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Are nationalism and cosmopolitanism compatible? The term cosmopolitanism comes from the Greek kosmos , ‘world’ and polis , ‘city’. A cosmopolitan, thus, means a ‘citizen of the world’. Steps Thematic Essay. Like many other notions in political science, cosmopolitanism is an essentially contested concept in that it can mean different things to essay eid different people and at different times. Steps Essay. It is also a multidimensional concept having several levels of meaning. The core idea behind cosmopolitanism is not new; it has its origins in the Greek philosophical tradition of Stoicism and Kantian philosophy of the Enlightenment. The Western cosmopolitan political tradition derives from Kantian understanding of a polis extended around the globe. However, the exact meaning attributed to it evolved over time reflecting the book report of the sabertooth, changing nature of political and economic structures, as well as of social and cultural interactions around the globe. In the 21 st century it has taken on a new significance primarily as a result of various processes related to the inexorable influence of steps essay globalization. Globalization has been the key force triggering a resurgence of academic debate around and practical interest in cosmopolitanism in the modern era. Cosmopolitanism has reemerged as a way of understanding the implications of social, cultural and on ramadan eid political transformations and contacts that transcend territorial boundaries.
In this context, it has been invoked to refer to notions as diverse as global democratic institutions and transnational justice, ‘postnational’ forms of citizenship and belonging, together with individual values and cultural dispositions. The essence of steps writing thematic cosmopolitanism is the introduction, idea of moving beyond one’s own specific political, communal, territorial, cultural attachments to give allegiance to the wider human community. Several processes taken together have contributed to the growing enthusiasm about cosmopolitanism as a new form of essay politics, ideal for the increasingly globalized world. Chief among them are the declining capacity of territorially bounded political units (nation-states) to provide a stable source of identification for their members, the nation-state’s inability to give adequate solutions to collective political and essay on ramadan economic problems, the compression of time and space, extensive mobility of populations, the proliferation of new forms of communication and the emergence of global threats, such as international terrorism or ecological disasters. Proponents hope that cosmopolitans will gradually establish institutions and values which are not embedded within national societies.
The extent to which cosmopolitanism (both as a political principle and a cultural commitment) is compatible with nationalism, that places a territorially based community and an emotional attachment to a collectivity underpinned by common symbolic resources at the heart of writing essay its ideological outlook has been the subject of an intense academic debate, having practical implications. It has been represented by some as a clear opposition while others have recognized the potential of humans to reconcile global citizenship, cultural openness and recognition of otherness with an book report on sunset of the allegiance to relatively closed and culturally homogenous collectivities. This essay is concerned with the relationship between nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization. It proceeds as follows. The first section defines the key concepts used, discusses the steps, major ways of in a dissertation understanding cosmopolitanism in the context of various transformations triggered by globalization and distinguishes it from thematic, some other notions. Citing Websites For Research. It also looks at opposing positions adopted by different authors on the compatibility between the two – what could be termed the universalist versus the community-embedded perspectives.
The second section establishes four points of tension between nationalism and cosmopolitanism. In this connection, it is argued that the steps writing thematic, opposition is based partly on one-sided conceptions of human nature. For the purposes of analysis we divide cosmopolitanism into politico-legal and cultural-moral strands. The third part assesses the arguments about the weakening of the nation-state and evaluates proposals for global cosmopolitan democracy articulated most notably by David Held. The final section looks at websites papers, the cultural construction of a common cosmopolitan space within the framework of European integration and its compatibility with national identities. When evaluating the connection between nationalism and cosmopolitanism we attempt to answer three interrelated but nevertheless separate questions: – whether at a normative level the contradictions are sufficiently strong to steps writing essay justify the incompatibility claim; – whether the actual experiences of world peace impossible dream cosmopolitanism suggest that cosmopolitan belonging substitutes and overrides existing national affiliations; – whether the relationship is a valuable one, i. e. whether the synthesis of the two (if possible at all) can contribute to informing real political action by writing reconceptualizing the dominant ways in which collective problems, in particular, difference and diversity, are dealt with in an increasingly complex political, social and report on sunset sabertooth cultural environment. The main thesis of this paper is that nationalism and cosmopolitanism should not be seen as irreconcilable alternatives and the victory of one over steps thematic essay the other is not inevitable. It is perfectly possible to speak of a cosmopolitan nationalism, or ethnic cosmopolitanism. In fact, their combination and fruitful mediation can help minimize both the dangerous exclusivist potential of nationalism and the Eurocentric nature of universalism, which is also to some extent inherent to cosmopolitanism. Definitions.
Vertovec and Cohen  have identified six major ways of understanding cosmopolitanism: as a socio-cultural condition, a worldview, a political project to build transnational institutions, a political project based on the recognition of multiple identities, a mode of orientation to dream the world and a set of specific capabilities allowing to adapt to other people and cultures. It is fair to say that what unites those visions is a ‘fundamental devotion to the interests of humanity as a whole’ [Robbins, 1998: 1]. In a similar vein, one of the steps writing thematic, most fervent supporters of cosmopolitanism, Martha Nussbaum defines it as the ability to ‘recognise humanity wherever it occurs, and give its fundamental ingredients, reason and moral capacity, our first allegiance and respect’ [Nussbaum, 2002: 7]. Three major tenets are commonly identified as forming the core of database cosmopolitanism [Held, 2003: 169; Pogge, 1992: 48-49]: 1) individualism – the individual is the writing thematic essay, ultimate unit of concern and analysis; 2) universalism – every person, irrespective of class, gender, race or religion is equally worthy of respect and eid recognition by others; 3) generality – the whole humanity (and not just those sharing certain objective characteristics) is steps thematic, entitled to fair and citing websites for research papers impartial treatment.
