the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to become sacred. This possibility had been present in wilderness even in the days when it had been a place of spiritual danger and moral temptation. If Satan was there, then so was Christ, who had found angels as well as wild beasts during His sojourn in the desert. In the wilderness the boundaries between human and nonhuman, between natural and supernatural, had always seemed less certain than elsewhere. This was why the advanced placement essay rubric, early Christian saints and what application essay about mystics had often emulated Christ’s desert retreat as they sought to experience for themselves the visions and spiritual testing He had endured.
One might meet devils and advanced essay rubric run the risk of losing one’s soul in such a place, but one might also meet God. For some that possibility was worth almost any price. By the eighteenth century this sense of the wilderness as a landscape where the supernatural lay just beneath the an essay on unemployment, surface was expressed in essay rubric the doctrine of the sublime, a word whose modern usage has been so watered down by commercial hype and tourist advertising that it retains only a dim echo of its former power. What Do I Application About! (11) In the theories of placement essay, Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, William Gilpin, and others, sublime landscapes were those rare places on earth where one had more chance than elsewhere to glimpse the face of God. (12) Romantics had a clear notion of where one could be most sure of having this experience. Although God might, of course, choose to essay, show Himself anywhere, He would most often be found in placement those vast, powerful landscapes where one could not help feeling insignificant and every person is unique being reminded of placement rubric, one’s own mortality. Where were these sublime places?
The eighteenth century catalog of their locations feels very familiar, for we still see and value landscapes as it taught us to do. God was on person is unique essays, the mountaintop, in the chasm, in the waterfall, in placement essay rubric the thundercloud, in the rainbow, in the sunset. One has only to think of the sites that Americans chose for write an essay on unemployment in nigeria, their first national parksYellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Rainier, Zionto realize that virtually all of them fit one or more of these categories. Less sublime landscapes simply did not appear worthy of such protection; not until the 1940s, for instance, would the first swamp be honored, in Everglades National Park, and to this day there is no national park in the grasslands. (13) Among the best proofs that one had entered a sublime landscape was the placement, emotion it evoked. For the early romantic writers and vaughan williams artists who first began to celebrate it, the sublime was far from being a pleasurable experience. The classic description is essay rubric that of what write my college, William Wordsworth as he recounted climbing the Alps and crossing the Simplon Pass in his autobiographical poem “The Prelude.” There, surrounded by crags and waterfalls, the poet felt himself literally to be in the presence of the divineand experienced an advanced, emotion remarkably close to terror: The immeasurable height.
Of woods decaying, never to williams essays, be decayed, The stationary blasts of waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky,
The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side. As if a voice were in advanced placement them, the sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the write, Heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and the light. Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the great Apocalypse, The types and symbols of advanced placement, Eternity, Of first, and last, and midst, and humans essay without end. (14)
This was no casual stroll in the mountains, no simple sojourn in advanced the gentle lap of nonhuman nature. What Wordsworth described was nothing less than a religious experience, akin to person is unique essays, that of the Old Testament prophets as they conversed with their wrathful God. Advanced Rubric! The symbols he detected in this wilderness landscape were more supernatural than natural, and essay writing flowchart they inspired more awe and dismay than joy or pleasure. No mere mortal was meant to linger long in such a place, so it was with considerable relief that Wordsworth and his companion made their way back down from the peaks to the sheltering valleys. Placement Rubric! Lest you suspect that this view of the write on unemployment in nigeria, sublime was limited to timid Europeans who lacked the American know-how for feeling at home in the wilderness, remember Henry David Thoreau’s 1846 climb of Mount Katahdin, in Maine. Although Thoreau is regarded by many today as one of the great American celebrators of wilderness, his emotions about Katahdin were no less ambivalent than Wordsworth’s about the Alps. It was vast, Titanic, and such as man never inhabits. Some part of the beholder, even some vital part, seems to escape through the loose grating of his ribs as he ascends.
He is more lone than you can imagine . Vast, Titanic, inhuman Nature has got him at disadvantage, caught him alone, and advanced placement rubric pilfers him of williams essays writings, some of his divine faculty. She does not smile on him as in the plains. She seems to say sternly, why came ye here before your time? This ground is not prepared for you. Is it not enough that I smile in the valleys? I have never made this soil for thy feet, this air for thy breathing, these rocks for thy neighbors.
I cannot pity nor fondle thee here, but forever relentlessly drive thee hence to where I am kind. Why seek me where I have not called thee, and then complain because you find me but a stepmother? (15) This is advanced placement essay surely not the way a modern backpacker or nature lover would describe Maine’s most famous mountain, but that is because Thoreau’s description owes as much to Wordsworth and other romantic contemporaries as to paper, the rocks and clouds of Katahdin itself. His words took the physical mountain on which he stood and transmuted it into an icon of the sublime: a symbol of placement rubric, God’s presence on earth. The power and the glory of that icon were such that only a prophet might gaze on it for long.
In effect, romantics like Thoreau joined Moses and essay writing flowchart the children of Israel in Exodus when “they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.” (16) But even as it came to embody the awesome power of the sublime, wilderness was also being tamednot just by those who were building settlements in its midst but also by advanced essay, those who most celebrated its inhuman beauty. By the second half of the write on unemployment in nigeria, nineteenth century, the terrible awe that Wordsworth and Thoreau regarded as the placement rubric, appropriately pious stance to essays, adopt in the presence of their mountaintop God was giving way to a much more comfortable, almost sentimental demeanor. As more and more tourists sought out the wilderness as a spectacle to be looked at advanced essay rubric and enjoyed for its great beauty, the sublime in effect became domesticated. The wilderness was still sacred, but the religious sentiments it evoked were more those of a pleasant parish church than those of essay writing, a grand cathedral or a harsh desert retreat. The writer who best captures this late romantic sense of a domesticated sublime is undoubtedly John Muir, whose descriptions of Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada reflect none of the anxiety or terror one finds in earlier writers.
Here he is, for instance, sketching on North Dome in Yosemite Valley: No pain here, no dull empty hours, no fear of the advanced placement essay rubric, past, no fear of the future. These blessed mountains are so compactly filled with God’s beauty, no petty personal hope or experience has room to be. Drinking this champagne water is about pure pleasure, so is breathing the living air, and placement every movement of limbs is pleasure, while the body seems to feel beauty when exposed to it as it feels the campfire or sunshine, entering not by the eyes alone, but equally through all one’s flesh like radiant heat, making a passionate ecstatic pleasure glow not explainable. The emotions Muir describes in Yosemite could hardly be more different from vaughan williams essays writings, Thoreau’s on placement, Katahdin or Wordsworth’s on the Simplon Pass. Vaughan Williams Essays Writings! Yet all three men are participating in the same cultural tradition and contributing to the same myththe mountain as cathedral. Advanced Essay! The three may differ in the way they choose to express their pietyWordsworth favoring an cloning humans essay, awe-filled bewilderment, Thoreau a stern loneliness, Muir a welcome ecstasybut they agree completely about the church in which they prefer to worship. Muir’s closing words on North Dome diverge from his older contemporaries only in mood, not in their ultimate content: Perched like a fly on this Yosemite dome, I gaze and sketch and advanced essay bask, oftentimes settling down into dumb admiration without definite hope of ever learning much, yet with the longing, unresting effort that lies at williams writings the door of placement, hope, humbly prostrate before the vast display of God’s power, and eager to offer self-denial and renunciation with eternal toil to write in nigeria, learn any lesson in the divine manuscript. (17)
Muir’s “divine manuscript” and Wordsworth’s “Characters of the great Apocalypse” are in essay rubric fact pages from the same holy book. The sublime wilderness had ceased to every person is unique essays, be place of satanic temptation and placement essay become instead a sacred temple, much as it continues to be for those who love it today. But the romantic sublime was not the only cultural movement that helped transform wilderness into a sacred American icon during the nineteenth century. No less important was the powerful romantic attraction of primitivism, dating back at essay writing flowchart least to of that the advanced placement essay rubric, best antidote to the ills of an overly refined and civilized modern world was a return to simpler, more primitive living. In the United States, this was embodied most strikingly in the national myth of the frontier. The historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1893 the classic academic statement of this myth, but it had been part of write an essay in nigeria, American cultural traditions for well over a century. As Turner described the process, easterners and European immigrants, in moving to the wild unsettled lands of the frontier, shed the trappings of civilization, rediscovered their primitive racial energies, reinvented direct democratic institutions, and by reinfused themselves with a vigor, an independence, and a creativity that the source of American democracy and national character.
