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College essay attention grabbers

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Best Small Business Accounting Software 2017. In our search for the best accounting software for small businesses, we looked for solutions that are affordable and easy to use. We also looked for college grabbers timesaving features that take the headache out of small business accounting, such as automated entries, invoicing, bill payment, expense reports, financial reports and reconciliation. Additionally, we looked for cloud-based software that syncs with bank accounts and point of sale (POS) systems, making it simple to perform advanced tasks, such as running financial reports and accepting payments. Our staff researched and does examine mean reviewed an extensive collection of programs and selected what we believe to be the best accounting software for different types of small businesses in 2017.

Here#39;s a roundup of our best picks and attention grabbers details about how we chose them. To help you find the right accounting software for your business, check out our Accounting Software Buyer#39;s Guide. Best Small Business Accounting Software: Intuit QuickBooks Online. Pass Along My Resume. Intuit QuickBooks Online offers a range of features for all types of small businesses. Attention Grabbers. This includes freelancers, consultants, online merchants, store and restaurant owners, service providers and more. Whether you#39;re just starting out, expanding or have an established business, QuickBooks Online is packed with basic and advanced features to meet your accounting needs. [Go here for a full review of thesis on domestic violence in india QuickBooks Online accounting software.] Best Accounting Software for Mac: Xero. Essay Attention Grabbers. Mac users often grapple with the issue of software that is stripped down or is less intuitive than their Windows counterpart. Xero#39;s cloud-based accounting software, which is does essays, available for both PC and essay attention grabbers Mac, is a full-featured solution that doesn#39;t compromise on features or ease of does mean use just because you#39;re using a Mac. It can help you save time and simplify accounting by college attention grabbers automating tasks and integrating with more than 500 apps.

Xero also comes with 24/7 email and on domestic in india live chat support and college attention outbound phone assistance at no extra cost. 500 Hundred Word Essay. [Go here for a full review of Xero accounting software.] Best Microbusiness Accounting Software: Zoho Books. Really small businesses need really simple accounting software. College Essay Attention Grabbers. Zoho Books offers all of the basic features microbusinesses need as well as advanced tools that grow with your business. Furthermore, compared with other accounting software for watermark really small businesses, Zoho Books has the best price for college essay attention grabbers all of its capabilities. [Go here for a full review of Zoho Books.] Best Mobile App for pass along my resume Small Business Accounting: FreshBooks. Most accounting software products have a mobile app, but not all apps are created equal. Of the accounting mobile apps we considered, FreshBooks wins for its ease of use, excellent customer service, and for offering all of the features small businesses need to attention grabbers manage their finances on the go. Fourdrinier Watermark. [Go here for college grabbers a full review of FreshBooks#39; accounting mobile app.] Best Free Small Business Accounting Software: Wave Accounting. Not all small businesses need the extra features and support provided with paid accounting services.

Wave Accounting offers free, cloud-based accounting software specifically designed for small businesses. On Domestic Violence In India. Unlike other free accounting software programs that limit capabilities, Wave Accounting offers a comprehensive set of essay grabbers accounting features without the monthly price tag. Examine Essays. [Go here for essay attention a full review of Wave Accounting.] To find the best accounting software for small businesses, we began by asking business owners which accounting software they use, what they love about it and what they think makes it a perfect accounting application. We also researched popular accounting software that frequently appeared on reputable review websites, top lists and business websites. We then created an extensive list of accounting software. It included software that we gathered from our research above as well as applications we were already familiar with and vendors who have previously pitched their software to us.

We narrowed down this list based on different use-case scenarios and contrast essay thesis a wide range of criteria, that we#39;ve listed in college essay detail below. Next, we evaluated each software by signing up for a business account and testing them ourselves. This first-hand experience helped us gain an pass my resume, understanding of how the features work and whether the programs are worth their price tags. It also helped us assess whether the software is as easy to use as each vendor claimed. To further inform our decisions, we contacted each vendor to measure the quality of their customer support.

Posing as small business owners in the market for college essay accounting software, we chatted with sales reps and extinction species essay customer service teams and asked a variety of college essay grabbers questions. This also helped clarify any concerns and issues we came across while researching and testing each product. As part of our research, we studied user reviews, watched tutorial videos and pass along my resume checked out customer resources offered by each vendor, such as knowledgebases, blogs and guides. In total, we ended up with nearly two dozen accounting software products on our list. College Grabbers. Only nine of those made it to our short list FreeAgent, FreshBooks, Intuit QuickBooks Online, OneUp, Quicken Home Business, Sage, Wave Accounting, Xero, and Zoho Books. Here are the criteria we used to evaluate each software: Cost Ease of 500 hundred essay use Timesaving features Reporting capabilities Mobile access and mobile features Accountant access Service limitations, including the number of attention customers, invoices, users, transactions packages allow Customer service Additional services like credit card processing, tax preparation and payroll services Integration with third-party apps.

Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on mean, accounting software for your business? Use the questionnaire below, and our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the information and college grabbers quotes you need: Here#39;s a full list of accounting software vendors and a summary of compare thesis what each company says it offers. This alphabetical list also includes our best picks. AccountEdge Pro AccountEdge Pro does more than accounting. It features DIY or outsourced payroll services so you can link accounting to payroll, pay your employees (including direct deposit), track time and prepare payroll taxes.

Retailers will also enjoy its inventory management suite, which integrates with the popular ecommerce platform Shopify. AccountEdge Pro is available on Mac and college grabbers Windows. Mobile and cloud companion apps are also available. accountedge.com/pro. Bottom Line Accounting Bottom Line Accounting is desktop accounting software for PCs. The software is module-based, allowing you to customize it to suit your business#39;s needs. The basic kit has general ledger, bank reconciliation and does mean essays financial utilities modules. You can also add modules for accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory and point of sale, purchase order and payroll. bottomlineaccounting.net/ ClearBooks ClearBooks is cloud-based accounting software with a full set A/R and A/P features.

It connects to your business bank accounts, and college essay grabbers you can use it to send quotes and invoices, manage vendors, create purchase orders, pay bills, and run reports. It can be used by species small businesses in any country, but U.S. users may find the unchangeable U.K. date format confusing. College Essay Attention. clearbooks.co.uk. FreeAgent Unlike many accounting software products that limit transactions unless you purchase a more expensive package, FreeAgent is a cloud-based program that supports unlimited users, clients and invoices for one monthly price. It also has a project management feature to does mean help you keep track of billable hours and expenses. FreeAgent is best for freelancers, consultants and other project-based businesses. Attention Grabbers. freeagent.com. *FreshBooks A favorite among small business owners, FreshBooks offers one of the most user-friendly cloud-based accounting applications for fourdrinier watermark nonaccountants.

It#39;s also our top pick for the best accounting app for iOS and Android devices because of the wide range of essay accounting tasks you can perform on the go, such as invoicing, time tracking and managing expenses. Read our full review here. freshbooks.com. GnuCash Free Accounting Software GnuCash is free, Linux-based accounting software that has all the features small businesses need to manage their finances: income and expense tracking, double-entry accounting, financial reports and calculations, scheduled transactions, statement reconciliation, and more. 500 Hundred. It can also track bank accounts, stocks, bonds and mutual funds. In addition to Linux, GnuCash is also available for essay grabbers Windows, Mac and thesis Android devices. gnucash.org. GoDaddy Online Bookkeeping Formerly Outright, Go Daddy Online Bookkeeping imports data from your bank, credit cards and sales accounts such as Amazon and essay attention grabbers Etsy. It categorizes your sales and expenses, then uses this data to prepare your Schedule C taxes.

You can also use this software to create, send and track invoices, accept invoice payments online and send late payment reminders. Watermark Paper. outright.com. Harvest Harvest makes it easy to bill clients and get paid. Grabbers. It offers a simple platform that lets you easily track time and turn billable hours into professional invoices. Violence. You can also log expenses, take snapshots of attention grabbers receipts, generate reports and connect the app to Google Apps, Salesforce, Basecamp and more than 50 other business programs. getharvest.com. Hiveage Need customized invoicing software for your freelance or other small business? Hiveage allows you create estimates and mean quotes, then convert them to essay grabbers invoices after client acceptance. The software tracks time, expenses and mileage. It also allows you to accept online payments, including recurring payments such as subscriptions. All plans support unlimited clients and watermark paper invoices. hiveage.com. *Intuit QuickBooks Online Our pick for the best accounting software, Intuit#39;s QuickBooks Online works for all types of small businesses.

With three small business plans, plus a self-employed plan for freelancers and independent contractors, it#39;s a top choice for your business whether you#39;re just starting out and need basic accounting features or you#39;re a growing or established business and need software with advanced accounting capabilities. Read our full review here. quickbooks.com. Kashoo Kashoo#39;s online accounting software can handle your invoicing, expense tracking and double-entry bookkeeping on your computer, iPhone and college attention iPad. It connects to your bank accounts, generates reports, and offers collaboration features, so you can share your books with your bookkeeper, accountant and examine essays business partners. kashoo.com. Less Accounting Just as its name suggests, Less Accounting can help you spend less time managing your finances and more time running your business. It automates tasks such as data entry and billing, so you spend minutes instead of hours on your accounting. Bookkeeping services are also available. Grabbers. lessaccounting.com. OneUp OneUp is robust cloud-based accounting software that includes CRM and inventory tools. Your sales team can use the does essays software to follow up with leads and create quotes and essay attention sales orders, which can then be converted to fourdrinier invoices with a single click. College Attention. The software tracks inventory and can be set to automatically generate purchase orders when inventory is low. It also runs a variety of reports. oneup.com.

Quicken Home Business Quicken lets you manage both your personal and species business finances in one place, making it a convenient solution for really small businesses and essay home-based entrepreneurs who don#39;t need accounting software designed for larger or more established businesses. The downside, however, is that the software isn#39;t cloud-based and is only fourdrinier, available for Windows, though it has iOS and Android apps that allow you to essay attention view your data. Contrast Thesis. quicken.com. Sage 50c Sage 50c is a desktop accounting solution that connects with mobile apps and integrates with Microsoft Office 365. College Essay Attention. It links to your bank accounts and automatically backs up your data to the cloud. It includes features for mobile invoicing, inventory management, expense tracking and reporting. sage.com. Sage Intacct Intacct is advanced, cloud-based accounting software that automates processes and does examine helps you manage business finances so your business can grow. It generates a wide range of reports, giving you the ability to evaluate your business#39;s performance from any financial angle, including profit margins, losses, income and revenue segments like total revenue, revenue by product and revenue per square foot. intacct.com. College Essay. Sage One Sage One has two plans for small business owners. Sage One Start is for a single user primarily interested in invoicing, reports and tax preparation. Paper. In addition to these features, the other plan, Sage One Accounting, supports multiple users, can create quotes and estimates, and allows you to college record and track the bills you owe. Integrations that link the software to thesis on domestic violence in india other business programs like POS systems and payroll are available. sageone.com.

Simple Invoices If you#39;re a solopreneur and your accounting needs primarily consist of tracking sales and getting paid, Simple Invoices may be the solution for you. This program lets you create estimates, send professional-looking invoices, accept payments and generate financial reports absolutely free. College Attention. simpleinvoices.org. * Wave Accounting Don#39;t want to pay for accounting software? Wave Accounting can help. This cloud-based accounting platform offers many of the same features as paid accounting services, making it our top pick for thesis the best free accounting software for college small businesses with 10 employees or less.

Read our full review here. waveapps.com. WorkingPoint WorkingPoint is all-inclusive, cloud-based accounting software. It connects to your bank and contrast essay credit card accounts and includes tools for invoicing, bill and expense tracking, inventory management, and reporting. You can also add services such as payroll and email marketing to the program, though it costs extra. workingpoint.com. * Xero Xero is our top pick for the best accounting software for Macs. We like that Xero is affordable, easy to use, offers a ton of essay grabbers features and integrates with hundreds of third-party business solutions, many of which you likely already use.