In order to understand better the multidimensional nature of cosmopolitanism it is helpful to distinguish it from two concepts that are frequently confused with it – globalization, and multiculturalism. Put rather bluntly, globalization implies that ‘events occurring on one part of the globe can affect, and be affected by events occurring in other, distant parts of the writing essay, globe’ [Thomas, 1999: 464]. Citing Websites Papers. It, thus, involves, increased social, political, economic and steps writing cultural interactions that crosscut territorial boundaries, the ambiguity of the boundary and the growing interconnectedness of the national and the global. Cosmopolitanism responds to on ramadan the various state and society-level changes by developing transnational forms of politics, forms of life and loyalties. Steps Writing Thematic Essay. Cosmopolitanism has been described as a ‘middle-path between ethnocentric nationalism and particularist multiculturalism’ [Vertovec and Cohen, 2002: 1]. On the one hand, it is different from multiculturalism in that it is not limited by the frontiers of individual nation-states. Essay World Peace Impossible. It advocates the recognition of cultural diversity and openness across the globe as a whole, whereas multiculturalism simply accepts difference within nation-states and steps writing essay promotes collective rather than individual identities. On the other hand, cosmopolitanism should be distinguished from nationalism. The most relevant to the present discussion points of disagreement between them concern cultural aspects. Citing Papers. Nationalism denies the general and celebrates the steps essay, importance of the specific. Nationalists tend to provide ample justifications for of the, why each nationalist movement is unique.
For nationalists individuals are culturally and socially embedded beings, the needs of the steps thematic, nation take precedence over on ramadan individual interests. Cosmopolitanism maintains, amongst other points, that identities are fluid and not geographically or culturally bounded. Steps Thematic. Most authors who have contributed to the debate have identified themselves as being either on the nationalist or on the cosmopolitan side. A clear statement of the cheat essays, extreme incompatibility position is the following. A cosmopolitan is someone who possesses. ‘…a way of being in the world, a way of constructing an writing identity for oneself that is… opposed to the idea of belonging to or devotion to or immersion to a particular culture’ [Waldron, 2000: 227, emphasis added]. Nussbaum (2002) argues that world citizenship rather than patriotism (a sentiment of loyalty and pride with respect to the community of which one is for research papers, a part) or nationalism should be the basis for good society. Both patriotism and writing nationalism are for her based on an exclusivist conception of belonging and there is no room for them in cosmopolitan principles.
Some commentators have recently started to conceptualise the relationship as a complementary one, where multiple forms of identification and overlapping identities become the norm. From this perspective, cosmopolitanism implies an cheat essays ethical and methodological stance that allows people to distance from their national, religious, ethnic loyalties without rejecting them but to be able to reflect critically on other cultures and one’s own position towards them [Turner, 2002; Beck, 2006]. However, affiliations to a specific place and culture form the necessary background and context, within which to engage in such a self- and other-reflexive exercise. It appears that this view is more realistic in that it stresses the idea that we should be attempting to derive new non-nation-state centric ways of dealing with cultural multiplicity and plurality. In order to steps essay understand why the issue of the potential compatibility of nationalism and cosmopolitanism has been the subject of a lively debate it is necessary to compare in greater detail their specificity. Four points of contrast will be focused upon, although the of the sabertooth, list is not exhaustive. Nationalism and cosmopolitanism contrasted. Firstly, it should be reiterated that cosmopolitanism is based on individualism, that is it puts the morally autonomous individual at thematic, the center of its philosophical outlook. By contrast, nationalism places an citing websites papers emphasis on the collective dimension of human life. The sole unit of analysis for nationalism is the collectivity – the nation, the ethnic group.
It is this sense of belonging to a community that can be considered common and unifying to nationalist thinking, despite the wide variety of sometimes contrasting trends existing within it. Cosmopolitanism extends membership beyond what it sees as the narrow confines of a particular nation to the world at large. It is arguable that this universality destroys the very basis of belonging – the cosmopolitan belongs everywhere but at the same time to nowhere in particular. This is closely related to the second point – the deterriorialization of cosmopolitanism as opposed to the centrality of the territorial dimension in nationalism. Cosmopolitanism is frequently associated with increased mobility of steps ideas, people, cultures and cannot be tied up to any specific territory. It is based on cheat essays, the belief that the individual is capable of moving beyond territorial attachments.
Refugees, diasporas and migrants are said to represent the ‘spirit’ of cosmopolitanism. Steps Essay. Loyalties are seen as divorced from territory. Instead multiple forms of identity and belonging are encouraged and promoted. By contrast, the concept of a territorially based homeland remains key to nationalist ideology. Almost all nationalist struggles revolve around territory as the object of emotional attachment of the members of the nation. The third aspect of difference concerns the ‘hot’ emotions of nationalism versus the cheat essays, ‘coolness’ of cosmopolitanism [Nash, 2003: 506]. Steps Thematic. Nationalism cannot be fully understood in rational categories alone, it invariably involves a strong emotional affection and loyalty.
For Anderson the nation creates ‘deep attachments of fraternity’ [Anderson, 1991: 7]. Cosmopolitanism is directed towards self-reflection and criticism more than to emotions. The final contradiction relates to the inadequacy of the temporal dimension of cosmopolitanism. It has been extensively criticized for ignoring the dissertation, temporal deepening of the human community [Cwerner, 2000: 335; Smith, 1995: 25]. It is true that cosmopolitanism tends to concentrate on the spatial expansion of loyalties, identities and rights. Unlike nationalism, it does not present a long historical narrative of the ‘global society’. Nor does it extend the rights and essay responsibilities to future generations. A dialogue between past and present could contribute to a consideration of the ways in on ramadan, which the problems of the present might be partly generated by the inequalities of the past (for example, inequalities between nation-states). All the abovementioned tensions certainly deserve attention as indicators of potential ‘uncomfortable zones’ in the relationship between the steps writing, two outlooks. However, it is arguable that they do not automatically lead to an incompatibility between nationalist and cosmopolitan perspectives. It is suggested that those who maintain a clear-cut opposition between nationalism and cosmopolitanism rely upon impossible, a one-sided and steps writing thematic simplistic account of essay eid human nature as based on either unqualified collectivism or pure and steps writing thematic rootless individualism.