Seen in this way, wild country became a place not just of religious redemption but of national renewal, the quintessential location for experiencing what it meant to be an American. One of Turner’s most provocative claims was that by the 1890s the frontier was passing away. Never again would “such gifts of free land offer themselves” to the American people. “The frontier has gone,” he declared, “and with its going has closed the placement, first period of American history.” (18) Built into the frontier myth from its very beginning was the notion that this crucible of American identity was temporary and would pass away. Those who have celebrated the frontier have almost always looked backward as they did so, mourning an is unique essays, older, simpler, truer world that is about to disappear, forever. That world and all of its attractions, Turner said, depended on free landon wilderness. Thus, in the myth of the vanishing frontier lay the rubric, seeds of wilderness preservation in the United States, for if wild land had been so crucial in nursing article critique paper the making of the nation, then surely one must save its last remnants as monuments to the American pastand as an insurance policy to protect its future. Essay Rubric! It is no accident that the movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas began to gain real momentum at precisely the time that laments about the passing frontier reached their peak. To protect wilderness was in a very real sense to protect the nation’s most sacred myth of origin. Among the core elements of the frontier myth was the powerful sense among certain groups of Americans that wilderness was the last bastion of rugged individualism. Turner tended to stress communitarian themes when writing frontier history, asserting that Americans in primitive conditions had been forced to band together with their neighbors to form communities and democratic institutions.
For other writers, however, frontier democracy for communities was less compelling than frontier freedom for individuals. Vaughan Essays! (19) By fleeing to the outer margins of settled land and advanced placement rubric societyso the story ranan individual could escape the confining strictures of civilized life. Writing Flowchart! The mood among writers who celebrated frontier individualism was almost always nostalgic; they lamented not just a lost way of life but the passing of the heroic men who had embodied that life. Thus Owen Wister in the introduction to his classic 1902 novel The Virginian could write of “a vanished world” in which “the horseman, the cow-puncher, the last romantic figure upon our soil” rode only “in his historic yesterday” and essay rubric would “never come again.” For Wister, the cowboy was a man who gave his word and write an essay kept it (“Wall Street would have found him behind the times”), who did not talk lewdly to women (“Newport would have thought him old-fashioned”), who worked and advanced rubric played hard, and whose “ungoverned hours did not unman him.” (20) Theodore Roosevelt wrote with much the essays, same nostalgic fervor about the “fine, manly qualities” of the placement essay, “wild rough-rider of the plains.” No one could be more heroically masculine, thought Roosevelt, or more at nursing article paper home in the western wilderness: There he passes his days, there he does his life-work, there, when he meets death, he faces it as he has faced many other evils, with quiet, uncomplaining fortitude. Brave, hospitable, hardy, and advanced adventurous, he is the essay, grim pioneer of our race; he prepares the way for the civilization from before whose face he must himself disappear. Hard and advanced essay dangerous though his existence is, it has yet a wild attraction that strongly draws to write an essay, it his bold, free spirit. (21) This nostalgia for a passing frontier way of life inevitably implied ambivalence, if not downright hostility, toward modernity and advanced placement all that it represented. If one saw the wild lands of the do i application, frontier as freer, truer, and more natural than other, more modern places, then one was also inclined to see the cities and factories of urban-industrial civilization as confining, false, and artificial. Owen Wister looked at the post-frontier “transition” that had followed “the horseman of the advanced placement rubric, plains,” and did not like what he saw: “a shapeless state, a condition of nursing article critique, men and manners as unlovely as is that moment in the year when winter is gone and spring not come, and advanced rubric the face of Nature is ugly.” (22) In the eyes of cloning essay, writers who shared Wister’s distaste for modernity, civilization contaminated its inhabitants and absorbed them into the faceless, collective, contemptible life of the crowd. For all of advanced essay rubric, its troubles and dangers, and despite the fact that it must pass away, the frontier had been a better place. If civilization was to be redeemed, it would be by men like the Virginian who could retain their frontier virtues even as they made the transition to post-frontier life.
The mythic frontier individualist was almost always masculine in gender: here, in the wilderness, a man could be a real man, the rugged individual he was meant to be before civilization sapped his energy and threatened his masculinity. Wister’s contemptuous remarks about Wall Street and Newport suggest what he and many others of write an essay on unemployment, his generation believedthat the essay, comforts and seductions of civilized life were especially insidious for men, who all too easily became emasculated by the feminizing tendencies of civilization. More often than not, men who felt this way came, like Wister and Roosevelt, from elite class backgrounds. The curious result was that frontier nostalgia became an important vehicle for nursing, expressing a peculiarly bourgeois form of advanced placement essay rubric, antimodernism. The very men who most benefited from urban-industrial capitalism were among those who believed they must escape its debilitating effects. If the frontier was passing, then men who had the flowchart, means to advanced essay, do so should preserve for themselves some remnant of its wild landscape so that they might enjoy the regeneration and renewal that came from sleeping under the stars, participating in cloning humans essay blood sports, and living off the land. Advanced Essay Rubric! The frontier might be gone, but the frontier experience could still be had if only wilderness were preserved. Thus the what do i write essay, decades following the Civil War saw more and advanced placement more of the nation’s wealthiest citizens seeking out wilderness for themselves. The elite passion for wild land took many forms: enormous estates in the Adirondacks and essay writing flowchart elsewhere (disingenuously called “camps” despite their many servants and amenities), cattle ranches for would-be rough riders on the Great Plains, guided big-game hunting trips in the Rockies, and luxurious resort hotels wherever railroads pushed their way into sublime landscapes. Wilderness suddenly emerged as the rubric, landscape of choice for elite tourists, who brought with them strikingly urban ideas of the countryside through which they traveled.
For them, wild land was not a site for productive labor and not a permanent home; rather, it was a place of recreation. One went to the wilderness not as a producer but as a consumer, hiring guides and other backcountry residents who could serve as romantic surrogates for the rough riders and what my college application about hunters of the frontier if one was willing to placement essay rubric, overlook their new status as employees and servants of the rich. Every Person! In just this way, wilderness came to embody the advanced placement essay rubric, national frontier myth, standing for the wild freedom of America’s past and seeming to represent a highly attractive natural alternative to person, the ugly artificiality of modern civilization. The irony, of course, was that in the process wilderness came to essay rubric, reflect the very civilization its devotees sought to escape. Write! Ever since the advanced placement, nineteenth century, celebrating wilderness has been an activity mainly for essay writing, well-to-do city folks. Placement Essay Rubric! Country people generally know far too much about working the land to regard unworked land as their ideal. In contrast, elite urban tourists and wealthy sportsmen projected their leisure-time frontier fantasies onto the American landscape and so created wilderness in their own image. There were other ironies as well, The movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas followed hard on the heels of the final Indian wars, in write on unemployment in nigeria which the prior human inhabitants of these areas were rounded up and moved onto reservations. The myth of the placement essay rubric, wilderness as “virgin ” uninhabited land had always been especially cruel when seen from the perspective of the Indians who had once called that land home.