Xero also offers 24-hour email and live chat support, so there#39;s always someone ready to help you. Read our full review here. 500 Hundred Essay. xero.com. Yendo If you have a lot of customers, multiple businesses or a dedicated sales team, Yendo is the accounting software for attention you. Pass My Resume. It#39;s both accounting and CRM software, letting you and your sales reps manage and cultivate relationships with customers, while linking all the data with your enterprise resource planning and college essay attention accounting platform. yendo.com. ZipBooks This online accounting software offers several plans, including one that is free and contrast thesis several that include bookkeeping services. ZipBooks uses double-entry accounting, connects to your business bank accounts and generates a variety of reports to help you manage your business.

It also includes invoicing, bill payment, time and college grabbers expense tracking tools. zipbooks.com. * Zoho Books Part of the examine mean Zoho Office Suite, Zoho Books is full-featured accounting software with a small business-friendly price tag. Three plans are available, and all plans include invoicing, expense and time tracking, reporting and college essay grabbers integration capabilities. Read our full review here. zohobook.com. Ready to choose an accounting software solution? Here#39;s a breakdown of thesis on domestic our complete coverage:

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office runner resume My High Speed Networks Inc. (Brockville) Thousand Islands Parkway (TIP) Half Marathon and grabbers 5K; Saturday September 9, 2017. Results available from examine mean Bryan Lambert's Running by college grabbers Design. Hoping to see a big turnout on Saturday to celebrate the contrast essay, 30th edition of the TIP Half Marathon (21.1K). The Half starts at 8am from the attention, Rockport Community Hall, about 35K west of Brockviile on the Parkway.

The accompanying 5K starts at 9:20am . NOTE: The Eventbite online registration Eventbrite currently has these start times reversed ; this will be rectified. For further details with directions to thesis on domestic, the start area, check the BRRC Races dropdown menu above. I have quickly completed a brief, potted history of the TIP Half Marathon. Essay? This includes a link to a summary of all the winners over the years from 1987 to 2016. Thanks to Rick Swift for his work in compiling this list. Compare? To access the history click here. So come on out Saturday to Rockport on the Parkway and essay grabbers make your own bit of history in TIP Number 30 ! Glen Tay Round the Block 14.7K; Perth August 31, 2017. The famous Block Race, a race for runners, as the organizers aptly put it, took place Thursday evening last. Conditions were on the cool side, but ideal for a long distance race. There was a good contingent of Brockville and Kingston area runners participating.

Paula Wiltse's R2R running group was out in force. Some Results (Age Catg Posn) : Race Series Points Including the examine essays, Piggy Run. Our intrepid series statistician Hugh Wilson has been busy again in his Montreal home. Hugh has updated the series standing, adding in results of the August 13 Piggy Run. College Grabbers? We certainly appreciate Hugh's generous contribution to this important and painstaking task. I've combined Hugh's pdf scans of his handwritten - nice to see in these times of digital excess! - results' pages into compare essay, a single pdf document that you may access by clicking here. By way of explanation, with just one race, the TIP Half and 5K on Saturday September 9 , remaining in the series, only those who have run 2 or more runs to date are included in the latest update. This is to reflect that a runner needs to compete in at least 3 runs to qualify for series recognition.

Please advise me Tony Dunbar of any discrepancies and I will see they are corrected. So come on out to essay, TIP and gain some valuable points towards an award at the yearend AGM. TIP Half/5K Saturday September 9, 2017: Online Registration Now Open. You may now register online for 500 hundred essay this the 30th edition of the Thousand Islands Mark Darroch Half Marathon/James Carlyle 5K to college essay attention grabbers, be held on the Thousand Islands Parkway. For online registration through Eventbrite click here. Start/Finish area is at the Rockport Community Hall, 35K approx. west of compare thesis Brockville on the Parkway. College Attention? Click here for directions . We were saddened to hear of the recent passing of Doris McEwan at the age of 92. Doris was a remarkable lady and athlete and pass along my resume a great supporter of the Brockville Road Runners over many years. College Essay Grabbers? Doris was a faithful volunteer at many of along our races, including the Run for the Cure, the California Run, Riverfest/Canada Day, TIP, etc.

Sincere condolences to her family and friends. From our archives, a photo of Doris as volunteer at college essay grabbers, the 2011 California Run. Piggy 1K/5K Run; Sunday August 13 RESULTS. Gib Kent diligently compiled and forwarded the results for extinction of animal species posting the day after Sunday's very successful run. We were out of town for a few days and did not have access to the links and software to post the results. College Attention Grabbers? I have now completed the task and the results may be accessed by clicking here. For some spectacular video of runners young and old streamimg through the railway tunnel click Video. This link is to our club Facebook page but there is no videographer attribution there (President Chris Emslie?). Thanks and congrats Gib and crew for organizing this unique run and event.

As per below, Gib Kent has skillfully negotiated with the City and has gained permission to fourdrinier, use the Railway Tunnel as part of the 5K course. The Tunnel will form the whole of the Kids 1K course. Great work Gib! Note : The Kids will assemble at the Hardy Park/Ribfest 5K start area and will be escorted to Blockhouse for attention grabbers their Tunnel 1K run. Also, there is no set fee for essay the races. A free will donation is in effect with a tax receipt issued for all donations of $20 or more to college essay attention, Big Brothers and Big Sisters . Gib has now produced a map of the 5K Course, which he admits is not a PB course but a highly interesting one nevertheless. For Gib's map of the 5K course click here. In words:

Head East on mean Water St. Grabbers? past “Don’s Fish and 500 hundred Chips” to Blockhouse Island. Turn left to “ Brockville Railway Tunnel ” Enter the “ Brockville Rail Tunnel ” for .5K staying on the right side to the turn around. Turn around run back out the tunnel .5K to attention grabbers, Water St . Turn left on 500 hundred Broad St. pass “ Buds on the Bay ”. Turn right onto Flint St. College Essay Grabbers? taking path by “ Tall Ships ” Follow Flint St. to Apple St. where you join the Brock Trail . Follow the Brock Trail around behind Hardy Park to Henry St. Run up Henry St. Until you join the Brock Trail once again.

Follow the Trail over the bridge and behind “ The Mill” to St. Paul St . Follow the Brock Trail to Elm St . where there will be a turnaround . (Water Station) Return on the trail to St Paul St . Cross St. Paul St., turning left to of animal essay, Water St . Follow Water St. back to the start/finish line at Home St. Piggy 1K/5K Run; Sunday August 13. Race director Gib Kent has revealed some exciting news regarding this annual run in aid of Big Brothers Big Sisters.

The newly opened (as of August 12) Brockville Railway Tunnel , Canada's first railway tunnel, will be incorporated into both the Kids 1K and the Open 5K . W e will be running a different route for attention the 5K this year which utilizes more of the Brock Trail around Hardy Park, as well as Brockville Rail Tunnel. This will allow us to avoid the Brock Street crossing. AND The kids 1K run will be a down and back in the Railway tunnel, avoiding any traffic issues. Gib is essay, also in need of volunteers to help him in all aspects of the college attention, run. Paper? No experience required. Please email Gib at gbkent@mmm.com and attention let him know how you could help. This will be greatly appreciated by Gib aand indeed by the Brockville Roadrunners and mean essays the Big Brothers Big Sisters organization. A quick reminder re the upcoming club races:

Piggy 1K/5K Run/Walk; Hardy Park Brockville; 9am Sunday August 13 TIP 5K and Half Marathon (30th Edition); 8:00/9:20am Saturday September 9 at college essay attention grabbers, Escott Road, Rockport See the BRRC Races dropdown menu for further details. Also check the Other Runs dropdown for a listing of upcoming area runs. Utica Boilermaker July 9, 2017. The traditional BRRC member pilgrimage to the famed Boilermaker in Utica New York did take place last Sunday. However, the contingent was small in number, comprising just 5 runners. Extinction? Nevertheless, a good time was had by all with good racing as well. Three (3) medals were garnered in what is always a very competitive field. Results; Age Catg. Places in (): ( Photo Courtesy of Lana Saunders KRRA)

Race Series Points Update. Our good friend and club member from Montreal, Hugh Wilson, has updated the race series points adding in the results for the PG and Canada Day 5Ks. Many thanks for this work Hugh. The summaries, in Hugh's copperplate handwriting, are available by clicking here. Please advise me, Tony Dunbar webmaster@brockvilleroadrunners.com, of any errors, omissions, etc. Canada Day 1K/5K Milk Run RESULTS. Race Director Murray Tait completed the large task of compiling the results yesterday July 2. Attention Grabbers? Some email glitches delayed getting them to fourdrinier paper, me for posting, but now, as nicely summarized by Murray, they may be accessed by clicking here.

Again a great big thank you to Murray and all volunteers and helpers for college essay their efforts. A great turnout yesterday in spite of the compare thesis, rain - we run rain or shine! Again a great community way of celebrating Canada Day and one that deserves far more recognition from the press and other local organizations. A big thank you to college essay attention grabbers, Murray Tait, his crew of volunteers, the examine essays, Dairy Farmers and college attention other sponsors and to all who braved the elements. My Resume? There are some nice photos posted to the BRRC Members Facebook page Click for Photos. Murray, still on the job as a first time race director, is college attention, currently ploughing through the sheets of results, and undoubtedly trying to decipher many illegible, handwritten entries. We really need to PRINT our names on such manual entry forms. Thanks to the majority of you that do. In any case, as soon as the results are compiled they will be posted here.

In the interim, congrats to overall race winners Paula Wiltse and Kevin Beatty. Canada Day 5K Milk Run; 9am Saturday July 1, 2017. The July 1 race over watermark paper, the years has become the premier race on the BRRC race calendar. This has been largely due to essay attention, the sterling work of race director Rick Swift. (For a previously posted tribute to Rick click here). Rick has stepped down after 14 years at the helm and has passed the torch to extinction species essay, Murray Tait who this year is organizing and directing this 29th edition of the end of college attention grabbers June/July 1 event. Thanks Murray for taking on paper this important task. Of course there is also the traditional free entry 1K for kids 14 and under , scheduled to start from Blockhouse Island at 8:45 . For details, check the essay grabbers, schedule from the BRRC Races dropdown menu above. Fourdrinier Paper? (Note: This will be the 20th anniversary of the kids event, with Eithne Dunbar the first race director in 1997.) In recent years the Dairy Farmers of Canada have been the major sponsors with the college essay attention grabbers, help of a number of local service and business organizations. (The race poster, click here, lists them.) Thanks to the geneous support of the Dairy Farmers in particular, sufficent commemorative shirts have been ordered so there should be a free shirt for each of the word, anticipated number of runners in college essay attention grabbers each of the 1K and 5K events.

So come on out to Blockhouse Island and get the 150th birthday celebration of Canadian Confederation off to a good start in a friendly, family-oriented, fun, sea-of-red atmosphere. Far superior to the rubber ducky and the snarling powerboats IMHO! Raceday registration at watermark paper, the Blockhouse start area - the only kind on college grabbers offer - opens at 8am with the fourdrinier, 5K scheduled to start at 9am. From Blockhouse the 5K will follow the traditional course out and back along Water Street and the Brock Trail. The results for this evening run, as compiled by Bryan Lambert's Running by Design Runningbydesign.com, are now available by accessing the ResultsSeries dropdown menu above.

Liam Cullen has kindly provided a photo of a group of hardware toting runners, including the overall trophy winner, Jake Lessard, and some of the various proud medal winners on grabbers the night. Thanks Liam. Back: Jean Bernaquez, Terry Hodge, Roger Hawksby, Cheryl Scott. Ian Loughrey, Anne Merv Hodgson. ( Photo Courtesy of watermark Liam Cullen ) Divas Run for Breast Cancer, Toronto; June 11, 2017. A band of our women runners participated in this unique event in Toronto on college the weekend. There was a 5K and half marathon(21.1K) on offer and all our athletes opted for the half.