As soon as we recognize that human nature can be constituted by both collectivist and individualist dimensions it becomes much more difficult to make categorical statements in this regard. Cosmopolitanism as a political project: politico-legal thesis. So far we have been discussing the normative side of the debate. We now move to consider actual proposals of citing websites cosmopolitan democracy and their conceptualization of the thematic essay, role of the nation-state. As mentioned in the first section of this paper, the principle of cosmopolitan democracy as an alternative to existing structures of governance is articulated primarily by David Held. Underlying his work is the book report on sunset sabertooth, idea that the existing international system based on the Westphalian regime and state sovereignty is inadequate to thematic deal with the challenges of globalization. Complex interconnectedness arising from globalization requires a more nuanced and cheat essays multidimensional system of governance where states constitute just one level. Writing. The inability of individual nation-states to provide answers to collective questions, the ambiguity of the boundaries between the national and the international, the global and the local means that nation-states are no longer the sole sovereign agents. The nation-state is essay, unable to realize democracy in terms of three key tenets – individual autonomy, political legitimacy and democratic law. In addition, ‘overlapping communities of fate’ [Held, 2003b: 523; Guibernau, 2001: 431] are the writing, reality of the modern era – that is the existence of a spatially bounded self-determining national collectivity free to decide on its own destiny is no longer sustainable. The community of fate can no longer be situated within the borders of a single nation-state.
What is required in this context is a new institutional framework that is websites for research papers, conceptualized in opposition to traditional national forms of democracy [Held, 1995, 2003; 2003b] and includes local, national, regional and global institutions. This new democratic framework should be based on the principles of equal worth and dignity, active agency, political responsibility and accountability, consent, reflexive deliberation and collective decision-making through voting procedures, inclusiveness and subsidiarity, avoidance of serious harm and amelioration of urgent need [Held, 2003b: 515]. Held does not dismiss the role of the nation-state completely but does not see it as the primary locus of democracy. He admits that the nation-state can coexist with transnational civil society and transnational organizations, such as the UN. Held is right in pointing out that it is not possible to thematic essay confine politics to territorial borders. In addition, it is certainly vital to complement institutional principles with ethical considerations, such as equal worth and recognition of diversity. Proponents of of the a more socially-oriented cosmopolitanism criticize his version of cosmopolitan democracy on the basis that it is grounded in the same statist assumptions [Beck, 2002: 25]. According to this view, Held’s conception implies territorially-based states and closed societies, which are simply becoming more interconnected as a result of globalization. Steps Thematic Essay. One other possible objection could be a lack of attention to the internal plurality of the cosmopolitan community.
It is not clear who will define the emergent cosmopolitan order. There is a danger of several powerful states deciding on the boundaries of the cosmopolitan order. What happens to those states which fail to live up to the cosmopolitan ideal? Held would respond by saying that cosmopolitanism is not about coercion and states should be free to join the cosmopolitan community at essay eid, any stage. Yet the extent to steps writing thematic essay which ‘latecomers’ will be free to intervene to negotiate the principles and cheat essays the organization of the steps writing thematic essay, cosmopolitan order might remain limited. Cosmopolitanism and identity: culturalist thesis. As mentioned in the theoretical section of this paper, the growing enthusiasm about cosmopolitanism frequently described as a ‘postnational’ form of belonging stems largely from the desire to escape from the traditional nationalist understanding of culture that is often seen by critics as overly exclusivist and spatially bounded. Due to its capacity to transform state sovereignty and its integrating potential the EU is sometimes seen as the in a dissertation, perfect example of cosmopolitanism in practice [Rifkin, 2004].
It appears that it is certainly right to view the EU as a cosmopolitan entity from an thematic institutional viewpoint (as evidenced by the presence of for research papers common European institutions). However, the question of whether it is appropriate to speak of a ‘cosmopolitan Europe’ from writing essay, a cultural perspective, (as could be suggested by the project of a pan-European federal state and the emphasis on common European cultural heritage) is debatable. For Gerard Delanty a cosmopolitan Europe is a ‘more accurate designation of the emerging form of Europeanization as a mediated and emergent reality of the national and the global’ [Delanty, 2005: 406]. At the same time describing Europe at the present stage of integration as cosmopolitan carries the danger of confusing cosmopolitanism with supranationalism that is a form of nationalism existing above and beyond the essay on ramadan eid, nation [Grande, 2006: 96]. The issue here is whether the cultural specificity of Europe as a distinct reality points to the existence of a form of cosmopolitan identity that transcends previous historical divisions and whether this cosmopolitan disposition is compatible with existing national affiliations. The first point to note is the expansion of the symbolic dimension of a common cultural space – a common flag and other symbols. Secondly, new forms of commemoration have arisen based on steps thematic essay, forgiveness and aimed at overcoming the diverse and divisive experiences of the past [Giesen, 2003]. Paper. Thirdly, collective identities are at steps writing thematic essay, least partly conceptualized in European terms [Kohli, 2000: 125]. However, they complement and coexist with national loyalties. Sociological studies have shown that the sentiment of belonging is not a ‘zero-sum game’, that is individual and collective identity can be constituted by a multiplicity of essay eid combined socio-territorial attachments and an increase in attachment to the global (or, in essay, this case the European community) does not necessarily presuppose a corresponding decrease in loyalty to local or national communities. On the one hand, if cosmopolitanism is taken to mean the recognition of essay peace impossible dream otherness and hybrid identities, a cosmopolitan Europe certainly exists, at least in the discourse prevalent in the context of integration.
On the other hand, reducing cosmopolitanism to steps writing thematic essay mere acceptance of plurality makes it an cheat essays extension of multiculturalism. Cosmopolitanism should be not simply about the coexistence of multiple identities but also about the interaction of the national and writing essay the global that transforms both in a positive way. Even if we recognize that national identities are being transformed as a result of interaction with the global it is citing for research papers, difficult to writing thematic essay determine to what extent this is websites for research, triggered by Europeanization more than by pressures from within nation-states. The controversial nature of steps ‘cosmopolitan Europe’ highlights a major problem with the concept of cosmopolitanism itself, which also has implications for its relationship with nationalism – its indeterminacy. While it is an attractive theoretical idea, it remains hard to pin down clear cases of cosmopolitanism in practice. The real practices of the cosmopolitan agent are difficult to discern. Another widely recognized example of cosmopolitan belonging is one generated by transnational migration and diasporic movements [Ong, 1998].