Now they were forced to move elsewhere, with the result that tourists could safely enjoy the illusion that they were seeing their nation in its pristine, original state, in flowchart the new morning of God’s own creation. (23) Among the things that most marked the advanced placement essay rubric, new national parks as reflecting a post-frontier consciousness was the relative absence of human violence within their boundaries. The actual frontier had often been a place of conflict, in which invaders and invaded fought for control of land and resources. Once set aside within the fixed and carefully policed boundaries of the modern bureaucratic state, the article paper, wilderness lost its savage image and became safe: a place more of reverie than of placement essay, revulsion or fear. Meanwhile, its original inhabitants were kept out by dint of force, their earlier uses of the land redefined as inappropriate or even illegal. To this day, for instance, the Blackfeet continue to be accused of “poaching” on the lands of williams, Glacier National Park that originally belonged to them and that were ceded by treaty only with the proviso that they be permitted to hunt there. (24)
The removal of Indians to create an “uninhabited wilderness”uninhabited as never before in the human history of the placereminds us just how invented, just how constructed, the placement essay rubric, American wilderness really is. To return to my opening argument: there is nothing natural about the concept of humans essay, wilderness. It is entirely a creation of the advanced, culture that holds it dear, a product of the very history it seeks to deny. Indeed, one of the most striking proofs of the cultural invention of wilderness is its thoroughgoing erasure of the nursing article critique, history from which it sprang. In virtually all of its manifestations, wilderness represents a flight from history. Essay! Seen as the original garden, it is vaughan essays writings a place outside of time, from advanced placement essay rubric, which human beings had to be ejected before the fallen world of history could properly begin.
Seen as the frontier, it is a savage world at the dawn of civilization, whose transformation represents the very beginning of the national historical epic. Write An Essay! Seen as the bold landscape of frontier heroism, it is the place of youth and childhood, into advanced placement rubric, which men escape by abandoning their pasts and entering a world of freedom where the constraints of civilization fade into memory. Seen as the vaughan essays writings, sacred sublime, it is the home of placement essay, a God who transcends history by standing as the an essay on unemployment in nigeria, One who remains untouched and rubric unchanged by time’s arrow. No matter what the cloning humans essay, angle from which we regard it, wilderness offers us the rubric, illusion that we can escape the an essay, cares and troubles of the world in which our past has ensnared us. (25) This escape from history is one reason why the language we use to placement, talk about wilderness is often permeated with spiritual and religious values that reflect human ideals far more than the material world of physical nature. Wilderness fulfills the old romantic project of cloning humans, secularizing Judeo-Christian values so as to make a new cathedral not in advanced essay some petty human building but in God’s own creation, Nature itself.
Many environmentalists who reject traditional notions of the writing, Godhead and who regard themselves as agnostics or even atheists nonetheless express feelings tantamount to religious awe when in the presence of advanced placement essay, wildernessa fact that testifies to flowchart, the success of the romantic project. Those who have no difficulty seeing God as the expression of advanced placement essay rubric, our human dreams and desires nonetheless have trouble recognizing that in a secular age Nature can offer precisely the same sort of mirror. Thus it is that wilderness serves as the unexamined foundation on which so many of the quasi-religious values of modern environmentalism rest. The critique of modernity that is one of environmentalism’s most important contributions to the moral and political discourse of our time more often than not appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to wilderness as the essay writing, standard against which to advanced, measure the article critique paper, failings of our human world. Wilderness is the natural, unfallen antithesis of an unnatural civilization that has lost its soul. It is a place of freedom in which we can recover the true selves we have lost to the corrupting influences of advanced placement, our artificial lives. Most of all, it is the ultimate landscape of authenticity. Combining the sacred grandeur of the sublime with the primitive simplicity of the frontier, it is the place where we can see the world as it really is, and do i about so know ourselves as we really areor ought to advanced placement, be.
But the trouble with wilderness is vaughan that it quietly expresses and reproduces the very values its devotees seek to reject. The flight from history that is very nearly the core of wilderness represents the false hope of an escape from responsibility, the illusion that we can somehow wipe clean the slate of our past and return to the tabula rasa that supposedly existed before we began to leave our marks on the world. The dream of an unworked natural landscape is very much the fantasy of people who have never themselves had to work the land to advanced essay rubric, make a livingurban folk for whom food comes from person essays, a supermarket or a restaurant instead of a field, and for whom the wooden houses in which they live and work apparently have no meaningful connection to the forests in which trees grow and die. Only people whose relation to the land was already alienated could hold up wilderness as a model for human life in nature, for the romantic ideology of wilderness leaves precisely nowhere for human beings actually to advanced placement rubric, make their living from the land. This, then, is the central paradox: wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in which the human is entirely outside the natural. If we allow ourselves to believe that nature, to be true, must also be wild, then our very presence in nature represents its fall. The place where we are is the place where nature is not. If this is soif by write my college, definition wilderness leaves no place for placement essay rubric, human beings, save perhaps as contemplative sojourners enjoying their leisurely reverie in God’s natural cathedralthen also by definition it can offer no solution to the environmental and other problems that confront us.
To the extent that we celebrate wilderness as the measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the dualism that sets humanity and an essay nature at placement essay opposite poles. We thereby leave ourselves little hope of discovering what an my college application essay, ethical, sustainable, honorable human place in nature might actually look like. Worse: to the extent that we live in an urban-industrial civilization but at the same time pretend to essay, ourselves that our real home is in the wilderness, to just that extent we give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the lives we actually lead. We inhabit civilization while holding some part of ourselveswhat we imagine to be the do i write my college about, most precious partaloof from essay, its entanglements. We work our nine-to-five jobs in its institutions, we eat its food, we drive its cars (not least to critique paper, reach the wilderness), we benefit from the intricate and advanced essay rubric all too invisible networks with which it shelters us, all the humans essay, while pretending that these things are not an essential part of who we are. By imagining that our true home is in the wilderness, we forgive ourselves the homes we actually inhabit. In its flight from advanced placement rubric, history, in its siren song of escape, in its reproduction of the dangerous dualism that sets human beings outside of naturein all of these ways, wilderness poses a serious threat to responsible environmentalism at nursing the end of the twentieth century. By now I hope it is clear that my criticism in this essay is advanced essay rubric not directed at essay writing flowchart wild nature per advanced placement essay se, or even at nursing article efforts to set aside large tracts of wild land, but rather at the specific habits of thinking that flow from this complex cultural construction called wilderness. It is advanced placement essay not the things we label as wilderness that are the problemfor nonhuman nature and every person is unique large tracts of the natural world do deserve protectionbut rather what we ourselves mean when we use the advanced essay, label.
Lest one doubt how pervasive these habits of essay writing, thought actually are in contemporary environmentalism, let me list some of the advanced placement rubric, places where wilderness serves as the every essays, ideological underpinning for environmental concerns that might otherwise seem quite remote from it. Defenders of advanced placement essay rubric, biological diversity, for vaughan williams writings, instance, although sometimes appealing to advanced placement essay rubric, more utilitarian concerns, often point to “untouched” ecosystems as the vaughan essays, best and richest repositories of the undiscovered species we must certainly try to protect. Although at first blush an apparently more “scientific” concept than wilderness, biological diversity in fact invokes many of the same sacred values, which is why organizations like the Nature Conservancy have been so quick to advanced placement essay rubric, employ it as an alternative to the seemingly fuzzier and more problematic concept of wilderness. There is a paradox here, of course. To the extent that biological diversity (indeed, even wilderness itself) is likely to survive in the future only by the most vigilant and write self-conscious management of the ecosystems that sustain it, the ideology of wilderness is potentially in advanced rubric direct conflict with the an essay on unemployment in nigeria, very thing it encourages us to protect. (26) The most striking instances of this have revolved around “endangered species,” which serve as vulnerable symbols of biological diversity while at the same time standing as surrogates for wilderness itself. The terms of the advanced essay, Endangered Species Act in the United States have often meant that those hoping to defend pristine wilderness have had to write on unemployment, rely on a single endangered species like the spotted owl to gain legal standing for their casethereby making the advanced, full power of the sacred land inhere in writing flowchart a single numinous organism whose habitat then becomes the object of essay, intense debate about nursing paper, appropriate management and advanced placement rubric use. (27) The ease with which anti-environmental forces like the what write my college application, wise-use movement have attacked such single-species preservation efforts suggests the vulnerability of strategies like these. Perhaps partly because our own conflicts over such places and advanced essay rubric organisms have become so messy, the convergence of wilderness values with concerns about biological diversity and endangered species has helped produce a deep fascination for remote ecosystems, where it is easier to imagine that nature might somehow be “left alone” to flourish by its own pristine devices.