Originally scheduled to be run on Toronto Island, the event had to be moved to the Port Lands on the mainland due to extensive flooding on the island. Our divas completed the long run in hot and humid conditions in splendid fashion. Congrats to all. ( Photo Courtesy of Roger Hawksby ) Anne Hodgson pulled together the summary of results below: The next race on on domestic violence in india the BRRC schedule is the college essay attention grabbers, PG 5K on Friday June 16 evening . Click here for details. Beat Beethoven 8K Kingston; June 4, 2017. Local runners recently made the trip to Kingston in contrast essay an attempt to cross the line before the final bars of a Beethoven symphony.

Typically the attention, Kingston Symphony play Beethoven's 3rd or Eroica symphony, but this year played the great composer's 5th. This change did not seem to bother our stalwarts too much as they all performed admirably! Results, with age category medal placings in () are below. Ottawa Race Weekend; May 27-28, 2017. As always a strong contingent of local runners took part in the various events. Good results all round with a couple of age category medals - Rick Swift gold in the 5K and Paula Wiltse taking silver in the 10K. Ian Loughrey continued his streak of fine marathons, this one in hot conditions apparently. The Crawford family were out in thesis violence in india force in the 10K. Dad Mike added another fine run to his Boston and essay Mississauga Marathons with a sub-40 10K. 500 Hundred Essay? Ethan was not too far behind, while Sarah and daughter Maggie finished together in the identical time, to the nearest tenth of second, of 54:35.9.

Full results as summarized by college attention our results guru, Anne Hodgson, are below: PG Vibrant Living 5K Run/Walk Update. The cost for of animal essay the run is $10 (+ $1.20 service fee on Eventbrite) and college attention grabbers with that entrance fee you will get a 2017 PG Run tech shirt and race bib. Series points will be awarded to all participants. Additional notable features are the family friendly activities available before and essay after the event. Some of these features include popcorn, live entertainment and college essay attention grabbers an outdoor showing of Beauty and the Beast following the race. Montreal Members Jean and Hugh Race Results. In recent weeks we have been acknowledging the race achievements of our local Brockville and area runners.

It is now time to add the results of our 'eastern wing': BRRC members Jean Bernaquez and Hugh Wilson, both from Montreal. These two fine lads have been BRRC members and particpants in many of our races for a number of years now. Hugh has compiled the impressive list of extinction species results for the impressive number of runs these 'young seniors' have racked up since the beginning of the year. It also includes the exceptional age category results achieved, all first places in Jean's case, with Hugh almost always in college grabbers the medals, most of them gold. Well done boys; you're an inspiration to us all!

Ottawa Sporting Life 10K in Support of CHEO, Sunday May 14: Results. A sizeable contingent of local runners travelled to essay, Ottawa to participate in college this special event. Once again they acquitted themselves exceptionally well with a significant number of age category medal performances (in brackets) including a number of golds. Anne Hodgson, our resultsa compiler, was the mean essays, proud winner by over 4 minutes in her category. Congrats Anne and to all others. Prescott Fort Town 5K and 10K Night Run Sat May 6: Results. By all accounts this unique event was a big success with 210 runners and walkers in total participating. This included a large contingent of BRRC member and local runners. The organizers are to be congratulatd on putting on this event.

Many of our members were especially appreciative of the opportunity to run a 10K locally. Our dedicated 'results sleuth', Anne Hodgson, has again scoured the attention grabbers, published results and has prepared a summary of times and top 3 performances for those local runners with whom she is 500 hundred essay, acquainted. Anne has been involved with the local running scene for many years so her summary is likely to be pretty comprehensive. Thanks again Anne for your diligent work in providing this valuable service to the club and the local running community. For a list of results for each of the 5K and 10K events for all participants click 5K and 10K to college grabbers, access the website of the watermark, Running Goat Perth, the event timers. Road Warriors' Weekend (Apr 29, 30) This past weekend was a busy one for BRRC members with races in Cornwall, Merrickville, Smiths Falls and Kingston. Anne Hodgson has scoured the college essay grabbers, results and compiled the watermark paper, summary below - many thanks Anne. Many notable results: Kevin Riddell completed his first marathon in Cornwall; Ian Loughrey had another good result in the same race. Good to see Jim Earle back in action again at the Cornwall 5K.

As always, we had a number of age category medals as indicated in college essay attention grabbers the places in (). In addition to these races, a trio of club members, Rick Swift, Randy Frith and John Raiswell took part in a 7 member team relay that ran 77.7 miles around Seneca Lake in the Finger Lakes area of New York State. They were the Canadian invitees to a team organized by Bill Chapin of Watertown NY. (Bill also organizes a team for the annual Reach the Beach 200 mile relay in examine mean essays New Hampshire each September.) The 'boys' (average age 72) acquitted themselves very well finishing in the top half of the 318 teams of various ages entered in the event. Congrats. Next race up is the college essay attention, unique Prescott Fort Town 5K and 10K evening run on Saturday May 6. For details click here. Boston Mike Crawford - Number 11 in thesis on domestic violence in india the Bag! Congrats to essay attention, Mike Crawford for yet another fine Boston Marathon, finishing in 3hrs 17 mins.

Mike himself dubbed Boston some years ago: The Holy Grail of essay marathon running. A quick search of the archives indicates this was Boston number 11 for Mike, running it every year, except 2010, between 2006 and 2017. Very impressive indeed. Way to go, Mike! Looking for a run in the local area? Have a look under Other Runs above. I recently updated the listing, which includes some newer runs in essay attention Prescott, Merrickville, Smiths Falls, Perth, etc.

BRRC Race Series Points. Please advise of any errors, omissions, etc. These would most likely be mine in transcribing from Hugh Wilson's summaries to the website posting. Word Essay? Tony Dunbar E-mail. Now that the 2017 series of 3 Freeze Your Buns races has been completed, a summary of the points awarded to all participants has been compiled and posted. Attention Grabbers? I'm delighted to essay, report that our good friend from Montreal, Hugh Wilson , was responsible for compiling these summaries and forwarding to me for formatting and posting.

Many, many thanks Hugh for this and for attention grabbers volunteering to continue to compile as the season progresses. (For those who may not be acquainted with Hugh, he's the fine looking gentleman on the left in the photo below with the late Ed Whitlock.) The Race Series has been in place for many years, but seems to fly a bit under the radar for many members, especially the newer ones. We have a system in place for awarding points to each runner based on their individual place in extinction a race. At the end of the season the points total for each runner is tallied and special awards are presented at our AGM to the top of the table individuals in the various categories. A look at the summaries just posted, or those of previous years, accessible from the Results Series dropdown menu above, will give a better illustration of what's involved. The intent of the series is to encourage individual participation in as many of college essay attention grabbers our races as possible and to reward consistent and essay superior performance as we race against our competition and peers. As per attention the 2017 BRRC Race schedule, a runner has 7 races in my resume which to gain series points. College Attention? (Actually there are 8 if you wish to duplicate the feat of examine mean essays Kevin Beatty and run both the TIP 5K and half marathon!) A minimum of 3 of college essay attention grabbers these races must be run in order to appear in the final reckoning. Look Who's in the 70-79 Age Category! If you look carefully at the Freeze Your Buns #3 results, you will notice the does, 70-79 age category is now graced for the first time by the presence of the speedy Rick Swift . While vacationing in Panama, Rick on essay February 4 reached the grand old age of 70.

A belated happy birthday Rick from the BRRC family. Having cleaned up in the 60-69 category all over compare thesis, the map, including in 5Ks in Utica, Boston, Ottawa and other highly competitive races, Rick has now come to show a clean pair of heels to all of us poor, mere joggers in the 70-79 age category. Attention? Go easy on us Rick, please! Freeze Your Buns #3: Results. A report with results as compiled by race director Janet Wynands is now accessible here. Congrats to overall 1K winners Ryley Higgs and Finn Campeau . The 5 km event was won by the speedy Declan Colwell in watermark paper 16:02. The first female across the essay grabbers, line was Corinne Schonewille in a time of 20:34. Declan's win in the 5K spoiled Corey Turnbull 's streak of word 3 in college attention a row.

However, Corey had the satisfaction of essay being the college essay attention grabbers, overall 3 race series winner in 500 hundred word essay an average time over essay grabbers, the 3 races of 18:28. The female series winner was Marieke Van Spriel with an average time of 22:18. Congratulations to Corey and fourdrinier watermark paper Marieke. Each of their names will be added to the special Mark Darroch memorial plaque. For previous series winners and recipients of this honour, check the Times Past dropdown menu above and select Freeze Your Buns. (The history of attention grabbers this, and other BRRC races referenced, has been compiled by thesis our historian Rick Swift. Thanks, Rick.) A big thank you again to Janet Wynands and her crew for college essay attention organizing another fine series.

Janet has been at the helm since 2008. A special thanks also to contrast essay thesis, those special volunteers Paul Fournier, Lesley Dunning, Laurie Dunning and Muriel Carlye who were yet again out to lend their expertise. They have been faithfully volunteering for the FYB series and other events for essay attention many years. Thanks gang. The Passing of a Legend: Ed Whitlock.

We join the contrast compare thesis, running community in Canada and indeed across the world in mourning the college essay attention grabbers, passing of Ed Whitlock, the legendary holder of multiple master's distance world records. Ed died of prostate cancer on March 13 at the age of 86. Ed ran his last marathon at the ScotiaBank in examine essays Toronto last October and completed it in college under 4 hours. Ed's achievements are without equal and include a marathon in 2:54 at compare essay thesis, 73 in a performance the New York Times ranked as the best marathon finish of all-time. But what really set Ed apart was the grace and humility he showed in spite of all his great achievements.

He also had a wry sense of humour. His training consisted of college essay attention grabbers running for hours around the essay, cemetery near his Milton home. When asked, he’d say something like: “compared to everyone in that place, no matter how I feel on any given day, I’m looking pretty good.” For detailed articles on Ed click here and here. The Montreal Lads and Ed Whitlock. Here's a photo I posted previously showing Montreal BRRC members Hugh Wilson and Jean Bernaquez chatting with Ed at the Raisin River Footrace in Williamstown, some years ago. Freeze Your Buns #2 Results.

A race report with results has now been completed by essay attention race director Janet Wynands. To access this report click here. Thanks to does examine, Janet and her volunteer crew for another fine event. As Janet reports, it was held in college essay attention grabbers the best weather conditions on compare record. Congrats to overall 1K winners Faith Bartlett , 2 in college attention grabbers a row, and along my resume Lucas Bennet . The 5 km event also had a double winner with Corey Turnbull coming in attention grabbers first in a time of 18:23. The first female across the line was Sarah Utting in extinction of animal species a time of 22:02. Note: The results of this race and of the 3 held to date in 2017 may now be accessed from the Results Series dropdown menu above. Final run in the series is essay attention, scheduled for Saturday March 25 at 10:00/10:15 from the Memorial Centre. As always, participants in all three races will earn a technical long sleeve shirt. Race proceeds go to mean essays, help support the local food bank.

PLEASE NOTE: Freeze Your Buns and Food Item Donations. As you may know, over the years runners in our winter Freeze Your Buns series have been invited to bring along a non-perishable food item to race registration. Essay Attention? The food items, along with the net cash proceeds from the races, were donated to the local Brockville Food Bank, currently on Buell Street. A non-perishable food item, generally a canned good, entitled the donor to a $2 discount on race entry fees. The club executive has had feedback from the Food Bank that a significant number of such food items they've received in recent times have been unsuitable, as they've been beyond the expiry or best before use date. These items had to paper, be discarded on receipt by the Food Bank. This is not a desirable situation and, as a result, the Food Bank has requested that we no longer collect food items at our races . This will go into effect immediately, with FYBs #2 on college essay February 25. This is extinction species essay, unfortunate. Attention Grabbers? However, on the positive side, with the end of the $2 discount, the cash proceeds to the Food Bank will be increased. Food bank operations in general now advise that they actually have a preference for donations of my resume money compared to food items.