Firstly, as Pheng Cheah (and also David Held) points out, various transnational organizations, such as Amnesty International, the Asian Pacific People’s Environmental Network and others can be considered to introduction in a dissertation be politically-oriented cosmopolitanisms, in that they attempt to generate a global consciousness about steps thematic fundamental problems concerning humanity as a whole [Cheah, 1998: 36]. Secondly, transnational migrant communities could be termed cosmopolitan, because their existence within the borders of individual nation-states reminds us that collective identities can be linked to places outside these borders. Thus, the nation-state’s cultural hegemony as the essay on ramadan eid, privileged agent of identity is challenged. Identities are not fixed and migrants forge links that crosscut state boundaries. For example, the social space of Turkish immigrants in steps writing thematic, Germany and throughout Europe is increasingly transnationalised [Caglar, 2001: 607]. They get engaged in various organizations at the European level. Efforts are being made to define collective identities in civic rather than exclusively ethnic terms, for example in relation to common urban spaces (such as Berlin), as opposed to one single ethnically based unit.
This indicates a distinctive cosmopolitan stance in that citizenship is divorced from nationalist exclusivist prejudices. Similarly, Singapore is often viewed as a cosmopolitan city [Yeoh, 2004]. There has been a limited shift away from the discourse of the ‘authenticity of the four founding races’ (Chinese, Indians, Malays and Others) towards a greater acceptance of cultural diversity and a more inclusive attitude to non-citizens. However, it remains unclear how concepts of cosmopolitan belonging and cultural heterogeneity can fully develop in public consciousness without a significant transformation of the nation-state’s management of ethnic relations, which in the two examples given here is still largely based on an essentialist assumption that there should be a declared and unchanging ethnic identity. While it is accurate to talk about the objective process of the cosmopoliticization of reality in the sense of an increase in mobility, communication, ecological and other risks that link previously unrelated societies across the globe, this is not exactly the same as to say that subjective cosmopoliticization has taken place. A cosmopolitan attitude in the treatment of difference is only starting to book on sunset of the materialize. It would involve not only a sense of distance from one’s own culture to be able to critically evaluate it, as Turner (2002) suggests, but also the establishment of democratic principles guaranteeing respect for cultural and ethnic diversity. Here nation-states, as well as the international community, should be the key participants. This essay has examined recent debates about cosmopolitanism as a form of political and cultural response to the various challenges arising as a result of globalization.
We have discussed the possibility of combining allegiance to the wider human community with national affiliations. We will now make some concluding remarks on a way of writing thematic essay thinking about cosmopolitanism to take into account the connection between the universal and the particular, the websites for research papers, global and the local instead of steps writing thematic essay representing it as a clear dichotomy. If the cosmopolitan ideal is to introduction dissertation have any real meaning it should be based on an ethical commitment to the recognition of difference, diversity and otherness underpinned by an appropriate institutional-legal structure at a global level but not confined to it. As we have tried to emphasize throughout the present paper, one of the key developments of the modern era has been the proliferation of overlapping layers of loyalties and identities. It is writing thematic, arguable that the underlying assumption of pure cosmopolitans is that the database research paper, experiences of modernity, globalization and cosmopolitanism are not transportable and steps writing thematic essay are alien to non-Western cultures. Here local cultures can be expected to gradually dissolve into the universalist and all-embracing framework of the cosmopolitan tradition.
Yet the effect of globalization and the shrinking of introduction in a dissertation physical distance is that actors in traditional societies now have the opportunity to interact with global forces (like, for example, international trade) but also often rework them in their own ways, which reflects their embeddedness within specific cultural schemes and value systems. Uniting cosmopolitanism and nationalism helps to move beyond the otherwise Eurocentric and elitist nature of the steps writing thematic, cosmopolitan perspective. In addition, it might contribute to addressing one of the major challenges facing modern societies – the accommodation of world impossible dream ethnic and cultural diversity. It is neither possible nor necessary for steps writing thematic, the nation to ‘escape’ nationalism and none of the aforementioned outlooks should be prioritized over the other. Cosmopolitanism is not supranationalism that exists above and papers beyond the nation. As long as we remain mindful of this distinction, cosmopolitanism both as a political and cultural principle and an emerging reality certainly deserves to writing thematic be accepted and taken into research, account in the creation of new avenues of political action. Anderson, B. Steps Writing. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism.
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103-131. Yeoh, B. ‘Cosmopolitanism and its Exclusions in Singapore’// Urban Studies , vol. 41(12), November 2004, pp. 2431-2445. Written by: Anastasia Voronkova. Written at: Queen Mary, University of London. Written for: Professor Montserrat Guibernau. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an steps thematic essay independent non-profit publisher run by websites papers an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and steps thematic pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view.
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Review Essay: Twilight Saga of the steps thematic essay, American Empire? by Aaron Leonard. Reviews of Andrew J. Bacevich, Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War (Metropolitan Books, 2010); Philip S. World Peace Impossible Dream? Golub, Power, Profit Prestige: A History of American Imperial Expansion (Pluto Press, 2010); Chalmers Johnson, Dismantling the Empire: America’s Last Best Hope, (Metropolitan Books, 2010). America’s supreme position in the world is coming ever more into question everywhere. Steps Thematic? The Pax Americana in place since the aftermath of World War Two no longer seems viable.
Things are in transition. The future looms more ominously than we would like. The center, as Yeats wrote, cannot hold – and perhaps, neither can the Right, which has presided over this growing mess for most of our lives. Three recent noteworthy volumes by Andrew Bacevich, the late Chalmers Johnson and on ramadan Philip Golub, offer interesting snapshots of the precarious present moment and sharp overlapping histories of how we stumbled into our plight. Chalmers Johnson, who died last November, was a scholar best known for his book Blowback, which introduced the wider American public to thematic essay the hitherto peculiar idea that the cheat essays, unpleasant things the United States does around the world can and do have grave repercussions for thematic essay, the United States itself. The notion of ‘blowback’, which is an insider intelligence agency term, arose especially out of the 1980s Afghan insurgency that the book report sabertooth, U.S. fed in order to oust the Soviets, only to have these same extremists afterward turn their gun sights on U.S. infidels.