The classic example is the tropical rain forest, which since the 1970s has become the most powerful modern icon of cloning essay, unfallen, sacred landa veritable Garden of Edenfor many Americans and rubric Europeans. And yet protecting the rain forest in the eyes of First World environmentalists all too often means protecting it from the people who live there. Those who seek to preserve such “wilderness” from the activities of native peoples run the risk of reproducing the same tragedybeing forceably removed from an ancient homethat befell American Indians. Third World countries face massive environmental problems and deep social conflicts, but these are not likely to be solved by a cultural myth that encourages us to “preserve” peopleless landscapes that have not existed in nursing article critique paper such places for millennia. At its worst, as environmentalists are beginning to realize, exporting American notions of wilderness in this way can become an advanced placement essay, unthinking and self-defeating form of vaughan writings, cultural imperialism. (28)
Perhaps the most suggestive example of the way that wilderness thinking can underpin other environmental concerns has emerged in the recent debate about “global change.” In 1989 the journalist Bill McKibben published a book entitled The End of Nature, in which he argued that the prospect of global climate change as a result of essay, unintentional human manipulation of the atmosphere means that nature as we once knew it no longer exists. (29) Whereas earlier generations inhabited a natural world that remained more or less unaffected by their actions, our own generation is what write my college about uniquely different. We and our children will henceforth live in a biosphere completely altered by our own activity, a planet in which the human and the natural can no longer be distinguished, because the one has overwhelmed the other. In McKibben’s view, nature has died, and we are responsible for killing it. “The planet,” he declares, “is utterly different now.” (30) But such a perspective is possible only if we accept the wilderness premise that nature, to be natural, must also be pristineremote from humanity and untouched by our common past. In fact, everything we know about environmental history suggests that people have been manipulating the natural world on various scales for as long as we have a record of their passing. Moreover, we have unassailable evidence that many of the environmental changes we now face also occurred quite apart from human intervention at one time or another in the earth’s past. (31) The point is essay not that our current problems are trivial, or that our devastating effects on the earth’s ecosystems should be accepted as inevitable or “natural.” It is rather that we seem unlikely to make much progress in solving these problems if we hold up to ourselves as the mirror of nature a wilderness we ourselves cannot inhabit. To do so is merely to take to a logical extreme the paradox that was built into wilderness from the beginning: if nature dies because we enter it, then the only way to nursing article critique, save nature is to kill ourselves.
The absurdity of this proposition flows from the underlying dualism it expresses. Not only does it ascribe greater power to humanity that we in fact possessphysical and biological nature will surely survive in rubric some form or another long after we ourselves have gone the every person, way of all fleshbut in the end it offers us little more than a self-defeating counsel of despair. The tautology gives us no way out: if wild nature is the only thing worth saving, and if our mere presence destroys it, then the advanced placement essay rubric, sole solution to our own unnaturalness, the vaughan williams essays writings, only way to protect sacred wilderness from profane humanity, would seem to be suicide. It is not a proposition that seems likely to produce very positive or practical results. And yet radical environmentalists and deep ecologists all too frequently come close to accepting this premise as a first principle. When they express, for advanced, instance, the popular notion that our environmental problems began with the invention of vaughan williams essays, agriculture, they push the human fall from natural grace so far back into the past that all of advanced placement essay rubric, civilized history becomes a tale of ecological declension. Earth First! founder Dave Foreman captures the familiar parable succinctly when he writes, Before agriculture was midwifed in the Middle East, humans were in the wilderness. We had no concept of person is unique, “wilderness” because everything was wilderness and we were a part of it. But with irrigation ditches, crop surpluses, and permanent villages, we became apart from the natural world. Between the wilderness that created us and the civilization created by us grew an ever-widening rift. Advanced Placement Essay! (32)
In this view the write an essay on unemployment in nigeria, farm becomes the first and advanced essay rubric most important battlefield in the long war against paper wild nature, and all else follows in its wake. From such a starting place, it is hard not to reach the conclusion that the only way human beings can hope to advanced placement, live naturally on earth is to follow the hunter-gatherers back into a wilderness Eden and abandon virtually everything that civilization has given us. It may indeed turn out that civilization will end in ecological collapse or nuclear disaster, whereupon one might expect to find any human survivors returning to a way of life closer to that celebrated by Foreman and his followers. For most of us, though, such a debacle would be cause for regret, a sign that humanity had failed to fulfill its own promise and failed to honor its own highest valuesincluding those of the deep ecologists. In offering wilderness as the ultimate hunter-gatherer alternative to civilization, Foreman reproduces an extreme but still easily recognizable version of the myth of frontier primitivism. When he writes of his fellow Earth Firsters that “we believe we must return to being animal, to glorying in our sweat, hormones, tears, and blood” and that “we struggle against the modern compulsion to become dull, passionless androids,” he is following in the footsteps of person, Owen Wister. (33) Although his arguments give primacy to defending biodiversity and advanced placement the autonomy of wild nature, his prose becomes most passionate when he speaks of preserving “the wilderness experience.” His own ideal “Big Outside” bears an uncanny resemblance to that of the frontier myth: wide open spaces and virgin land with no trails, no signs, no facilities, no maps, no guides, no rescues, no modern equipment. An Essay On Unemployment! Tellingly, it is a land where hardy travelers can support themselves by hunting with “primitive weapons (bow and placement essay arrow, atlatl, knife, sharp rock).” (34) Foreman claims that “the primary value of every person, wilderness is not as a proving ground for advanced rubric, young Huck Finns and Annie Oakleys,” but his heart is do i my college application about with Huck and Annie all the same. Advanced Placement Essay Rubric! He admits that “preserving a quality wilderness experience for the human visitor, letting her or him flex Paleolithic muscles or seek visions, remains a tremendously important secondary purpose.” (35) Just so does Teddy Roosevelt’s rough rider live on in the greener garb of a new age.
However much one may be attracted to on unemployment, such a vision, it entails problematic consequences. Advanced Placement Essay Rubric! For one, it makes wilderness the locus for an epic struggle between malign civilization and flowchart benign nature, compared with which all other social, political, and essay moral concerns seem trivial. Do I Write My College Application About! Foreman writes, “The preservation of wildness and native diversity is the most important issue. Issues directly affecting only advanced rubric, humans pale in comparison.” (36) Presumably so do any environmental problems whose victims are mainly people, for cloning humans, such problems usually surface in landscapes that have already “fallen” and are no longer wild. This would seem to exclude from the radical environmentalist agenda problems of occupational health and safety in industrial settings, problems of toxic waste exposure on “unnatural” urban and agricultural sites, problems of poor children poisoned by lead exposure in the inner city, problems of famine and poverty and human suffering in the “overpopulated” places of the earthproblems, in essay rubric short, of environmental justice.
If we set too high a stock on wilderness, too many other corners of the earth become less than natural and every person too many other people become less than human, thereby giving us permission not to care much about their suffering or their fate. It is no accident that these supposedly inconsequential environmental problems affect mainly poor people, for the long affiliation between wilderness and wealth means that the advanced placement, only poor people who count when wilderness is the issue are hunter-gatherers, who presumably do not consider themselves to be poor in the first place. The dualism at the heart of wilderness encourages its advocates to person is unique, conceive of its protection as a crude conflict between the “human” and the “nonhuman”or, more often, between those who value the nonhuman and those who do not. This in turn tempts one to ignore crucial differences among humans and the complex cultural and historical reasons why different peoples may feel very differently about the meaning of wilderness. Why, for instance, is the ” wilderness experience” so often conceived as a form of recreation best enjoyed by those whose class privileges give them the time and resources to leave their jobs behind and “get away from it all?” Why does the placement essay, protection of wilderness so often seem to pit urban recreationists against rural people who actually earn their living from the land (excepting those who sell goods and humans services to the tourists themselves)?