In general, every $3 that they get they can turn into $5 of food for their clients. So thanks to series' directors Rick Oliver, Roger Hawksby and essay attention Janet Wynands and their volunteer crews for all the essays, work and effort they put into this initiative over the years. It was very worthwhile and welcomed by the Food Bank. It's a pity it had to end in this manner but as I explained above it does have a bright side. For any questions or comments you may have, I invite you to contact club president Chris Emslie at president@brockvilleroadrunners.com. Freeze Your Buns #1 Results. There were a few technical glitches in getting the final results together. The report on the race as compiled by race director Janet Wynands is now available by clicking here. Another big thank you to Janet who has organized this series since 2008. This year's is the 26th annual and marks Janet's 10th year at the helm.

Former club president Rick Oliver and crew were the essay grabbers, initiators of the series in 1992 and word essay Roger Hawksby was the essay grabbers, director from 1997 before handing over to Janet Wynands in 2008. It was nice to contrast compare thesis, see many of the longtime volunteers for this and other races on the job yet again: Lesley and Laurie Dunning, Paul Fournier and Muriel Carlyle. It was also great to see a number of regular out-of-towners make the journey - pretty long in a number of cases - to college essay, participate. Amongst these were: Brian and pass my resume Stewart Campbell (Pembroke and Cornwall); Hugh Wilson and Jean Bernaquez (Montreal); Toby Irven and Peter Feickert (Canton, NY); Mike Day (Ottawa) and Jim Estes, David Cannons and Bryan Lambert (Kingston. We appreciate your support of our events. (Hopefully I didn't miss anyone?) Special Deal at Snap Fitness Gym at 1365 California Avenue.

As another incentive to take out/renew club membership, Chris Emslie has announced a special deal for card carrying BRRC members at the 24/7 Snap Fitness Gym:Facebook page: click here. Details of the deal are available by clicking here. Offer expires February 28. News Flash from your Webmaster; Jan 19, 2017. Who said your dear old (since 2003) website couldn't change?! You will now notice that the college, opening or landing page is does mean essays, no longer a listing of our executive. On accessing www.brockvilleroadrunners.com, you will now be taken to what was previously called the News Update page. Attention Grabbers? This is now more appropriately called our Home Page with all the latest race happenings, achievements, general news, etc. The top menu bar continues to allow navigation to the other various pages. There is now a button on the menu bar to take you to a listing of the current Executive.

Freeze Your Buns 1K/5K #1. A reminder re the first in the series: Saturday Jan 21 at 10am from the Brockville Memorial Centre. For other details access the BRRC Races dropdown menu above. This will mark the 26th year for the 3 run series, which since 2008 have been organized by Janet Wynands. Thank you Janet. Also don't forget it's another opportunity to 500 hundred word essay, takeout/renew club membership. A form you may print and fill out ahead of attention grabbers time is does, available by essay grabbers clicking here. Resolution Run, Monday January 2, and Freeze Your Buns Series. Results of the Resolution Run as submitted by Janet Wynands may be accessed by clicking here.

Many thanks to Janet and crew for getting us all out and back on pass my resume the roads again for a brand new season. As she has done since 2008, Janet Wynands is organizing the first 4 runs of the new season. It will kick off with the Annual Resolution 5K Run in support of the essay attention, Brockville Legion Athletic Club. This will then be followed by essay the regular three (3) 5K run Freeze Your Buns Series (the 26th annual). The details as provided by Janet are outlined below.

Resolution Run: January 2 with registration starting at 9:00 with the 1K children's race starting at 10:00 and the 5K at 10:15 a.m. Freeze Your Buns Run #1: Saturday January 21 with registration starting at 9:00 with the 1 K children's race starting at 10:00 and the 5 k starting at college attention grabbers, 10:15 Freeze Your Buns run #2: Saturday February 25 with registration starting at 9:00 and of animal essay races starting as per above. Freeze Your Buns run #3: Saturday March 25 with registration starting at 9:00 and races as per above. Race fees: 1K event $5; 5K: Non-members $15, Members $10, Students $7, Families $30. Bring a food item for the food bank and get a $2 discount on all race fees. All proceeds from the races go back to our local community by supporting the Foodbank for the Freeze Your Buns runs and the Brockville Legion Athletic Club for the Resolution Run. Jingle Bell Chase 5K; Saturday November 26. The sixth annual chase was held in relatively good conditions on essay grabbers Saturday Nov 26.

Race director Rick Swift made a modification to compare thesis, the course, cutting out the trip around Laurier Hill, through the trails, etc in college essay attention favour of completing the basic FYB's road circuit. Mean Essays? The start/finish was still at the soccer pavilion at Laurier Hill. Runners left at times on the countdown clock corresponding to their normal time for a 5K which led to the handicap, and the staggered start. The winner and first across the finish line was Yvonne Linseman-Malanka . There was a disappointing turnout of just 25 runners, with many of our regular members noticeably absent from the chase itself but not necessarily from a Saturday morning run. Rick Swift is to be commended for yet again organizing this fun event on behalf of the club. This in college essay spite of extinction being extremely busy in preparing for a pending house move. Thanks Rick. New Board Update: Two New Potential Members. Since the AGM on November 22, two club members, Brenda Young and Megan Primeau, have expressed an interest in joining the board.

The board of seven elected at the AGM will have the option at their first meeting of co-opting these two women to the board. Jingle Bell Chase 5K, 9am Laurier Hill Brockville; Saturday November 26. A reminder re this annual fun Christmastime event. Features a staggered start based on each runner's individual 5K time, the time that it usually takes them to finish a 5K race. College Essay? This makes it a handicap race based on ability and not on age as in the past, so all have an equal chance of winning. So come prepared to set off from the start when your normal 5k time appears on the countdown clock. Other details from the BRRC Races dropdown above. Annual General Meeting (AGM); Tuesday November 22. The main points coming out thesis in india, of the meeting were: Chris Emslie Amanda Brown Zack Boyd Krista Haasnoot Bernie Cormier Murray Tait Ian Loughrey. In a break with general practice, but not for the first time in our history, the decision was made, with the approval of the college grabbers, general membership present, to elect the seven nominees above to the board.

At their first meeting, the new board will elect/appoint the various officers, including president, and other positions as required. Thanks to Chris Emslie and the outgoing board for steering the club through a very difficult year. We wish the new board every success in the upcoming year. Annual General Meeting (AGM); Tuesday November 22, 6pm at Luna Restaurant. For the meeting agenda as prepared by club president Chris Emslie click here. Please mark your calendars for this important annual event. The doors at Luna will open at 6pm with free food (pizza) being served at 6:30pm. There will be a cash bar. Luna Restaurant is located on Stewart Blvd. at Parkedale Avenue in Brockville.

The business portion, scheduled to commence at 7pm , will consist of series awards/recognition, reports from the does examine mean, various officers, including the president, treasurer and membership coordinator. There will also be the nomination and essay election of members to form the on domestic violence, executive for the upcoming year. It's important that we have a good turnout of members to college, advise and guide the executive on the desired future direction of the watermark paper, Brockville Road Runners. Series Points Final. A significant part of the AGM agenda will be devoted to recognition of those who performed consistently well over the course of the BRRC 2016 series of races. For many years we have had a system in place, with points awarded based on a runner's position overall and in college age category over each of 500 hundred essay our races. Participation in a minimum of 3 races is required to be listed in the final tally.

A summary of the top 3 in college attention grabbers each of the extinction of animal species essay, male and female categories is now available by clicking Points. In addition, the detailed results, race by race, are available from the college attention, ResultsSeries dropdown menu above. Please advise as soon as possible of any significant errors or omissions. Further details of the extinction of animal, evening's agenda will be posted once finalized. The Toronto ScotiaBank Marathon and Half Marathon; Sunday Oct 16. I'm glad to report that since their unhappy experience at the Toronto Marathon, Brenda Young and Ilona Thomas each made a successful comeback, finishing in style at college, the Sunday, November 6 Hamilton Marathon . Well done ladies. It was a case of some mixed fortunes for the contingent of club and area runners who travelled to Toronto for this feature event. While all of pass along our participants came through the 21.1K half marathon unscathed, the increasing heat and humidity took their toll on a number of our 42.2K full marathon contestants. We are happy to report that these runners have recovered from their ordeal and their disappointment will also abate in time we know. Essay Grabbers? They've conquered the marathon in style a number of times before and will do so again I'm sure. There were some fine performances otherwise in the marathon with Ian Loughrey and Mike Crawford clocking impressive times and finishing well up in their respective age categories.

A special shoutout to Geoff Peters and Cheryl Scott who each finished their first ever marathon. Cheryl in particular had a rough time when, due to the conditions, her asthma flared up, causing her to struggle on slowly to the finish in on domestic in india true gritty marathoner style. Well done Cheryl. It was also nice to see our good friend Henry De Souza back on the marathon trail. College Essay Grabbers? Good job Henry. Half marathon results across the board were of a high standard in keeping with Brockville Roadrunner tradition. Full results for thesis both races are below with age category placings in college essay grabbers (): The Picton Half Marathon; Sunday Oct 2. A number of club members and examine area runners again participated in this popular event in Picton. (There were no area runners in college essay grabbers the marathon as far as I could tell.) Paula Wiltse was second overall woman running a fine 1:25:04.1.

This was good for first place in the 40-49 age category. Extinction Essay? Merv Hodgson at 78 continues to inspire, running a 2:17:59.6 which earned him a first place in his age category. Congrats Merv. Attention? Another of essay our senior runners, Mary Clayton, took first place in the 70+ age category in a time of college essay attention grabbers 2:18:58.4. Merv Wears Gold. A complete listing of area runner results:

Army Run in Ottawa, Sunday September 18, 2016. While some of us were scaling the hills of New Hampshire in pass along the annual 203 mile Reach the Beach Relay, others were participating in various events as part of the Army Run in Ottawa. Events consisted of a 5K and attention a Half Marathon (21.1K). For hardier souls there was the word essay, opportunity to run both distances in what was called the essay, Commander's Challenge. A number of our area runners completed this feat, with pride of 500 hundred place going to Shelley Steenwyk whose total time for the 2 runs of 2:14:30 garnered her a 3rd place in essay attention grabbers the 50-54 age category. Extinction Species? Congrats Shelley. Good also to essay grabbers, see Ian Loughrey continue to show good form in essay running a 1:34:07 for the 21.1K, good for 5th in his 55-59 age category.

The Hodgsons, Merv (2nd) and Anne (4th), were also well placed in their 5K age divisions. College Essay? Congrats to all. I have searched (or indeed scoured) the Sportstats website as best I can and have summarized the results across the 3 competitions for club and area runners. Apologies if I've missed any. (Combined 5K and Half Marathon) TIP Sat Sept 10: Report and Results.

Well the TIP 21.1K and 5K are now history. Chris Emslie and friends succeeded in organizing and managing this large undertaking. Understandably based on contrast the relative inexperience of the college grabbers, group, there were a few glitches but nothing major. Chris was lucky to have Randy Frith once again take care of the word essay, Community Hall and more importantly make the essay attention grabbers, measurements and place the many pylons involved with marking the long stretch of course involved. 500 Hundred Essay? Many thanks Randy. The finish line services of Bryan Lambert and his Running By Design company were also vitally important. A special acknowledgement of the Doyle family, out to watch Dad Bryan complete his first half marathon, who were commandeered to man a couple of essay grabbers water stations.

The turnout particularly in the featured half marathon was disappointing. Just 36 runners lined up for 500 hundred word essay this the 29th edition of this historic club event. The majority of the entrants were from outside the Brockville area - Kingston, Gananoque, Morrisburg and essay attention grabbers Pembroke. Many Brockville Road Runner members were noticeably absent; other commitments and priorities no doubt. Of BRRC members taking part, Cheryl Scott deserves special mention. Cheryl is diligently training for her first marathon in Toronto in 500 hundred word October and has been putting in essay attention grabbers the long training runs required.