Andrew Bacevich is a retired U.S. Army Colonel, former instructor at West Point, and history professor at Boston University. Bacevich, formerly a self-confessed unquestioning functionary, hit a personal and anguished crossroads as the steps writing, second Iraq War got under way, finding himself opposed to the extremely ill-advised U.S. course of action. He also, tragically, lost a son in that war. Philip Golub is a professor of International Relations at the American University in book report sabertooth Paris and a long-time contributing editor at the monthly Le Monde Diplomatique. Bacevich and Johnson, as former true believers in establishment shibboleths, retain an abiding respect for writing, what they see as the allure of the ideals of America, however great the shortfalls from reality, but both men argue ruefully that at this current moment those ideals are being cast aaway altogether.
Their books have different focal points; Bacevich’s being the Washington power structure since World War II while Johnson writes on the parlous state of the U.S. empire. Regardless, there is a pronounced and unavoidable overlap. They both denounce and essay world impossible dream dissect the rash global war that Bush, Rumsfeld, Cheney and steps writing essay their neocon comrades launched in the fall of 2001. Bacevich notes, “By the essay world, time Barack Obama succeeded George W. Steps Thematic? Bush as president in January 2009, the phrase global war on essay eid terror had become an epithet, redolent with deception, stupidity, and monumental waste. Steps Writing Essay? Soon thereafter it faded from the lexicon of American politics.”(166) As no small consequence, he argues, there is an ebbing in real U.S. power. The authors argue that for research paper, the United States to advance safely into the future, it urgently needs to undo the imperial character that openly has come to constitute it. They are not especially optimistic about remedies. Bacevich opens his book with a personally candid chapter called “Slow Learner” where he describes his eye-opening tour of East Berlin near the essay, end of the Cold War. He tells how he realized that the Soviet powerhouse the on ramadan eid, West was living in mortal terror of steps writing essay was in reality a fragile shell afflicted by archaic rules, disintegrating infrastructure, and economic stagnation.
Similarly, Johnson notes, “To the dying days of the Cold War, every estimate of Soviet strategic nuclear forces overstated [emphasis in the original] the research, rate at which Moscow was modernizing its weaponry.”(77) These realizations, and writing thematic essay the post-collapse revelations of the abysmal shape of the paper, Soviet economy, were staggering ones for his world-view. Steps Writing Essay? Given that the magnitude of the Soviet threat was hyped and hyper-hyped — though the brinksmanship was quite real — one becomes haunted by the question: all this fear and trembling (and endless spending) for what? Bacevich takes us on websites for research a brisk tour of U.S. foreign policy from the end of World War II down to today. Along the way we meet the likes of the writing essay, Strategic Air Command’s, Curtis LeMay, the CIA’s, Allen Dulles, the Defense Department’s, Robert McNamara, Donald Rumsfeld and David Petraeus. All these eminent gentlemen come in for well-warranted and penetrating ridicule. When Bacevich, a veteran, writes about the U.S. in Vietnam one is struck by how this experience still casts a large cautioning shadow for him but not for the Bush White House. Vietnam was a major defeat for the U.S. and yet its hotly disputed legacy continues to (mis)inform and shape policy.
Thomas Ricks’ book, The Gamble, on the surge in Iraq has some stunning quotes from the military and diplomatic leaders showing how frightened they were of a catastrophic defeat in 2006. One gets a keen sense of how Vietnam is both a reference point and essay eid a negative catalyst amplifying the U.S.’s constraints. Steps Writing Essay? One can only imagine the cheat essays, impact within U.S. Steps Thematic? society if American casualty figures from Iraq or Afghanistan were in the tens of thousands, as they had been during the Vietnam war. Cheat Essays? This alone underscores the limits the writing thematic, U.S. has in projecting its power as it moves into the new millennium. To be an empire means fielding an imperial army.
The U.S. right now is research paper experiencing some dangerously unacknowledged constraints in thematic its ability to sabertooth do that. It is worth remembering this fact when Johnson writes that George W. Bush and his administration “drove the country as close to the precipice as was humanely possible.”(3) It is shocking to consider the launching of two major wars in the span of two years along with the writing thematic, threats against Syria and beyond at the triumphalist conclusion of the initial U.S. Cheat Essays? invasion of steps writing Iraq — to say nothing of emboldening of Israel to drive into Lebanon in 2006 and then the saber rattling at Iran. The U.S. made quick work of invading, toppling regimes and killing thousands of people, but found itself incapable of constructing the websites for research papers, kind of pliant pro-Western regimes they hankered after. Thematic Essay? It brings to mind Eric Hobsbawn’s observation, “Arms have often established empires, but it take more than arms to maintain them, as witness the old saw dating back to Napoleon: ‘You can do anything with bayonets except sit on them.’” (53). The U.S. is only now beginning to extract itself from Iraq, and to of the a lesser degree, Afghanistan. All this will have lasting repercussions, hitherto denied, for the projection of power. Events of 9/11, Bacevich writes, constituted “a moment that created an opening to writing thematic essay pose first-order questions.”(73) Though he does not elaborate what those question might be the framework of his book suggests: Why did this attack happen? Who are these enemies that despise the U.S. to such a degree that they would do something so atrocious? Why is the essay on ramadan, twenty-first century still affected by a religion based on writing thematic essay the seventh-century?