Why in advanced the debates about pristine natural areas are “primitive” peoples idealized, even sentimentalized, until the moment they do something unprimitive, modern, and unnatural, and nursing critique thereby fall from environmental grace? What are the advanced placement essay, consequences of a wilderness ideology that devalues productive labor and the very concrete knowledge that comes from working the land with one’s own hands? (37) All of these questions imply conflicts among different groups of people, conflicts that are obscured behind the deceptive clarity of write, “human” vs. “nonhuman.” If in essay rubric answering these knotty questions we resort to so simplistic an opposition, we are almost certain to ignore the very subtleties and essays complexities we need to understand. But the most troubling cultural baggage that accompanies the celebration of wilderness has less to do with remote rain forests and peoples than with the ways we think about essay, ourselveswe American environmentalists who quite rightly worry about the future of the earth and the threats we pose to the natural world. Every Essays! Idealizing a distant wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in which we actually live, the landscape that for better or worse we call home. Most of advanced, our most serious environmental problems start right here, at home, and write on unemployment if we are to solve those problems, we need an advanced rubric, environmental ethic that will tell us as much about using nature as about not using it. The wilderness dualism tends to cast any use as abuse, and thereby denies us a middle ground in which responsible use and non-use might attain some kind of balanced, sustainable relationship. My own belief is that only by williams essays writings, exploring this middle ground will we learn ways of advanced essay rubric, imagining a better world for all of us: humans and nonhumans, rich people and poor, women and men, First Worlders and Third Worlders, white folks and people of color, consumers and producersa world better for an essay, humanity in essay rubric all of its diversity and for all the essay, rest of nature too. The middle ground is where we actually live. It is where weall of us, in our different places and waysmake our homes. That is why, when I think of the placement rubric, times I myself have come closest to experiencing what I might call the humans essay, sacred in nature, I often find myself remembering wild places much closer to home.
I think, for instance, of placement, a small pond near my house where water bubbles up from what application essay, limestone springs to feed a series of pools that rarely freeze in winter and so play home to waterfowl that stay here for the protective warmth even on the coldest of winter days, gliding silently through streaming mists as the snow falls from gray February skies. I think of a November evening long ago when I found myself on a Wisconsin hilltop in rain and placement rubric dense fog, only to have the setting sun break through the clouds to cast an otherworldly golden light on the misty farms and woodlands below, a scene so unexpected and vaughan williams essays joyous that I lingered past dusk so as not to miss any part of the advanced placement essay rubric, gift that had come my way. And I think perhaps most especially of the blown-out, bankrupt farm in the sand country of central Wisconsin where Aldo Leopold and his family tried one of the first American experiments in vaughan essays ecological restoration, turning ravaged and infertile soil into carefully tended ground where the human and the nonhuman could exist side by side in relative harmony. What I celebrate about such places is not just their wildness, though that certainly is among their most important qualities; what I celebrate even more is that they remind us of the wildness in advanced essay our own backyards, of the nature that is all around us if only my college application essay, we have eyes to see it. Indeed, my principal objection to wilderness is that it may teach us to be dismissive or even contemptuous of such humble places and experiences. Without our quite realizing it, wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others. Most of us, I suspect, still follow the conventions of the essay rubric, romantic sublime in every person is unique finding the mountaintop more glorious than the plains, the ancient forest nobler than the rubric, grasslands, the write an essay on unemployment, mighty canyon more inspiring than the humble marsh. Even John Muir, in advanced essay rubric arguing against those who sought to dam his beloved Hetch Hetchy valley in the Sierra Nevada, argued for every, alternative dam sites in the gentler valleys of the advanced placement essay, foothillsa preference that had nothing to do with nature and everything with the cultural traditions of the sublime. (38) Just as problematically, our frontier traditions have encouraged Americans to cloning, define “true” wilderness as requiring very large tracts of placement rubric, roadless landwhat Dave Foreman calls “The Big Outside.” Leaving aside the legitimate empirical question in conservation biology of how large a tract of what do i write, land must be before a given species can reproduce on it, the emphasis on big wilderness reflects a romantic frontier belief that one hasn’t really gotten away from civilization unless one can go for days at a time without encountering another human being. By teaching us to fetishize sublime places and wide open country, these peculiarly American ways of advanced essay, thinking about wilderness encourage us to adopt too high a standard for humans, what counts as “natural.” If it isn’t hundreds of square miles big, if it doesn’t give us God’s eye views or grand vistas, if it doesn’t permit us the illusion that we are alone on advanced essay, the planet, then it really isn’t natural.
It’s too small, too plain, or too crowded to be authentically wild. In critiquing wilderness as I have done in this essay, I’m forced to confront my own deep ambivalence about its meaning for modern environmentalism. On the one hand, one of on unemployment in nigeria, my own most important environmental ethics is that people should always be conscious that they are part of the natural world, inextricably tied to the ecological systems that sustain their lives. Any way of looking at nature that encourages us to believe we are separate from natureas wilderness tends to essay, dois likely to reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. On the other hand, I also think it no less crucial for cloning humans, us to recognize and honor nonhuman nature as a world we did not create, a world with its own independent, nonhuman reasons for being as it is.
The autonomy of nonhuman nature seems to advanced, me an indispensable corrective to human arrogance. Any way of looking at nature that helps us rememberas wilderness also tends to dothat the interests of essay writing, people are not necessarily identical to those of every other creature or of the earth itself is advanced placement rubric likely to foster responsible behavior. To the extent that wilderness has served as an article critique, important vehicle for articulating deep moral values regarding our obligations and responsibilities to the nonhuman world, I would not want to jettison the contributions it has made to our culture’s ways of thinking about nature. If the core problem of wilderness is advanced rubric that it distances us too much from the very things it teaches us to vaughan essays writings, value, then the essay, question we must ask is what it can tell us about home, the place where we actually live. How can we take the essay writing, positive values we associate with wilderness and bring them closer to advanced placement rubric, home? I think the in nigeria, answer to this question will come by advanced placement rubric, broadening our sense of the essay writing, otherness that wilderness seeks to define and protect. In reminding us of the world we did not make, wilderness can teach profound feelings of humility and respect as we confront our fellow beings and the earth itself.
Feelings like these argue for the importance of self-awareness and self criticism as we exercise our own ability to transform the essay rubric, world around us, helping us set responsible limits to human masterywhich without such limits too easily becomes human hubris. Wilderness is the write essay, place where, symbolically at least, we try to withhold our power to dominate. Advanced Placement! Wallace Stegner once wrote of. the special human mark, the special record of human passage, that distinguishes man from all other species. It is rare enough among men, impossible to any other form of life. It is simply the every is unique, deliberate and essay chosen refusal to make any marks at all. We are the most dangerous species of humans essay, life on the planet, and every other species, even the earth itself, has cause to fear our power to rubric, exterminate. Writing Flowchart! But we are also the only species which, when it chooses to advanced placement rubric, do so, will go to great effort to save what it might destroy. (39) The myth of wilderness, which Stegner knowingly reproduces in these remarks, is that we can somehow leave nature untouched by our passage. What My College Essay About! By now it should be clear that this for the most part is an illusion.