On Saturday, Cheryl first ran 11K out to the start line at Rockport and then completed the thesis, 21.1K half for a total of 32K. College? Well done, Cheryl, your dedication for sure will result in a great and well deserved 42.2K in Toronto on October 16. Overall winners of the contrast compare, half were Tim Gillespie from Kingston in 1:22:37 and the indefatigable 65 year old Deborah Holtom from Howe Island in 1:49:55. The 56 runner 5K field was led home by Jeff Lapierre from Green Valley in 17:29 and Corinne Schonewille from Athens in 20:11. Full detailed results for both races are available from Bryan Lambert's website www.runningbydesign.com.

Race Series: Current Points Totals. Has been pointed out to me that I used the 2015 and not the essay, 2016 results in error for FYB#2 in the tables. Will correct and add the TIP results in the next draft. This draft will represent the final series results for 2016. With just one race, the TIP 21.1K/5K, left in along the season's races series, I have created rough drafts of the current status in terms of points gained from the first Freeze Your Buns through to the August Piggy Run. Note that since at least 3 runs must be participated in to be listed in the final series tables, only those who have competed in 2 or more races to this point are included in these interim summaries.

There are four(4) such interim summaries, each of which may be individually accessed by clicking on college essay the links below: These summaries were quickly put together and involved many transcriptions from multiple individual results sheets. There are almost certainly errors and/or omissions. Please advise of my resume such so I can make the necessary corrections. Please note that to attention grabbers, gain points in the overall standings, a runner must finish in does the overall top 5 places, male and female, of a race. Age category does not come into play in this case. Good luck to all at Saturday's TIP in earning those last few important points. TIP Half Marathon and 5K; Saturday September 10, 2016. BRRC President Chris Emslie and crew are busy finalizing preparations for this the 29th Annual Mark Darroch Half Marathon and James K Carlyle 5K on the Thousand Islands Parkway (TIP). The races start from the Rockport Community Hall , 35K west of Brockville, and the runs are out and back on the traffic free Parkway bike path on grabbers Saturday September 10th. Race start for the 21.1K half is 8am with the word essay, 5K heading out at 9:20 am.

Both course distances have been certified. Online registration through Eventbrite is now available by attention clicking Registration and thesis in india proceeding to Tickets . The first 100 registrants will receive a commemorative shirt. Details re fees, etc are now updated to the BRRC Races schedule from the college, dropdown menu above. This includes a link to a Form that may be completed ahead for those who choose to thesis violence, register on raceday. Details are also summarized on this Poster which we invite you to print and distribute in college grabbers your local area. The Piggy 1K/5K Run: Sunday August 7 from Hardy Park at 9am. Results as compiled by race director Gib Kent are now available. Click Results. The Montreal Lads and Ed Whitlock.

While browsing the pass along my resume, website of the attention grabbers, Raisin River Footrace in Williamstown, scheduled for Sunday August 7, I came across this very nice photo from a previous year: The lads are BRRC club members who regularly travel to Brockville from does mean essays Montreal to run our races. Ed is the legendary world multi-age category record holder in college essay grabbers many long distances including the 5K, 10K, half and full marathons. Utica Boilermaker Results; July 10, 2016. Canada Day 1K/5K Milk Run; Friday July 1. Results as supplied by Christie Reitsma for the 1K and Rick Swift for the 5K, for compare his 14th and last time as race director, are now available. A big thank you to both these dedicated individuals for providing us yet again with a memorable Canada Day. And of essay course many thanks to our volunteers and to contrast essay, the Dairy Farmer organizations for their generous sponsorship.

Special congrats to 5K winners Paula Wiltse (17:32) and Kevin Beatty (16:48). College Essay? This win represents 4 in a row for Paula and win number 8 in total. Kevin by comparison has only managed to win 7 of the Canada Day classics! Each is the thesis, holder of the respective 5K course record: Kevin ran 15:30 in 2005; Paula completed the course in college essay grabbers 17:21 in 2010. Does Examine Essays? Two elite athletes without doubt. Thanks Rick Swift- Our Canada Day Run Impresario Extraordinaire. We certainly owe a huge debt of gratitude to Rick Swift for his tremendous contribution to the success of the Canada Day 5K. Essay Attention? Rick began by helping and learning the ropes from club founder member and past president Rick Oliver.

Then in contrast compare 2003 Rick took over the reins himself and set out on a path of development and growth that took the level of participation from less than 100 to consistently over the 200 mark (250 this year). Along the way, Rick fixed the name and date of the run to coincide with Canada Day on July 1. In earlier years the college essay grabbers, run was tied in examine mean with the last weekend of college attention grabbers Riverfest, late June or early July. The event became a colourful - appropriately red - joyful celebration of fourdrinier paper our national holiday. College Attention? The presence of the young kids in Christie Reitsma's long running 1K brought an additional family flavour to the whole day. Rick was also innovative in terms of the extinction species, race commemorative running gear he provided. College Essay? In place of the traditional t-shirt, we had a special club singlet one year and pass along hats another. Rick also negotiated a deal with Scott McNamee at Crank's Bicycle Shoppe, who generously supplied at a discount top of the essay, line running shoes as prizes over a few years. In recent years Rick, with the help of the Wynands family, secured the sponsorship of contrast essay thesis local area Dairy Farmer organizations.

Rick steered us calmly and competently through a number of challenges over the years: runners had to skirt around vendor pop-ups on college essay attention Water Street, compete with the deafening noise from the power boat regatta, relocate because of the essay, Artisan Village and college attention grabbers then last year deal with the construction of the new skateboard facility just off of the Brock Trail. In sum, Rick has been a powerhouse of a race director for on domestic violence the Canada Day Run. Attention Grabbers? Of course, he also jumped in at extinction, the start of the 5K almost every year and tossed off one of those hugely impressive, senior's sub-20 minute or just over 20 minute runs. College Essay Grabbers? Rick will be a hard act to follow as he finally steps down as race director. But we're confident there's someone or more out there willing to fourdrinier watermark paper, take on the challenge and ensure the continued success of our Canada Day Run. We owe it to Rick. TISS Track Support - Win a KIA! The TISS Track Facility is without a doubt a huge asset to the health and wellness of our community! To fund maintenance that the facility requires, TISS is college attention, raffling off a KIA Sorrento. 500 Hundred Word Essay? 5000 tickets have been printed and can be purchased for college attention $20 each. You can purchase your tickets at the Main Office at fourdrinier watermark, Thousand Islands Secondary School or at essay, the Canada Day Run on July 1st at my resume, Blockhouse Island.

RoadID is a well established company that sells a special band worn by runners. The band bears the runner's basic identification information. This is useful and college essay attention even vital in an emergency where a runner has an accident out compare, alone on a training run, or even in a race, and first responders have no means of identifying the person with a view to contacting family or others. BRRC President Chris Emslie has made a deal with RoadID that for every sale that is made of a band, the club will receive a small donation. To get further information on the styles available and to buy a band, click on the RoadID Logo above and the sale will be processed as being one from a BRRC member.

As well as being a real benefit for our runners, the sale will raise some much needed funds for college attention grabbers the club. Thanks in advance for your support. Freeze Your Buns Historical Note. The Jan 23, 2016 FYB marked a special club milestone as we embarked on the 25th season of the Freeze Your Buns series. Former club president Rick Oliver and crew were the initiators of the series in 1992 and pass along Roger Hawksby was the college essay attention grabbers, director from 1997 before handing over to Janet Wynands in 2008. To see a listing of the various winners, of series and individual races, from 1992 to 2015, check the Times Past link above.

This link also leads to pass along my resume, a wealth of information re the past history of our traditional races. Rick Swift diligently put these valuable summaries together last year for our benefit. Thanks again Rick. Rick Swift, past-president and club historian, has diligently compiled some very interesting summaries. These are the historical record of various race winners, course records, awards, etc. Links to these summaries are now available from the new dropdown menu button Times Past above.

Well worth a browse with references to some of our stalwarts from the 80s and 90s included. Thanks Rick for this very valuable contribution to club history.

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Strong>Types of Attention Getters in Essays …

Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to college grabbers, thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details.

When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. In some cases, the extinction, resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for essay resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and watermark paper pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to note that being the college essay grabbers, “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault.

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However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from college, your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of watermark potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to college, know this. Include the along my resume, following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Essay Attention! Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and extinction of animal essay even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty?

Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the college attention, degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is my resume because the information is often required for the resume to essay, move through the process and 500 hundred word it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State.

You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the college, earlier you are in contrast essay your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to essay attention, include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Contrast Thesis! Nursing License and grabbers Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for word essay your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on essay attention grabbers license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the on domestic in india, license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly.

Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the essay grabbers, standard information included on fourdrinier watermark paper your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to essay grabbers, work on your nursing resume. Fourdrinier! Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements.

In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to college attention grabbers, relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. Species! It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and college essay attention grabbers “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of of animal essay EMRs. And both ICD10 and college essay attention ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of practice deals with this in species essay any way, then be sure to add these to your resume.

You may also want to essay, include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and 500 hundred EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in grabbers tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the does examine, exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to college attention, find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care?

Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at pass along, a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary.

For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in college essay attention the specific units on does mean which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the essay, number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only word, people who work at that facility know what that means. College Attention Grabbers! Instead, include the along my resume, type of college essay attention grabbers unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in contrast essay thesis order to college essay attention grabbers, convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in fourdrinier watermark the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. College Essay Attention! Did the essay, unit take trauma patients?

Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of college essay attention patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to along my resume, this point, the focus has been on college attention grabbers incidental, although very important, details. Compare Thesis! But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of college essay grabbers balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to thesis, make them accomplishment driven. Essay Attention Grabbers! The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to does essays, duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and college essay grabbers tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against essays listing duties on college attention grabbers your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for.

At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Thesis On Domestic! Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and attention general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation.

Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. Watermark! How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. College Attention Grabbers! It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities.

For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to extinction essay, consider when determining the college essay, types of duties to include on your resume. This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of word essay specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho?

Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System?

Which industry-wide protocols, processes and essay procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by contrast essay thesis your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on essay grabbers the employer in compare essay thesis question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the company website, news, and essay grabbers any professional connections you have in an effort to thesis on domestic violence in india, determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to essay attention grabbers, the specific employer in violence question. Once you have the college attention grabbers, duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on does mean your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into college essay grabbers your “accomplishment statements”. Thesis! We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties.

While this is essay attention less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is word essay a good place for this. Essay Grabbers! For example, you might include the following in does your resume summary if you’re applying for attention grabbers a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers.

You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at fourdrinier, accomplishments. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties.

Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is essay grabbers typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators?

How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Paper! Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on essay grabbers your nursing resume.

Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of essay expertise. Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes.

This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the essay attention, advent of pass my resume Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates.

This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on college essay attention the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by extinction of animal species industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the college essay attention, ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and examine efficiently. As always, your feedback is essay attention greatly appreciated. Fourdrinier Watermark! Please let us know what you think by posting a comment!

16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. College Essay Attention! How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Does Examine Mean Essays! Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an college attention objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu.

How do i go about 500 hundred word, addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for college attention grabbers the information, its very helpful. This site is extinction of so much help to me. thank you, and attention grabbers it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of examine mean positions for essay attention new nurses that want to word essay, work in ICU. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from college attention grabbers, ANCC on my resume.

Can I include it on my credentials area on compare essay thesis top of essay attention my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the fourdrinier, ANCC instructs to do so on college essay their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at along, least to college attention, me. Of Animal Species! I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to essay, stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to thesis on domestic in india, include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks.

Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is college considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of word your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the college grabbers, acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. Fourdrinier! I have heard over essay and over that because I have been out of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for essay a lot of the positions that I have applied for.

Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and college attention grabbers I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and fourdrinier have prospective employers want to college grabbers, give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into fourdrinier paper acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Matching as many keywords in college attention grabbers the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the compare essay, difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about attention, whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards.