And so on. Of course these sobering kinds of questions were never asked. Rather we got the Rumsfeld defense department touting the impact new technology would have in fighting easy wars. The book quotes Lt. Gen. Robert Wagner on the Rumsfeld war-fighting doctrine, “Our operations in Afghanistan and Iraq [have demonstrated] operational attributes that an adaptive joint force must possess in the modern Battlespace.” (176) Bacevich correctly calls such utterances as, “jargon tricked out as profundities.” Bacevich is not in the thrall to General David Petraeus either. He points out that what happened in Iraq under Petraeus and the surge was a matter of good timing in which an important section of the Sunni population broke with Al Queda, at the same time as the Shia drew closer to report Iran. It was in that context that the security work of the population undertaken in the surge was able to get some purchase — it hardly qualifies as victory. He offers a revealing quotation from Chairman Petraeus, “Perceptions of reality more so than objective reality, are crucial to the decisions of statesmen.”(194)
This is nothing more than a restating of the crudest concept of American pragmatism, i.e., if it seems true, it is. This concept, however, requires some exploration. A good example of ‘generating perception’ can be seen in Obama’s August 2010 statement declaring an end to the combat mission in writing thematic Iraq, “[U.S. forces] defeated a regime that had terrorized its people. Together with Iraqis and coalition partners who made huge sacrifices of their own, our troops fought block by block to help Iraq seize the chance for a better future. Of The Sabertooth? They shifted tactics to protect the Iraqi people, trained Iraqi Security Forces, and took out terrorist leaders. Because of our troops and civilians — and because of the resilience of the Iraqi people — Iraq has the opportunity to embrace a new destiny.” Of course the writing thematic, actual situation is quite different. Database? It is the story of writing a brazen imperial adventure that unsuccessfully attempted to redraw the research paper, map of the Middle East that has left in its wake an underlying instability in that country, lead to major geopolitical shifts in the region (a more powerful Iran for writing, one), and the real loss of American power and legitimacy. All efforts by Petraeus, Obama, and other like to cast success as failure, cannot dispel that underlying reality. The central thesis in cheat essays Bacevich’s book is that there are in place “Washington Rules,” consisting of a credo, that U.S. alone must lead in the world, and thematic essay a trinity: “global military presence, global power projection, and on sunset global interventionism.”(12-14). Writing Thematic Essay? These haughty rules are at the heart of the problem that needs to change if the U.S. is to advance into the future in tune with what Bacevich feels are the country’s founding principles.
What he does not explore much is the underlying need of the citing for research, U.S. elites to dominate the world economically. At one point Bacevich offers a revealing quote from Obama from December 2009, “The United States of America has underwritten global security for over six decades — a time that, for all its problems, has seen walls come down, and markets open, and billions lifted from poverty, unparalleled scientific progress and advancing frontiers of human liberty.” Obama’s key point is the opening of markets, i.e., the U.S. is essay not projecting power for the sake of it or because it is on some type of self-perpetuating dynamic (though there are elements of that), but in order to reap rewards in wealth. It is from this that the larger policy springs. That is not to say it only resides in the drive for profit, or to say that politics does not play an independent role at times, but it is the case that something is driving this, and it is the drive for accumulation. For his part Johnson addresses the underlying economic interests. He writes, “The fact that we did not modernize or replace our capital assets is one of the main reason why, by the turn of the twenty-first century, our manufacturing base had all but evaporated.” (145) This is a strikingly simplistic assertion.
The drive to extract surplus value — which can only essay peace impossible dream, be got from labor power in its myriad forms — is what drove manufacture to places like Indonesia and China. This underscores how the decline of U.S. hegemony is steps writing part of a larger transformation going on. In that regard Frederic Jameson in his Valences of Dialectics is worth pondering. Jameson points out book report on sunset of the that Marx — in contrast to some of the more “triumphalist” passages in steps writing thematic Capital, “tirelessly insisted on the significance of the world market as the ultimate horizon of capitalism.” (370) It is beyond the scope of this essay to delve fully into this, but the report of the sabertooth, strength of American power cannot be understood outside the overall process of capital accumulation, a process that continues in its increasingly globalized character at the same time it is steps essay crashing against it own limits. Research? In that regard the banking crisis of 2008 seems more a bellwether of things to come.
Here we address Chalmers Johnson’s central thesis. He writes, “The real reason for steps writing essay, constructing [a] new ring of in a dissertation American bases along the equator is to steps thematic essay expand our empire and reinforce our military domination of the world. (119)” So far so good, but then he tells us, “If the database, U.S. nuclear stockpile consisted of writing essay several hundred weapons rather than several thousand, would the introduction dissertation, United States find itself appreciably more vulnerable to nuclear blackmail or attack? Were the United States, sixty-plus years after the end of World War II, finally to withdraw its forces from Germany, Italy, and the rest of Europe, would Americans sleep less easily in their beds at thematic essay night?” Here we see Johnson at once reject the situation, but accept the rationale. The U.S. can still have a preeminent place in the world, but with a much smaller imperial footprint. On Sunset? In that respect Johnson (among others) offers England at the point it began to shed its empire as a positive model. This is an artful reimagining. England did not just give up its empire. Through the course of two horrific world wars it militarily lost it.
That it was not quite as catastrophic as the steps essay, fall of some empires is historically specific. Had it not been for the peculiar mix of the United States — driven by its own national interests — coming to its rescue during World War II and the need to cheat essays contain the Soviet Union, the steps, fate of England would likely have been messier. That did not happen so there is essay not much use speculating what that would have looked like. Thematic Essay? However it underscores this process of ‘shedding’ an empire tends to be a wrenching and potentially calamitous process. The bigger point though is book report on sunset that the writing, suggestion that one can peacefully shed an empire and database research paper convert into something idealized suggests wanting to look at the monstrousness of all this and walk away saying this doesn’t have to be a monster, that this isn’t of writing essay a piece. The “American Century” has been a parade of horrors: Korea, the invasion of the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, the Iraq I, Afghanistan, Iraq II, along with coups, assassination and other dirty work.
Yet neither Bacevich or Johnson want to entertain the idea that the problem — rather than Washington Rules or the military industrial complex — is the American ideal itself. The idea of America as a ‘shining city on the hill’ that exists as humanity’s highest achievement — stands against the actuality that that achievement has always been driven by database paper, rapacity. It led to the expropriation and near elimination of the native population, the enslavement of multiple generations of slaves, the grabbing of country-sized swaths of land from writing, Mexico, taking the Philippines and Hawaii, down to the ‘empire of bases’ today from Germany to Okinawa, to Colombia to Guam. A frank look at this would suggest we aim to achieve something higher. What that is book report sabertooth exactly is not at all clear, but such are the questions that people of good will like Chalmers Johnson and Andrew Bacevich ought to writing thematic be asking. Golub is not burdened with such illusions. World Peace Impossible? His book fills in a lot of the spaces that Bacevich Johnson step or gloss over. Golub is not approaching things from the point of the rarefied “American Experience.” He levels a harsher and steps writing thematic essay more honest critique. He writes, “Even a cursory glance shows that from the 1950s until today, the United States has either been at war, supporting war-making or sustaining predatory states almost constantly in cheat essays one part of the world or another of the ‘Far Empire.’” (78) He outlines the countries, from the Philippines to the Congo, to Laos to Panama, where the U.S. has stuck its predatory nose.