But Stegner’s deeper message then becomes all the more compelling. If living in history means that we cannot help leaving marks on a fallen world, then the dilemma we face is to decide what kinds of marks we wish to leave. It is just here that our cultural traditions of wilderness remain so important. Advanced Placement Essay Rubric! In the what do i write application essay, broadest sense, wilderness teaches us to ask whether the Other must always bend to our will, and, if not, under what circumstances it should be allowed to flourish without our intervention. Placement Rubric! This is surely a question worth asking about everything we do, and not just about the essay flowchart, natural world. When we visit a wilderness area, we find ourselves surrounded by advanced placement essay, plants and animals and cloning essay physical landscapes whose otherness compels our attention. In forcing us to acknowledge that they are not of our making, that they have little or no need of our continued existence, they recall for us a creation far greater than our own. Advanced! In the wilderness, we need no reminder that a tree has its own reasons for being, quite apart from us. The same is less true in the gardens we plant and tend ourselves: there it is far easier to forget the otherness of the tree. (40) Indeed, one could almost measure wilderness by the extent to which our recognition of its otherness requires a conscious, willed act on our part.
The romantic legacy means that wilderness is more a state of mind than a fact of essay flowchart, nature, and the state of mind that today most defines wilderness is wonder. The striking power of the wild is that wonder in the face of it requires no act of will, but forces itself upon usas an expression of the advanced placement, nonhuman world experienced through the lens of nursing article, our cultural historyas proof that ours is not the advanced, only presence in the universe. Wilderness gets us into trouble only if we imagine that this experience of wonder and write an essay on unemployment in nigeria otherness is limited to the remote corners of the planet, or that it somehow depends on pristine landscapes we ourselves do not inhabit. Nothing could be more misleading. Advanced Essay Rubric! The tree in the garden is in reality no less other, no less worthy of on unemployment, our wonder and respect, than the tree in advanced essay an ancient forest that has never known an ax or a saweven though the tree in the forest reflects a more intricate web of ecological relationships. The tree in the garden could easily have sprung from the same seed as the tree in the forest, and we can claim only its location and cloning humans perhaps its form as our own. Advanced Placement! Both trees stand apart from us; both share our common world. The special power of the tree in the wilderness is to remind us of this fact. It can teach us to humans, recognize the wildness we did not see in the tree we planted in our own backyard. By seeing the otherness in placement that which is most unfamiliar, we can learn to see it too in that which at first seemed merely ordinary. If wilderness can do thisif it can help us perceive and respect a nature we had forgotten to recognize as naturalthen it will become part of the solution to our environmental dilemmas rather than part of the problem.
This will only happen, however, if we abandon the dualism that sees the tree in the garden as artificialcompletely fallen and unnaturaland the tree in the wilderness as naturalcompletely pristine and wild. Both trees in some ultimate sense are wild; both in a practical sense now depend on our management and care. We are responsible for every person, both, even though we can claim credit for essay, neither. Our challenge is to stop thinking of such things according to set of bipolar moral scales in humans essay which the human and the nonhuman, the unnatural and the natural, the fallen and the unfallen, serve as our conceptual map for understanding and valuing the world. Instead, we need to embrace the full continuum of a natural landscape that is also cultural, in which the city, the suburb, the advanced essay, pastoral, and an essay the wild each has its proper place, which we permit ourselves to celebrate without needlessly denigrating the others. Rubric! We need to williams essays, honor the Other within and the Other next door as much as we do the exotic Other that lives far awaya lesson that applies as much to people as it does to (other) natural things. In particular, we need to discover a common middle ground in which all of these things, from the advanced placement essay, city to the wilderness, can somehow be encompassed in the word “home.” Home, after all, is the essay writing, place where finally we make our living. Advanced Placement Essay! It is the place for which we take responsibility, the place we try to sustain so we can pass on nursing, what is advanced placement best in it (and in ourselves) to our children. (41) The task of making a home in what write my college essay nature is what Wendell Berry has called “the forever unfinished lifework of our species.” “The only thing we have to advanced placement, preserve nature with” he writes, “is culture; the only thing we have to preserve wildness with is domesticity.” (42) Calling a place home inevitably means that we will use the nature we find in williams essays it, for there can be no escape from manipulating and working and even killing some parts of nature to make our home.
But if we acknowledge the advanced placement rubric, autonomy and otherness of the things and vaughan creatures around usan autonomy our culture has taught us to label with the word “wild”then we will at least think carefully about the rubric, uses to which we put them, and vaughan essays even ask if we should use them at advanced essay rubric all. An Essay! just so can we still join Thoreau in declaring that “in Wildness is the placement essay, preservation of the World,” for wildness (as opposed to wilderness) can be found anywhere: in the seemingly tame fields and woodlots of Massachusetts, in the cracks of flowchart, a Manhattan sidewalk, even in the cells of our own bodies. As Gary Snyder has wisely said, “A person with a clear heart and advanced open mind can experience the wilderness anywhere on earth. It is a quality of one’s own consciousness. The planet is person a wild place and always will be.” (43) To think ourselves capable of causing “the end of nature” is an act of great hubris, for it means forgetting the wildness that dwells everywhere within and around us. Learning to honor the rubric, wildlearning to remember and acknowledge the autonomy of the othermeans striving for critical self-consciousness in all of our actions. Every Person! It means the deep reflection and respect must accompany each act of advanced essay rubric, use, and means too that we must always consider the possibility of non-use.
It means looking at the part of nature we intend to turn toward our own ends and asking whether we can use it again and again and againsustainablywithout its being diminished in the process. It means never imagining that we can flee into a mythical wilderness to escape history and nursing article the obligation to take responsibility for our own actions that history inescapably entails. Most of all, it means practicing remembrance and gratitude, for thanksgiving is the simplest and most basic of ways for us to advanced placement essay, recollect the nature, the culture, and the history that have come together to make the world as we know it. Every Is Unique Essays! If wildness can stop being (just) out there and start being (also) in here, if it can start being as humane as it is natural, then perhaps we can get on with the unending task of struggling to live rightly in the worldnot just in the garden, not just in the wilderness, but in the home that encompasses them both. 1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” The Works of Thoreau, ed. Henry S. Canby (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1937), p. 672. 2. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. Placement! “wilderness”; see also Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), pp. 1-22; and Max Oelsehlaeger, The Idea of essay flowchart, Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ.
Press, 1991). 3. Advanced Placement Rubric! Exodus 32:1-35, KJV. 4. Exodus 14:3, KJV. 5. Mark 1:12-13, KJV; see also Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13. 6. John Milton, “Paradise Lost,” John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. Williams Essays! Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey Press, 1957), pp. 280-81, lines 131-42. 7. I have discussed this theme at length in “Landscapes of Abundance and Scarcity,” in Clyde Milner et al., eds., Oxford History of the American West (New York: Oxford Univ.
Press, 1994), pp. 603-37. The classic work on the Puritan “city on placement rubric, a hill” in colonial New England is Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1956). 8. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), reprinted in John Muir: The Eight Wilderness Discovery Books (London, England: Diadem; Seattle, Washington: Mountaineers, 1992), P. Write An Essay On Unemployment In Nigeria! 211. 9. Alfred Route, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd ed. (Lincoln: Univ. of advanced essay, Nebraska Press, 1987) 10. John Muir, The Yosemite (1912), reprinted in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, P. 715.
11. Scholarly work on the sublime is extensive. Among the most important studies are Samuel Monk, The Sublime: A Study of cloning humans, Critical Theories in XVIII-Century England (New York: Modern Language Association, 1935); Basil Willey, The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies on the Idea of advanced placement essay, Nature in williams essays the Thought of the Period (London, England: Chattus and Windus, 1949); Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press, 1959); Thomas Weiskel, The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkin.s Univ. Press, 1976); Barbara Novak, Nature and Culture: American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, ig8o). 12. The classic works are Immanuel Kant, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), trans.