I’m working on pass my resume applying for attention a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. Does Examine Essays! I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the college attention grabbers, unit during that time for species the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and essay make it more as an accomplishment for thesis on domestic violence in india myself also since I was a part of college that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. Compare Essay Thesis! If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in attention grabbers the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to 500 hundred, couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. Attention Grabbers! You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out 500 hundred word a little more. College Essay Attention Grabbers! I hope this helps!

I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to fourdrinier watermark, Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at essay, a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry.

There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to watermark, list your previous employers. Attention! or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in essay your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way.

Each has its advantages and disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. The main advantage of college attention grabbers Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in violence recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it.

With the college essay attention grabbers, chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. Extinction Of Animal Essay! I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from college, blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. Word! I have responded to grabbers, chest pain calls, shortness of pass my resume breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in college a corrections hospital with acute and does essays long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER..

Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to college essay, be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into species essay civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to college, your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it.

Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of fourdrinier watermark them, then put them in columns or in attention grabbers a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again!

I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the thesis, broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Essay Attention! Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience.

I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the 500 hundred word, time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. College Essay Attention Grabbers! The ICU patients included ER, NICU and pass my resume general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds.

You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to college essay grabbers, the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to fourdrinier watermark paper, upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the college grabbers, clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then.

How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in contrast compare essay the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to college grabbers, be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative.

Do your best to extinction of animal, tie the experience into nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the attention, same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the fourdrinier paper, next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an grabbers excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the exam. Thesis! For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. Grabbers! I hope this helps! Thank you!

I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on on domestic violence in india a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in attention grabbers our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either.

And we know that’s not true. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is 500 hundred word passed over college essay attention because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to thesis violence, see it, and grabbers assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by compare thesis the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there.

How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for attention grabbers nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on does almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for college attention grabbers your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either.

The city and extinction state will suffice for your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an college grabbers applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the links to these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc.

If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to on domestic in india, get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the essay attention grabbers, last 10 years of work history on does your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the essay grabbers, dates you attended college. Of Animal Species Essay! Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations.

I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over essay grabbers 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in thesis on domestic work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). Grabbers! I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the pass along my resume, first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to college essay attention, do to get into along these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about college attention, your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field.

However, it sounds as though you have some experience to my resume, build on. Typically, Case Management and essay attention grabbers Utilization Review require InterQual experience. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to along my resume, include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in grabbers it. Fourdrinier Paper! Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in college grabbers your situation. Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is paper a local association that you can network with like the attention grabbers, Case Management Society of thesis violence America for essay example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to pass along my resume, see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps!

I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into college essay attention grabbers your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. Thesis On Domestic! experience applies to or under a separate section such as the college essay grabbers, one you have listed as Comp. Extinction Of Animal Species! Experience? Thank you for all your time and college essay attention effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Pass Along! Thanks so much for your interest though.

As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to college essay attention grabbers, ensure that members recognize and record it and thesis on domestic in india perspective employers and recruiters are able to attention, easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and pass resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. College Essay Attention! Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position.

Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER. Essay! Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is college attention what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Essay! Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of college essay attention nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to thesis on domestic in india, an ICU position and I need to update my resume.

I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and college active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of contrast compare great experience to include on your resume.

We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in college MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and my resume active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and grabbers the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to does examine mean essays, have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned.

Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from college attention, becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]] We’re glad to hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in does an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and essay grabbers don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for thesis violence in india this article!

I realized that my resume was not up to essay attention grabbers, par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. Thesis! This is a tough question.

I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to essay attention grabbers, your nursing resume. There is another issue to of animal, consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the college essay grabbers, omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an 500 hundred application to completed.

If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of attention why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and extinction of animal species licensed RN trying to land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience?

I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to college essay attention grabbers, hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and thesis violence in india work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. College Essay Attention! Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job.

70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the pass my resume, key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for college essay my last job application!

Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and does mean essays hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is attention very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes.

You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. 500 Hundred! We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate).

It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the college attention, information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to word essay, ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to college essay, include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from compare essay thesis, a strong reference, like an grabbers instructor, to extinction of animal species, put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed!

We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the college attention, importance in our article with recommendations for contrast compare thesis New Grad RNs. It’s tough to college attention grabbers, recommend that you leave off your past education. Fourdrinier! I’d say it would be good to college essay grabbers, add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is my resume a second career for me and college trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on extinction species essay the money….the resume I had for college essay attention my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field.

I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to be one of those that got lost in extinction of animal species the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful.

We wish you the college essay attention grabbers, best of luck in contrast essay thesis your job search. Attention Grabbers! We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Extinction Of Animal Essay! Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in attention grabbers a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to does essays, be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the attention grabbers, fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the along my resume, three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of college essay hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’.

I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at fourdrinier paper, this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the college grabbers, years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from mean, them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of essay attention compensation for my experience.

Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for does the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. Essay Grabbers! I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. Mean! I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues.

Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. College Attention Grabbers! I’ve yet to figure how to extinction, be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. College Essay Attention! I have almost 2 years experience in does examine mean essays In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the essay, two jobs I landed. Pass My Resume! However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD.

How can I use my experience and make it appealing for college grabbers LD again? We’re glad to of animal essay, hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. College Attention! Also, you might be interested in reading our post on extinction of animal resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and college essay grabbers L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to find time to extinction species, volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article.

I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at attention grabbers, the bedside and 5 years in watermark paper a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to college essay, transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the pass my resume, article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to college attention, bedside nursing. Of Animal Essay! While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. College Essay Attention Grabbers! Carefully review the contrast essay thesis, job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in college a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in fourdrinier which you present yourself as a solution to essay attention grabbers, the problems facing the employer in question. 500 Hundred Word Essay! Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience.

Therefore, networking is a must. Essay! Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the thesis, result of attention grabbers employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to along, have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. Essay Grabbers! We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts.

Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the 500 hundred word, benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in).

Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and college grabbers pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to does examine mean, hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. College Grabbers! When a nurse applies for essay a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work.

I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over other applicants who omit this step. Grabbers! I found some good details on cover letters for violence in india nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Essay Grabbers! Including availability on a nursing resume is word essay important for many reasons. College Attention Grabbers! First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and extinction of animal essay most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Essay Attention Grabbers! Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for species essay day shifts might in-fact be for college attention mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts.

Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on fourdrinier paper the front-end. College Grabbers! So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to of animal essay, a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for college grabbers future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the my resume, candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description.

So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is college essay attention equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. Contrast Essay Thesis! Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in college grabbers question. The resume is reviewed for fourdrinier potential matches with available jobs and attention grabbers the candidate is pass my resume contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for.

Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. College Essay Attention! However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in along my resume a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in essay grabbers the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of extinction a difference for recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in college essay mind when applying for a job!

I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the 500 hundred word, Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for college grabbers a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume.

You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the species, absolute most of your preceptorship. College Essay! Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can.

We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and pass along a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is grabbers not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia!

You pose an compare essay excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on essay grabbers your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. Fourdrinier Watermark! I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for several reasons. College Essay! First, it demonstrates progression within the fourdrinier watermark, general field of college grabbers healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the pass my resume, field that other candidates may not have. College Attention! Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is my resume related to college attention grabbers, the jobs you’re applying for.

Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to contrast essay, many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. College Attention! I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN.

I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. Species! You may not want to make it a significant part of college grabbers your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay.

We’ve been busy transferring our blog to essay, this new domain. We do not have an college attention grabbers example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at fourdrinier watermark, this time. College Essay Grabbers! However, we will work on getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on along BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. College Essay Grabbers! You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to thesis on domestic violence, start my career in a new state and have read a lot of college advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the pass along my resume, advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to grabbers, include your license # details until you actually get a job offer.

Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to paper, be considered. College Essay Grabbers! I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to pass my resume, identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is college grabbers not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for 500 hundred example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to date. College Essay! There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in pass along my resume a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System.

Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and college essay attention your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is 500 hundred essay a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of essay nursing and search by name to of animal species essay, verify your state license, which includes the license number. College Essay! So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number.

Providing it on your resume simply allows the thesis on domestic violence, human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. College Essay Grabbers! And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for examine your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for college essay attention SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the essay, degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on essay grabbers your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program.

Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in extinction essay your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. Essay! I’m an older new grad. 500 Hundred Word Essay! I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and college essay attention grabbers give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and fourdrinier watermark paper grad studies, not to college, mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences.

It seems like the RN to on domestic violence, BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of college attention my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to pass, the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to attention, education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by of animal the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for college essay grabbers all education (although you usually have to add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and thesis in india recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay.

Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in college grabbers a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to does examine essays, tie that education into the story about you being the best candidate for the job in question. College Attention! Given the 500 hundred, information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here.

You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. Attention Grabbers! However, I’m of the pass, belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps. We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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An Emphatic Essay About Appositive Epithets. An interesting problem often presents itself when one employs an anarthrous nominal premodifier. A what who which? “Anarthrous nominal premodifier” is usage-ese for attention grabbers, “false title,” one of a handful of other more user-friendly ways to describe a job title that is not a job title. A description of this concept that is, I think, better still is epithet (a versatile word meaning, in examine essays, this case, “characterization”), and that’s the one I use here and elsewhere on this site. An epithet #8212; in which, for purposes of clarification or edification, a person’s name is preceded by college grabbers, a concise description of that person #8212; is often derided as a coarse conceit of journalistic writing, but it appears quite often in compare essay, books and other forms of publication as well, and it serves a useful purpose, eliminating the need to follow a person’s name with a more distracting (and often more extensive) parenthetical description. Unfortunately, too many people form the attention grabbers epithet-name construction incorrectly, as in this sentence: “The essay was written by humanities professor, Paul A. Robinson.” This is mean essays one of the most egregious mechanical errors a writer can make; few other such infelicities distinguish the amateur from the professional, and it is college essay grabbers one of life’s mysteries how such an obvious error has come to watermark paper, be so persistent as well as pervasive. Attention Grabbers. (The correct form, of course, is compare essay “The essay was written by humanities professor Paul A. Robinson.”) The mistake probably stems from confusion with the college essay attention grabbers nearly identical form in the more traditional sentences “The essay was written by a humanities professor, Paul A. Robinson” and “The essay was written by pass, Paul A. Robinson, a humanities professor.” (These forms are preferable to those who find epithets antithetical to good writing.) The distinction here is that in the corrected sentence, the phrase “humanities professor” is a restrictive appositive. (An appositive is a noun phrase that defines or modifies another noun phrase, and college essay attention grabbers a restrictive appositive is one that applies to only one other noun phrase.) In this sentence, the only humanities professor the phrase can refer to is Paul A. Robinson. The presence of the indefinite article in the other variations is the crucial indicator that they each include a nonrestrictive appositive, one that refers to any example of the violence in india appositive’s description; Paul A. Robinson is just one member of the class “humanities professor,” and the punctuation signals that fact. Grabbers. The restrictive/nonrestrictive distinction in appositives should be observed when referring to inanimate objects as well. A common error is to 500 hundred, insert punctuation between the appositives in essay attention grabbers, “Have you read the book, The Bestseller ?” If a generic reference to the book has already been made, this sentence is correct; the title is an does examine mean elaboration. College Essay Attention. However, when used on first reference, this construction presumes that the sole example of the concept “book” is The Bestseller . Contrast Compare. Because The Bestseller is, in college grabbers, fact, only one example among countless others, the thesis on domestic in india comma is omitted to indicate that “the book” and attention “The Bestseller” are identical. The same principle applies to any form of composition (film, television program, and so on) or any other thing: “I went to species, the amusement park Funland.” (“I went to the amusement park, Funland,” in the absence of a previous reference, implies that only one amusement park exists. “I went to the world’s largest amusement park, Funland,” by contrast, is college grabbers correct, because only one amusement park can be the world’s largest one.)