Yet there is an underlying idealism (both philosophically and popularly understood) in his analysis. Golub favorably quotes Hannah Arendt, speaking about the US. in the Vietnam that it, “sought to demonstrate the will and ability…to have its way in world affairs,’…“to behave like the greatest power in the world for no other reason than to convince the world of steps writing essay this simple fact.’”(130) In many ways Golub flattens out the concepts of Power, Profit and Prestige, rather than constructing a dialectical array. The Arendt quote suggests that prestige is an end in itself. Rather than an augmenting factor in service of larger aims, i.e, the drive for profit for the overall ability to accumulate. One is citing websites papers reminded of the quote in the Autobiography of Malcolm X, “To the steps, hustler, reputation is everything.” True, but that reputation is in service of something, the business of hustling. In the end Golub comes to cheat essays a conclusion close to Johnson’s that the U.S. can somehow decide to stop being imperialist, “An ordered pluralism cannot emerge if the U.S. does not disengage from empire.” Given the history of the last century, and the U.S.’s history in particular one is writing essay left scratching their head as to the basis, even remotely, of such a sunny prospect.
Recently Slavoj Zizek writing in, Living in citing for research the End Times, noted “The American Century is over and we are entering a period characterized by the formation of multiple centers of steps essay global capitalism: the U.S., Europe, China possibly Latin America, each of them representing capitalism with a specific local twist” (168)… This is why the present situation is potentially more dangerous than it may appear.” Bacevich understands this on a basic level when he writes, “Promising prosperity and peace, the introduction, Washington rules are propelling the United States toward insolvency and steps writing essay perpetual war. Over the horizon a shipwreck of epic proportions awaits.” (250). For his part Johnson tells us that, “If we do not learn from their examples, our decline and cheat essays fall is essay foreordained.” This is a dire assessment. We need to cheat essays envision a world different from the one we currently occupy. Essay? Whether that is ultimately a better one rests on many things, not the least of which is how we understand the book on sunset of the sabertooth, world we actually inhabit. These books offer keen insights and analysis towards that. The need to ask first order questions remains.
Aaron, I don’t know if our country is going in the right direction or the wrong direction, I am not sure anyone does. Losing manufacturing was a big mistake, incentive give aways, and military footprints. Yes, lets learn by the mistakes made before us. Great Read. The Frankfurt School and the New Right. Kim Scipes: Black Subjugation in America: Review of Theodore W. Allen, Edward E. Baptist, and Sven Beckert.
George Lundskow: White Like Them: Review of steps writing Arlie Russell Hochschild, Nancy Isenberg, and J. D. Vance.
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Reasons Why Autumn Is the Best Season. Fall is my favorite season. All the leaves from the trees and plants change into multi-colored works of art and fall away. It creates bare, and vulnerable branches, revealing the true scenery underneath. It also represents a beautiful cycle of loss, regeneration and regrowth once the spring season comes around.
The dead leaves and branches on the ground disintegrate and steps writing essay turn into part of the soil, which are used as seeds and fertilizer later once the essay eid cold welcomes the warmer weather. There are many reasons why I love fall and why I think it's the thematic best season, but here are just a few. In the southern part of the United States, all the seasons are very apparent. The spring season is very green, the summer is very hot, the winter very cold and the fall is full of magnificent colors. The maple trees are especially vibrant with colors of book report on sunset, red, golden yellow and combinations of both.
When I was younger we called them tree stars from the movie Land Before Time and to this day they are my favorite trees when the steps thematic season changes. This season is perfect for essay on ramadan eid, taking beautiful scenic photos and spending time outdoors. Nothing can relax and steps rejuvenate more than enjoying nature and the surrounding scenery. With cooler temperatures rolling in, saying goodbye to summer and hello to fall is not a hard thing to do. It's a great time to break out the jackets, coats, boots, scarves and hats in preparation for the change in season. It's also the perfect time to start making hot cocoa, and for research lighting a fire in the fireplace. This season creates a sense of steps writing thematic, comfort, warmth and reflection. It's a great time to go camping, fishing, go on a road trip or anything else where you can spend quality time with family and eat good food. I like the of the sabertooth fall, I like the night owl's. And wailing sound.
I like the writing gray. And bare, dead boughs. That coldly sway. Against my pane. I like the rain. And laugh at it. My cozy fire a bit. I like the fall. The mist and all. author, Dixie Willson.
Fall was my mother's favorite season, and every year when it rolls around it creates a flood of memories and reminds me of the world impossible beautiful person she was. She used to quote this poem from Dixie Willson, all the time, but even more so when the autumn was in full swing. It's one of the many things I learned from her when I was young, that poems have a way of capturing your soul and essay uncovering a deeper connection within yourself. Her demeanor changed when the weather started getting cooler, she would spend more and more time outdoors. She had a sense of cheat essays, peace and thankfulness that I hope to convey to steps thematic, those around me.
Autumn is in a one of the most packed holiday seasons. There's the back to school rush, Halloween, Thanksgiving and thematic essay of course Christmas. But it's not just full of regular holidays, these are all very involved, family centered holidays. This is a season to be thankful, and to be surrounded by book report sabertooth the people you love. It's a perfect time to change up your decorations, add orange, red and yellow colors and pull out the steps writing spice scented candles. To think over the past year, what you've been through, the memories you've made together and to look forward to a new and exciting year. Another reason I love the holidays is for the food.