John T. Goldthwait (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 196o); Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, ed. James T. Boulton (1958; Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1968); William Gilpin, Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; on Picturesque Travel; and on Sketching Landscape (London, England, 1803) 13. See Ann Vileisis, “From Wastelands to Wetlands” (unpublished senior essay, Yale Univ., 1989); Route, National Parks. 14. William Wordsworth, “The Prelude,” bk. 6, in Thomas Hutchinson, ed., The Poetical Works of Wordsworth (London, England: Oxford Umv. Press, 1936), p. 536. 15. Henry David Thoreau, The Maine Woods (1864), in Henry David Thoreau (New York: Library of America, 1985), pp.
640-41. 16. Exodus 16:10, KJV. 17. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra, p. 238. Part of the difference between these descriptions may reflect the landscapes the three authors were describing.
In his essay, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Kenneth Olwig notes that early American travelers experienced Yosemite as much through the aesthetic tropes of the pastoral as through those of the sublime. The ease with which Muir celebrated the gentle divinity of the Sierra Nevada had much to do with the pastoral qualities of the landscape he described. See Olwig, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, ed. William Cronon (New York: W. W. Norton CO, 1995), PP 379-408. 18. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Henry Holt, 1920), pp. 37-38.
19. Richard Slotkin has made this observation the linchpin of his comparison between Turner and Theodore Roosevelt. See Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Atheneum, 1992), pp. 29-62. 20. Placement Rubric! Owen Wister, The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains (New York: Macmillan, 1902), pp. viii-ix. 21. Theodore Roosevelt, Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (1888; NewYork: Century, 1899), p. 100. 22.
Wister, Virginian, p. Paper! x. 23. On the many problems with this view, see William M. Denevan, “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (1992): 369-85. 24. Louis Warren, “The Hunter’s Came: Poachers, Conservationists, and Twentieth-Century America” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994). 25. Placement Essay Rubric! Wilderness also lies at the foundation of the Clementsian ecological concept of the climax.
See Michael Barbour, “Ecological Fragmentation in the Fifties” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 233-55, and William Cronon, “Introduction: In Search of Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 23-56. 26. On the every person is unique, many paradoxes of having to advanced placement rubric, manage wilderness in order to maintain the appearance of an unmanaged landscape, see John C. Hendee et al., Wilderness Management, USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1365 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978). 27. See James Proctor, “Whose Nature?: The Contested Moral Terrain of Ancient Forests,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 269-97.
28. See Candace Slater, “Amazonia as Edenic Narrative,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 114-31. This argument has been powerfully made by Ramachandra Cuba, “Radical American Environmentalism: A Third World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11 (1989): 71-83. 29. Bill McKibben, The End of Nature (New York: Random House, 1989). 30. McKibben, The End of Nature, p. 49. 31.
Even comparable extinction rates have occurred before, though we surely would not want to writing flowchart, emulate the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions as a model for responsible manipulation of the biosphere! 32. Dave Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior (New York: Harmony Books, 1991, p. 69 (italics in original). For a sampling of other writings by followers of deep ecology and/or Earth First!, see Michael Tobias, ed., Deep Ecology (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1984); Bill Devall and George Sessions, Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1985); Michael Tobias, After Eden: History, Ecology, and Conscience (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1985); Dave Foreman and placement rubric Bill Haywood, eds., Ecodefense: A Field Guide to cloning, Monkey Wrenching, 2nd ed. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1987); Bill Devall, Simple in Means, Rich in advanced Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1988); Steve Chase, ed., Defending the Earth: A Dialogue between Murray Bookchin Dave Foreman (Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press, 1991); John Davis, ed., The Earth First, Reader. Ten Years of what application essay about, Radical Environmentalism (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1991); Bill Devall, Living Richly in an Age of Limits: Using Deep Ecology for an Abundant Life (Salt Lake, City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1993); Michael E. Zimmerman ct al., eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993). Advanced Placement Essay! A useful survey of the different factions of radical environmentalism can be found in Carolyn Merchant, Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World (New York: Routledge, 1992). For a very interesting critique of this literature (first published in do i write the anarchist newspaper Fifth Estate), see George Bradford, How Deep is Deep Ecology? (Ojai, California: Times Change Press, 1989). 33.
Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 34. 34. Foreman, Confessions of an advanced placement, Eco-Warrior, p. 65. See also Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke, The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the what do i write my college application about, Big Wilderness Areas of the U.S. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1989). 35. Placement Essay Rubric! Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, p. 63. 36. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 27. 37.
See Richard White, ”’Are You an essay flowchart, Environmentalist or Do You Work for a Living?’: Work and Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 171-85. Compare its analysis of environmental knowledge through work with Jennifer Price’s analysis of environmental knowledge through consumption. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that the wilderness experience is essentially consumerist in its impulses. 38. Compare with Muir, Yosemite, in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, p. Placement Essay Rubric! 714. 39. Wallace Stegner, ed., This Is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and Its Magic Rivers (New York: Knopf, 1955), P. 17 (italics in original). 40. Katherine Hayles helped me see the importance of cloning essay, this argument. 41.
Analogous arguments can be found in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, “Beyond Wilderness,” A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1994), pp. 71-91, and in the wonderful collection of placement essay, essays by Michael Pollan, Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991). 42. Wendell Berry, Home Economics (San Francisco, California: North Point, 1987), pp. 138, 143. 43. Gary Snyder, quoted in New York Times, “Week in every person is unique Review,” 18 September 1994, p. 6. Excerpted from Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, edited by William Cronon. Copyright 1995 by William Cronon.
Reprinted with permission of the publisher, W. W. Norton Company, Inc. Copyright William Cronon. (Please do not reprint without permission; links to advanced essay, this website are fine.)
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Yahoo Board Member Is the First to Fall in CEO's Resume Scandal. Someone had to take a fall in the scandal over Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson's faked company bio, and the first to go is essay rubric, Patti Hart, the Yahoo director who led the search that got Thompson hired in the first place. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. This article is from the archive of our partner . Someone had to cloning take a fall in the scandal over Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson's faked company bio, and the first to go is Patti Hart, the Yahoo director who led the search that got Thompson hired in the first place. Hart's already got a job as CEO of International Game Technology, so it's not like she's going to be unemployed. Advanced Rubric! She's just resigning from Yahoo's board because of her clearly botched vetting of humans [Thompson's] academic record, AllthingsD reports. Apparently, said sources, her own board asking her to remove herself from the advanced placement essay Yahoo mess and focus on the company she actually runs. But Thompson is an essay in nigeria, saying he isn't going anywhere. On Monday he apologized for the distraction surrounding a computer science degree on placement, his company bio that he never received.
But he didn't apologize for the inaccuracy, ATD notes, and he didn't make any noise about leaving. In his memo, Thompson sounded like a man determined to stick around so he can carry out a turnaround plan that so far has focused on cutting costs, the Associated Press reported. Shedding a board member is a start for the company, but shareholder Daniel Loeb, who manages the fund Third Point LLC, which first pointed out the discrepancy in on unemployment in nigeria Thompson's bio, probably won't be satisfied with Hart's resignation as the advanced essay rubric whole of what my college application Yahoo's response. Third Point had set a noon Monday deadline for Yahoo to fire Thompson, AP reports, and is now looking into advanced essay rubric, the background of six of Yahoo's directors. Hart's departure may be just the beginning. This article is from the archive of our partner The Wire . Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the writings wake of advanced placement Las Vegas, only one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Tim Piazza fought for his life for 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911.
By then, it was too late. At about on unemployment, 3 p.m. on Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at Penn State University, arrived at Hershey Medical Center by helicopter. Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of raging good health that only teenagers enjoy. Advanced Essay! He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much. Writing Flowchart! Now he had a lacerated spleen, an advanced rubric abdomen full of vaughan williams blood, and multiple traumatic brain injuries. He had fallen down a flight of stairs during a hazing event at his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge “looked fucking dead.” Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at placement essay, Hershey, but it was too late. He died early the next morning. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting. Write! Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape.
For 20 years, it had been hiring the greats of modernism to erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of its new facilities—the Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valley—tried an advanced essay experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of five employees, allowing them to work from home. The idea of williams essays writings telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely. The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned. Advanced Essay! In 2009, an IBM report boasted that “40 percent of IBM’s some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all.” More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services.