If you oppose appositive epithets, this post isn’t for you. But for the many writers who accept the construction as proper usage, I recommend that you use the proper usage properly. Subscribe to Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Subscribers get access to essay, our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more! You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 10 Responses to #8220;An Emphatic Essay About Appositive Epithets#8221;

GBryceYukon on April 09, 2012 5:12 pm. Precise Edit, you said: Do you see how the commas changed the meaning? With no commas#8230;, the senator has only one daughter. With commas #8230;, the college essay attention senator has more than one daughter. Thesis On Domestic. I think you mean the essay grabbers opposite. My sister Mabel is of animal coming to visit next week. No commas. I am defining which of essay attention grabbers my sisters is fourdrinier coming. I have MORE THAN one sister. Attention. My brother, Jonathan, came to visit in does, January.

With the comma, brother and Jonathan are interchangeable. This indicates that I have only one brother. College. Nonrestrictive appositives: By non-restrictive, we mean they are simply renaming something. We are only referring to one thing, a category with only one thing in pass my resume, it. When appositives are nonrestrictive, they are set off with commas. These examples are nonrestrictive. Essay Attention Grabbers. #8220;The committee chairwoman, A HARSH AND STUBBORN WOMAN, scorned the director’s request.#8221; #8220;My brother, a violin player, is coming home.#8221; In the first example above, only one woman is the committee chairwoman. We don’t need to restrict the category to indicate which woman because it only has one woman in it; we’re just providing additional information about that woman. As such, the appositive is set off with commas. Restrictive appositives: By restrictive, we mean that we have used a name for 500 hundred essay, a broad category with many things in it.

We want the reader to know which thing we’re writing about, so we need to restrict the broad category to a narrow category that only contains one thing. When appositives are restrictive, they are not set off with commas. These next examples have a restrictive appositive. #8220;Board member JOHN WILSON was present for the vote.#8221; #8220;The collection of poems LEAVES OF GRASS changed my opinion of poetry.#8221; In the first restrictive appositive example, several people are in the category called #8220;board member.#8221; To tell the reader which board member was present, we add the restrictive appositive #8220;John Wilson.#8221; This restricts the category #8220;board member#8221; to one particular board member. Essay Attention. The second example works the same way. 500 Hundred Word Essay. Why is this a matter of right and wrong, as M. Nichols claims? Adding or leaving out the commas can fundamentally change the essay meaning of the sentence. Consider these two sentences. 1. The senator took his daughter Susie to the movies. 2. Essay. The senator took his daughter, Susie, to the movies.

Example 1, without commas, has the attention grabbers restrictive appositive #8220;Susie,#8221; which is in apposition to #8220;his daughter.#8221; This has no commas, so we know that #8220;Susie#8221; is a restrictive appositive to watermark, identify which daughter. The only way this can be true is if the senator has more than one daughter. Example 2, with commas, has the nonrestrictive appositive #8220;Susie,#8221; which is also in apposition to #8220;his daughter.#8221; This has commas around #8220;Susie,#8221; so we know that the attention sentence isn#8217;t identifying which daughter. #8220;Susie#8221; is the my resume same as #8220;his daughter.#8221; The only way this can be true is essay grabbers if the senator has only one daughter. Do you see how the commas changed the meaning? With no commas (restrictive appositive), the senator has only one daughter.

With commas (nonrestrictive appositive), the senator has more than one daughter. Thus, while we can argue right versus wrong and the relevance of grammar rules, these commas (or lack thereof) affect sentence meaning, i.e., clarity. And clarity is the first priority. I don#8217;t have any mnemonic for this matter, but think of an epithet as an adjective: #8220;DailyWritingTips.com reader Lyn#8221; describes which particular type of examine Lyn is being identified. Just as you wouldn#8217;t punctuate #8220;blue car#8221; with a comma between the adjective and the noun and another following the noun, you don#8217;t insert commas before and college essay attention grabbers after your name. Or consider the subject in #8220;Planet Earth is our home.#8221; Planet is an epithet, and Earth is not bracketed by commas. This is not a matter of examine mean essays fun; I#8217;m all for entertaining and college offbeat prose.

It#8217;s a matter of right and thesis violence in india wrong: You don#8217;t begin a sentence with a lowercase letter, every sentence ends with punctuation, and a comma should not interfere between an essay grabbers epithet and a name. These are immutable laws of proper writing. Your mention of this paricular type of epithet in journalism calls to contrast compare essay thesis, mind a common Australian usage. College Essay Attention. In #8220;Well known racing identity, Mr X#8230;#8221; the phrasal epithet implies that Mr X is a criminal! (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racing_identity note that this article misrepresents Australian law, which varies from state to state). I have to admit that I am one of those writers who perpetuate the mystery. I refer to my style books all the time in an effort to get this right. Do you know of an easy mnemonic device that can help me remember this rule?

#8220;Few other infelicities#8221; leaves room for abhorrence of the other errors you mention, which I find just as heinous as the insertion of thesis on domestic violence commas in such phrases as #8220;DailyWritingTips.com contributor, Mark Nichol, wrote that . . College Essay. . .#8221; However, I stand by the vehemence of my condemnation of this construction. It#8217;s inexcusable for a professional writer to make this elementary error. I agree that the comma doesn#8217;t help in #8220;#8230;the book, The Bestseller#8221; and species such examples. Attention Grabbers. But it may be splitting hairs a bit to make such a big deal about it as your construction below seems to be trying to make: #8220;#8230;few other such infelicities distinguish the amateur from the professional, and species essay it is one of life’s mysteries how such an essay grabbers obvious error has come to be so persistent as well as pervasive.#8221; Is this more of an infelicity than using #8220;begs the question#8221; to mean #8220;raises another question#8221;? Is it worse than egregious apostrophe errors, or using quotation marks for emphasis?

Claude Nougat on February 27, 2012 10:57 am. As always, I really enjoy your tips! Thanks for your guidance, it#8217;s pricelss! Geri Greene on February 27, 2012 10:19 am. Whoever spent an inordinate amount of time writing this post is in the Club named #8220;I will dissect a sentence and my resume nit pick it to essay attention, death, thereby taking all the fun out of writing.#8221; I leave it to him to rearrange the words of my post until he approves thereby freeing me up to have some fun with words.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the essay grabbers, Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in compare essay the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at attention grabbers, rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to of animal, continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).

The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and grabbers, institutions, ranging from fourdrinier watermark advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the essay attention, G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in word the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of college competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.

How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in thesis Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and college attention, organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of fourdrinier watermark global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the essay, growing market for Fair Trade goods and 500 hundred essay, their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and college essay attention grabbers, increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on essay thesis, Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of essay attention grabbers companies like Nestlé. Thesis Violence In India! How can such a company deserve the attention grabbers, Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to does mean, asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for college essay attention grabbers, the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and compare essay thesis, producers and essay attention grabbers, what the wider effects of essay Fair Trade are. As a framework of attention grabbers reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of examine essays living for attention grabbers, disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. 500 Hundred! Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and attention grabbers, thus perpetuates the free trade and fourdrinier watermark paper, free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at essay attention grabbers, transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Of Animal! Fair Trade is essay attention neither a purely neoliberal and fourdrinier watermark, free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to college essay, entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Extinction! Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of college attention grabbers social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and of animal species essay, partly contradictory effects on different levels.

I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to grabbers, address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the examine, impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and college essay attention, producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. On Domestic In India! 1. Definition, Functioning and grabbers, Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an 500 hundred essay understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and essay, respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in compare essay thesis the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of college essay conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by my resume, Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in college essay attention the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of watermark paper a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.

Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in college grabbers Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over essays, several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the essay attention grabbers, most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an extinction of animal species activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the college attention, establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the mean, 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of essay 14 national labelling organizations with the 500 hundred word essay, aim of collaborating on essay attention, defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to thesis on domestic violence, producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).

Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). Essay Attention Grabbers! These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of pass along my resume Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Attention! 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by does examine essays, the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for attention grabbers, producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to contrast thesis, shorten the global supply chains and reduce the essay attention grabbers, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to compare thesis, 60 per cent of the college essay attention grabbers, total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by thesis in india, the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations.

Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of college essay grabbers sustainable production and thesis violence in india, living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for college essay attention, long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to pass along, accord with the labour standards of the essay grabbers, International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and does mean, are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by college essay attention, the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at my resume, US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.

And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the college essay, market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). Extinction Of Animal Species! This means that while the college grabbers, coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and compare essay, complex. For bananas for example the college essay attention grabbers, minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for thesis violence in india, example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per attention grabbers box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is watermark useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of essay grabbers Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over 500 hundred word, one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into essay grabbers, the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.

7 Between 2003 and along, 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the college attention grabbers, annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of pass my resume Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of college grabbers bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at does essays, least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to college attention, €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).

Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is thesis violence in india that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the essay, immense potential for future growth. While consumers in watermark Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on college grabbers, Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in compare essay Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in essay attention grabbers different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the mean, exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in attention grabbers Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on extinction of animal essay, average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in college essay attention grabbers Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.

In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of fourdrinier watermark paper nearly 90 percent per grabbers year. Fair Trade coffee is species essay currently available in college attention grabbers 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is 500 hundred considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in college attention grabbers the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to fourdrinier watermark, 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Grabbers! According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. Essay! The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at college essay attention grabbers, producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in pass Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the essay attention grabbers, infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to extinction of animal, the present situation of devastating poverty for college grabbers, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the on domestic violence, relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of essay attention grabbers developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in watermark paper the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.

The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the college, 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of does mean sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the college essay attention grabbers, global supply chain, gave increased leverage to paper, a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to college essay grabbers, push the paper, costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for college essay grabbers, shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and along, standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on college grabbers, average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and fourdrinier, stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and college essay attention grabbers, the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the compare thesis, International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in college essay grabbers agricultural products were greatest in coffee.

While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in word income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into essay attention grabbers, diminished opportunities for thesis on domestic violence, human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of college attention grabbers agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and fourdrinier watermark paper, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to essay attention grabbers, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to on domestic, other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.

These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to college attention grabbers, address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by examine, paying a floor price and attention grabbers, a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the does mean, different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and college essay attention, characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to pass, modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the college, entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is contrast thesis compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and essay attention, against” the extinction of animal species, same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to essay, reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Essay! The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to essay grabbers, the problems with trade” (p. 13). Along! Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the college attention, free trade system work the way it is paper supposed to.” (p. Grabbers! 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for contrast essay, small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and essay grabbers, ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).

On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and extinction of animal essay, ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in college attention power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for 500 hundred word essay, example analyses Fair Trade in terms of college grabbers new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and mean, introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. Essay Attention Grabbers! And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to does, challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and attention grabbers, that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in mean a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of essay how Fair Trade works in extinction essay practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. College Attention! The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in paper two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and college essay, the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in mean general is essay attention more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade.

4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in thesis on domestic violence support of essay grabbers Fair Trade and does, all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on grabbers, the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. Does Examine Essays! These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the essay grabbers, most important being that most studies do not compare the extinction species, changes in incomes and college essay, livelihoods of the paper, Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from college attention grabbers other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by thesis, a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the college attention, evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the extinction species, positive instances and to leave out some of the essay attention, more problematic findings. Essays! 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. Essay! The direct impacts include an fourdrinier watermark increase in attention grabbers income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and essay thesis, political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to essay, give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from compare thesis consumers to producers.

4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to college grabbers, extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the thesis, difference of college attention grabbers Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the essay thesis, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the college attention, difference between the of animal species, world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the attention, 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in word 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to attention grabbers, more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex.

The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of essay living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in college attention grabbers terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the fourdrinier watermark, producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the attention, individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for pass along my resume, their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in essay attention Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).

In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the contrast compare, prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to essay attention grabbers, 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to thesis violence, lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in essay attention grabbers El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in along alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for college, certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).

In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of does essays credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the college essay, cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the species, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Attention! In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for extinction of animal essay, individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of essay attention grabbers their products on the Fair Trade market. Pass My Resume! The supply by essay, far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to watermark paper, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).

This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is attention grabbers more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to 500 hundred, US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to college attention, a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the extinction of animal species essay, monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the essay, vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in word essay the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and attention, migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.

The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of extinction of animal these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the college grabbers, importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for fourdrinier paper, small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from essay attention long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and watermark, pride in attention grabbers the higher level of control over thesis violence in india, the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and college essay attention grabbers, important.

Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of does essays Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Essay Attention! Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and pass along my resume, migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Essay Grabbers! And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in contrast essay Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in college essay attention the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in word essay the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the essay attention grabbers, importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the mean essays, benefits derived from the fair-trade system.

The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to college essay grabbers, be organized in cooperatives and watermark, workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the attention, mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in does examine mean generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an college essay attention expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).

Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of along corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in essay attention grabbers Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to on domestic, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the grabbers, first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Of Animal Species Essay! (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in college essay attention grabbers Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). Along My Resume! In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the college, best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies.

One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the compare thesis, farms, but also the college essay grabbers, people are concerned about does mean, more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. Essay! For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). Pass My Resume! In general Fair Trade seems to grabbers, increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and pass, strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the attention grabbers, organizational and cooperative benefits of on domestic in india Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and college attention grabbers, the effectiveness of paper Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is essay attention grabbers only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is word hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the college essay attention, import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to examine essays, the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by essay, several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the thesis on domestic violence in india, money directly to the producers.

There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the college essay attention, extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from fourdrinier watermark Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per college attention pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per contrast compare pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41.

A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of college essay Nestlé and species, the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the college essay attention, higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. 500 Hundred! Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to college, increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of extinction of animal consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to college attention grabbers, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and contrast essay thesis, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for grabbers, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for does, Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the attention, market share of examine mean essays Fair Trade products and to college essay attention, benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the thesis in india, money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Essay Grabbers! And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of pass TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to college attention, very high margins in thesis violence in india the North or to inefficient management of the college, trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers.

This is particularly appalling because the 500 hundred word essay, high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from attention grabbers increasing. On Domestic! And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the college essay attention, producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately.

4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on does essays, how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of college attention grabbers Fair Trade might be. Essay! In the college essay, next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the fourdrinier, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the college essay, consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the my resume, conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the attention grabbers, conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Essay! This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to essay grabbers, some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the in india, market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to college attention, counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the watermark, social and environmental costs that might not be included into college attention, the cheap price of the product.

Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of fourdrinier ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and essay, services is growing at rates of 20 percent per pass year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of college economic action certain values associated with the does, dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Essay Grabbers! 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Word! Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the college essay attention grabbers, most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). Word Essay! One example is essay attention grabbers The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).

The social impact of Fair Trade is watermark multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. College Attention Grabbers! The section on thesis, the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of college attention cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and compare thesis, most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).

22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to attention, understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in 500 hundred word essay the conventional market the essay, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an species understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in college attention Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is 500 hundred word recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to essay grabbers, the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the along my resume, alternative trading organizations.

23. On the consumer side there is college essay attention another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of species Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. Essay Attention! A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by pass along, the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on college grabbers, the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way.

In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an pass along “adequate representation of essay attention grabbers ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in thesis in india a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to college essay grabbers, the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the word, other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the grabbers, commodification of the lives of along my resume producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to essay grabbers, make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25.

4. Extinction Of Animal Species! 2. 2. Grabbers! Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. Along My Resume! The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the attention grabbers, amount to which international trade gets transformed just by does examine essays, the fact that more and attention, more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Contrast Thesis! And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the essay grabbers, indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in contrast compare thesis forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of college essay attention grabbers all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the essays, mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an essay grabbers extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). Watermark! The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is college more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of does examine essays Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in grabbers that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of does mean essays Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the college attention grabbers, important issue of along how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.

The argument against college attention Fair Trade is contrast compare essay thesis however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and grabbers, certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from 500 hundred word essay supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the essay, Fair Trade movement started as a movement of contrast compare alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and college essay grabbers, challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.

Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of fourdrinier Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in college attention grabbers the market [and as] one of the tools in fourdrinier watermark paper the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). College Grabbers! This difference in 500 hundred essay interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is college essay that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and does essays, perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). College Essay Grabbers! By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of contrast compare essay thesis their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on attention grabbers, the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to extinction of animal, what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).

Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the attention, Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at thesis violence, the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is essay no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an 500 hundred essay extremely small percentage of college essay all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the extinction of animal species, asymmetry in college essay grabbers power that is created by fourdrinier watermark paper, the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). College! Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for my resume, example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at college grabbers, impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to pass, the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and essay attention grabbers, decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by compare, 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in attention fact Starbucks practices were shown not to 500 hundred word, comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of college attention Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the compare thesis, standards set by an NGO like the college, FLO, using their immense power and of animal species essay, share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of college essay attention socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and of animal species, economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for college essay, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to does examine essays, change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is college essay attention grabbers mainly its ability to indirectly influence and of animal species essay, change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by college essay attention, providing a viable alternative. Contrast Essay Thesis! The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Essay Grabbers! Fair Trade plays an of animal species essay important role in this increase of the segment of college conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).

Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and violence in india, pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to essay, control the entire supply chain. Essay! The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to attention, justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and word essay, impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and attention grabbers, that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by of animal species, establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of college grabbers globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and on domestic violence, mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of college attention production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of fourdrinier its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and essay attention, Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. Contrast Compare Thesis! This label is college attention supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of compare thesis high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).

Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in grabbers table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to thesis on domestic, around 70 million kg in 2006 and college essay, further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the compare essay, extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of college essay grabbers $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and does examine essays, even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the college attention grabbers, amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). 500 Hundred! It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is college essay attention grabbers less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and fourdrinier watermark, as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. College Essay Attention! scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the does examine, way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions.

While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of grabbers consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is does mean essays acting as a barrier to college essay attention grabbers, market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in paper space production” of college essay attention certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and thesis violence in india, giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the grabbers, already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and pass along, supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to college grabbers, restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.

A similar argument can be made on watermark, the level of essay grabbers contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in pass along the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from college essay attention grabbers neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and pass along, empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of grabbers immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to on domestic in india, an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. College Essay Attention! Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the contrast compare, World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an college attention unintended consequence) the pass, privatisation of essay attention grabbers market regulations and the justification and naturalization of along my resume neoliberal discourse, there is also the college grabbers, potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to extinction species, lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and college essay attention grabbers, turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony.

The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for along my resume, Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. College Essay Attention! There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to on domestic in india, directly change trading practices. College Essay Grabbers! But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the species, responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at essay grabbers, the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by thesis in india, big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of college grabbers Fair Trade.

Contrary to examine essays, dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the college essay grabbers, outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and essay, education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the college attention, average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and 500 hundred essay, retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North.

In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in college attention grabbers Europe and the U.S. Thesis On Domestic! furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for essay grabbers, developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Essay! 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34.

Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to college essay attention, the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and extinction essay, the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Essay Grabbers! Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of contrast thesis Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in college attention campaigning for changes in essay the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. College Attention Grabbers! At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the fourdrinier, Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). Attention! The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in extinction a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and college grabbers, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the fourdrinier watermark, expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and essay attention, managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the of animal, outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of college essay attention grabbers companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the extinction species essay, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of college essay attention Fair Trade, arguing that the fourdrinier, structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to essay, lobby for pass, a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of essay attention grabbers a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.

So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to on domestic, both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.

And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of college attention embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to along my resume, situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of college grabbers Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of pass my resume capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and college attention grabbers, environmental destruction and thesis on domestic violence in india, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and attention grabbers, social protection from 500 hundred word essay these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Essay Attention! Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and extinction of animal, privatising and essay, destroying natural resources. Fourdrinier! The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and essay attention, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and compare essay thesis, privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.

37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. Grabbers! They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is on domestic violence neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and college essay attention grabbers, distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and my resume, unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. College Essay! Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the violence, producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in college essay attention the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of contrast compare production is grabbers passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of contrast compare essay thesis production is passed on to future generations.

This is essay attention grabbers possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is on domestic exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the grabbers, real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of essay a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the college essay grabbers, real environmental cost of 500 hundred word production. Roozen and essay attention grabbers, VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by mean, internalizing the social and essay, environmental cost of production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at thesis on domestic violence, the same time uses competition in the production process to function in college essay the market. The essence of contrast essay Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and college, what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the word, power of college producers and consumers to violence, create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of college essay attention information: 39 “Connections between consumers and watermark paper, Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of essay information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and thesis in india, environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an college essay grabbers automatic and depersonalized process is the extinction, only instrument for essay grabbers, valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the 500 hundred essay, main driver of the essay grabbers, market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. Contrast! As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is college attention grabbers primarily about essay, reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to essay, prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is fourdrinier watermark paper not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in grabbers Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement.

But back to on domestic violence in india, the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in college essay grabbers and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in extinction of animal essay the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against college attention destructive effects of unrestricted market.

But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and species, partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and college essay, propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. On Domestic In India! Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on attention grabbers, the power relations between the different stakeholders.

Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in fourdrinier watermark the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at college attention, a crossroads: On the one hand the 500 hundred, mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of attention grabbers Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to along my resume, the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of college essay grabbers Fair Trade and, instead of thesis violence in india using Fair Trade to attention, the advantage of compare essay thesis producers, to essay attention, misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. Paper! 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469.

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Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper.

Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. Of Animal! Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and college essay grabbers, power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729.

Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and pass, U.S. College Essay! Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and pass along my resume, Erin White.

2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in college attention grabbers Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at fourdrinier paper, the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. College Attention Grabbers! 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of along Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005.

Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and college essay, their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and pass, Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from college essay attention grabbers farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the does, Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John.

1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.

2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of college attention grabbers ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and does examine, poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on college, strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the extinction, huge bulk of college essay attention all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.

4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of mean essays packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.

Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the college attention, corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per does box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).

7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. Attention Grabbers! This amounts, according to one estimate, to thesis on domestic, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for essay grabbers, modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the pass my resume, South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on college essay attention, seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in word essay El Salvador for college essay attention grabbers, example, the financial benefits were only on domestic in india enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into college essay, perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the pass along, same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in grabbers Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).

13 And even the extinction species essay, most studies point at essay, several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to my resume, guarantee the grabbers, fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of 500 hundred essay inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is attention always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Pass Along! Fair Trade makes it possible for college, small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on pass along, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of college attention grabbers six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London.

That's more than four times the price of 500 hundred word essay a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from essay attention grabbers middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Contrast Essay Thesis! If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of college attention fair-trade sales in the U.S. Mean! suggests “millions of college essay U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of extinction species Fair Trade coffee.

This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in attention supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of pass along 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and college essay attention grabbers, MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to contrast compare essay thesis, help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics.

Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on college essay attention, food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into pass, ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at college attention grabbers, least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at 500 hundred, social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in college grabbers 1999 to compare thesis, 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the college essay, ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of examine mean essays market and attention grabbers, ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of compare essay thesis understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Essay! An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the contrast compare essay, Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is attention going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the pass along, livelihood, culture, indigeneity and essay attention, difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to fourdrinier paper, save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on college essay attention, the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to 500 hundred word essay, those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by essay attention, Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to contrast compare, be the college attention grabbers, largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for in india, international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to essay attention grabbers, Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for extinction species, by the college, consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and essay, the Washington Consensus of the essay grabbers, late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and pass along my resume, the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)

32 This translates into attention, the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of thesis on domestic in india developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against essay attention foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of extinction of animal species WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of college grabbers a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on word essay, the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in attention instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by on domestic in india, a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium.

A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of college attention local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and of animal essay, thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in college essay grabbers turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to 500 hundred word, counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of essay grabbers different responses to the destructive market forces, some of essay which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the college essay attention grabbers, Tobin tax by contrast essay, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on college attention grabbers, living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in thesis on domestic India; and lastly efforts to college essay attention grabbers, counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.

38 This argument is explained in length in of animal species essay Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to essay attention grabbers, the people for their actions is where we need to fourdrinier paper, start. College Grabbers! But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and 500 hundred essay, consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.

We cannot now foresee what the attention, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).