Leading by example was good marketing. The president’s call for a Senate investigation into news outlets for write on unemployment, publishing unflattering stories about him is an attack on freedom of the press. Frustrated with a set of damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson—including the nugget that Tillerson called him a “moron” (perhaps with an placement R-rated modifier)—the president offered a new suggestion on Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the Senate Intel Committee looking into the Fake News Networks in every essays OUR country to see why so much of our news is just made up-FAKE! Trump had been relatively quiet on placement essay, Twitter for a few days, following the massacre in Las Vegas and his trip to hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the Tillerson stories on williams essays, Wednesday set off a new tirade of tweets against the press.
Most of essay them are the do i write my college essay standard “Fake news!” variety—never mind that there have been stories of Trump-Tillerson tension for months, and that multiple outlets have confirmed the “moron” anecdote—but the president is calling for something different here. Placement Essay! He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to cloning bear on news reports that are, from all indications save Tillerson’s non-denial denial, entirely accurate. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of advanced Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. On Unemployment In Nigeria! One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the advanced placement rubric server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the vaughan williams essays writings country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for placement rubric, how high the counter could go.
They picked a number in the millions. What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. On Thursday, The New York Times published an article reporting “decades of sexual harassment accusations” against vaughan williams writings the mogul. Weinstein responded—with a statement that perfectly captures this chaotic moment in American culture. The apologies, taken together, read like poetry—or, perhaps, an essay excruciatingly bad game of Mad Libs. This was a wake-up call. I’m so sorry. It’s not okay. Vaughan Writings! I have more work to do. I’ll do better.
Please help me do better. I’m sorry. Advanced Rubric! I’m very sorry. I’m so very sorry. I really do respect women. The latest person to add his own verses to this collective document of the way we live now—the latest man to apologize for sexual misconduct revealed and regretted—is Harvey Weinstein.
Hollywood’s extremely powerful king (and queen)maker, The New York Times reported on flowchart, Thursday, has been repeatedly accused of sexual harassment and unwanted physical contact by advanced essay women who have worked with him at both Miramax and vaughan, the Weinstein Company. “An investigation by The New York Times ,” Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey write, “found previously undisclosed allegations against advanced placement essay Mr. Weinstein stretching over nearly three decades, documented through interviews with current and former employees and film industry workers, as well as legal records, emails, and internal documents from the businesses he has run.” How Will Democrats Respond to the Harvey Weinstein Allegations? The film mogul has been a major donor and fundraiser for Democratic causes and candidates, including Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and several possible 2020 candidates. A devastating New York Times story on Thursday, outlining a long history of sexual-harassment accusations about film mogul Harvey Weinstein, raises a series of difficult questions—for Weinstein; for the colleagues and employees around him; and for the film business writ large. But it also poses awkward questions for the Democratic Party, for which Weinstein has been a prolific fundraiser and nursing critique paper, donor.
Weinstein has written many checks over the years, hosted fundraisers for Hillary Clinton and placement, Barack Obama, and rubbed elbows with leading Democrats. The accusations against him come at what write application about, a time when American society is somewhat less tolerant of such behavior by powerful men, but also when the president of the United States has been recorded boasting privately about committing sexual assaults, in an incident that brought widespread Democratic condemnation. The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to advanced placement state the obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of cloning essay whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them.
Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it. Rubric! Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Critique Paper! Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. Essay Rubric! No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the writing awful inheritance explicit. Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the bulk of The Remains of the Day in four weeks.
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Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out rubric partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on write in nigeria, the brink of a mental-health crisis. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in Houston, Texas. She answered her phone—she’s had an iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up. We chatted about her favorite songs and TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. “We go to essay the mall,” she said. “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in humans essay the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. “We’ll go with my mom and advanced essay, brothers and walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to check in every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?
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Unless it’s absolutely necessary in advanced placement essay your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is do i essay, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to placement, one page is writing, a good way to force yourself to do this. Essay. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for nursing article paper cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the advanced placement essay rubric, most important details on nursing critique paper that document, and advanced placement then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in essay writing order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.
Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Advanced Placement. You can use a different font or typeface for do i application essay about your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and advanced keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out write an essay on unemployment in nigeria from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Advanced Essay. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in write an essay in nigeria the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to advanced placement, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to humans, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on advanced placement rubric the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in paper this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of essay time on nursing each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in placement as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!
13. Humans. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the rubric, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to humans essay, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the advanced essay rubric, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. Critique Paper. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Advanced Essay Rubric. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and write then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the placement essay, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job.
No matter how long you’ve been in essay a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to advanced essay rubric, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to williams writings, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an rubric, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Williams Essays. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?
By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to advanced, picture the cloning humans, level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Advanced Rubric. People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to every is unique, your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the placement essay rubric, direct benefit the essay, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out essay these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on is unique essays a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.
Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the placement essay rubric, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in essay flowchart a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.
If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to placement essay rubric, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and nursing article critique make sure you’ve included them in advanced rubric your bullet points. Not only is write an essay on unemployment, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the placement essay rubric, job description into essays, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.
What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and advanced essay hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Every. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to advanced rubric, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. An Essay On Unemployment. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to placement rubric, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Person Is Unique. Include Continuing or Online Education. Advanced Essay. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the article paper, relevant skills you have for advanced a position, including tech skills like HTML and write an essay in nigeria Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.
Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to placement essay rubric, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. What Do I Application About. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out placement rubric one of cloning those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Placement. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the is unique, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in advanced placement essay rubric a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to person is unique essays, include them. Placement. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.
If you stayed at essays a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of essay rubric months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in essay an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the essay rubric, usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only vaughan (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to advanced placement essay, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for write an essay your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and advanced essay rubric accomplishments. What Essay. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on placement essay rubric your comeback resume. Vaughan Williams Essays. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).
While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to advanced essay rubric, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of write on unemployment typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to advanced essay rubric, take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to humans essay, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and placement essay Word, and humans essay then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and rubric send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to williams essays writings, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and placement essay make some updates. In Nigeria. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is advanced placement, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in write an essay on unemployment touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the Paper consistent and an essay in nigeria, compliant with your instructions. During the Revision Period the request for revision may be made at rubric any time. All revisions must be based on the original order instructions. If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an application for new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Furthermore, should you request a revision after the Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment.
We may require you to supply us with personal identifying information, and in nigeria, we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about you. By accepting these Terms and Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the advanced rubric, information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources. Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the article critique paper, order is advanced placement, authentic and that the cardholder is vaughan williams essays writings, aware of charges by placing a phone call to them, and in placement essay, certain cases by requesting some additional documents to flowchart, be submitted for verification to advanced essay rubric, our Risk Department. In order to ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is essay writing flowchart, vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers.
The Paper provided to you by englishessays.net remains our property and is the subject to copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions. The Paper is intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to placement rubric, engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on person essays, our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Placement Essay Rubric! Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to request the removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES.
Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to placement, same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information.
We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Vaughan! Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Advanced Placement Essay! Examples of humans essay automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of essay rubric Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include:
We may also obtain information about You from nursing article critique other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from advanced rubric third-party sources before initiating Your service. Writing! We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us;
To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about advanced placement essay rubric, current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and nursing article critique paper, property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of advanced placement essay fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. Person Is Unique! We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods.
You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. Placement! We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from article critique other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives.
We encourage You not to advanced, share Your password. Vaughan Williams! If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to advanced placement essay, third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to essays writings, third-party vendors and placement essay, partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in every is unique, the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in essay rubric, which such information could be transferred to critique, third-parties as a business asset in advanced placement rubric, the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is vaughan williams, reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and rubric, products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an person is unique essays emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.
We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Essays! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to advanced, this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by essay flowchart, Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. Essay! A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance.
With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the paper, sum to advanced placement, the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).