You generally won't eat nearly as good during this season compared to the rest of the introduction in a year. Autumn is not only the best time of year, out of all four seasons but it's also the steps thematic essay most scenic and beautiful if you love being outdoors. In A Dissertation! It's all about family, food and creating memories. What season do you love the best and why? by Candace Bacon 7. 10 Contemporary Christian Christmas Songs. by Annette R. Smith 20.
Happy Independence Day Messages, Wishes, and Quotes. by Oyewole Folarin 3. Better than the spring. Fall is also my favorite season because you can stay inside and snuggle. You can get to bed at 7pm without hearing any noise.
It gets dark earlier. The cold represents the warmer season. The leaves are also very beautiful and colorful. crystal mangual 12 months ago. Let me just tell you I LOVE how you wrote this. And you are right fall is the steps writing best season ever. Fall is definetly the most wonderful time of the year!! :) Tigana Bryan 22 months ago. And don't forget the awesome fall makeup trends!
Matte dark lipstick, winged liner, and in a matte foundation. (I might wear that all year round lol) autumn is my favourite season.i love it very much as i can.i write a book about autumn too.your essay also very beautiful as real sense of the word.good bye. Katharine L Sparrow 3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. I live in the Northeast U.S., so summer is my favorite time of year. Generally not too hot here all summer long. In September I go all melancholy and it's hard to avoid feelings of writing, depression. However, I do agree that the introduction in a scenery is exquisite and it's a good time to do outdoor things before the writing essay cold of winter sets in. Essay On Ramadan Eid! I absolutely LOVED the poem your Mom taught you! Going to keep that one! Great hub!
no way spring is a hell of a lot better. best season of the world.I love fall .I like the beauty of fall . Carrie Smith 5 years ago from thematic essay Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the wonderful comments! I love this season :) Linda Bilyeu 5 years ago from Orlando, FL. We don't have much of a Fall in FL so I appreciate the photos and this hub! Up/Awesome/Beautiful:) icciev 5 years ago from dream Kuwait. we don't much experience fall in the country where I live, nice hub voted up. David Stillwell 5 years ago from writing essay Sacramento, California.
ah. applecsmith! I thought about you and this hub today. Paper! I got to drive through the steps writing Napa Valley today on my way to Cobb Mountain. Database! The grapes in the valley are all starting to turn their winter colors. but the maples on the way to Cobb were in awesome display. Great hub! Carrie Smith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the amazing comments. I'm glad that even though some of you might not live in steps writing, this area of the country, you still benefit from it's beauty. Admiral - so glad you understood my reference to tree stars :) Admiral_Joraxx 5 years ago from Philippines. Excellent post!
Indeed autumn is a great season, I wish I can experience this someday, as there's no autumn in our country.=) Hey Applecsmith, I'm also a great fan and follower of The Land Before Time and their favorite Tree stars. It was a great movie. Cheat Essays! 1 vote up and beautiful. Aceblogs 5 years ago from India. Autumn season has always proven out to be best for thematic, me for introduction in a dissertation, past 7 years . Hope this story continues for me in thematic essay, future as well.
Very nicely explained hub. Images out cheat essays, there are very colorful and so full of life. Thanks. tailgatingguru 5 years ago from Atlanta, GA. Beautiful! It is writing thematic absolutely the best!
Don A. Hoglund 5 years ago from introduction in a dissertation Wisconsin Rapids. I've always like fall.When I was young I did outside stuff like paint the house. A.CreativeThinker 5 years ago. To one who loves creativity and art, this season seams to come alive with it's beauty. All seasons have something unique about steps thematic, them but the Spring and Fall can be very colorful.
Lovely photos. Voted Up! Take Care :) jean2011 5 years ago from book on sunset Canada. I too like the comfortable temperatures, and yes the lovely colours of leaves. Writing Essay! Great for cheat essays, picture taking. I voted this hub beatiful.
Thank you for sharing! TattooKitty 5 years ago from Hawaii. I agree- autumn is the best season! I've always been enchanted by the beauty of the leaves changing color. Yet, living in Hawaii, I've never been able to experience it in person. Definitely on my bucket list! Beautiful hub ;) Om Paramapoonya 5 years ago. Lovely hub. I grew up in Thailand where most trees are evergreen.
The first year I moved to the U.S., I was really amazed to see a bunch of trees changing color. Steps! :) Aeron Wright 5 years ago. Great photos! I love autumn too as there are so many great celebrations around and the weather is just perfect, neither too cold nor too hot. RTalloni 6 years ago from the short journey. Yes! Bravo on this fall season essay! :) To have one's mother quote such a poem--how lovely! Beautiful hub in every way--thank you for sharing it with us.
Voted up. I like all the seasons, each for their own beauties, but fall is special for all the reasons you write about. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the great comments. Essay Peace Impossible! I hope everyone gets the opportunity to see the fall season in East Texas sometime in their life. It's breathtaking!
Kristin Trapp 6 years ago from Illinois. The colors in that first photograph are just magnificient. I hope our trees are that colorful this year in IL. Autumn is hands-down my favorite season. Peggy Woods 6 years ago from Houston, Texas. The trees don't show as much color down here as they do up north. Thematic! but it is still a beautiful time of year. The cooler temperatures are welcomed especially after a long hot summer. You have given some great reasons why it is your favorite time of year and I'm sure that many people will agree.
I love Autumn! You have explained the topic very well. Marisa Hammond Olivares 6 years ago from Texas. Beautiful images! Fall is so colorful - wish we could experience it in South Texas :( Carrie Smith 6 years ago from paper Dallas, Texas. I couldn't agree more! Shopping season reaches it's peak during the fall and Black Friday deals are fantastic. I enjoy the smells, sounds and tastes of fall so much.
Reading all these great comments has made my day, thanks a bunch. MonetteforJack 6 years ago from Tuckerton, NJ. Fall is definitely my favorite season. It is the most comfortable weather for me. The winds are just right and the air is scented with falling leaves and earthy pumpkins and squash. Like you, I love the maple tree turn vividly in essay, hues of muted yellows and reds. Materially, I look forward to this season because this is the report on sunset time of the year that I truly shop for writing thematic essay, next year's summer stuff and other things on cheat essays Black Fridays. Like you, the thematic essay fall is the start of paper, frequent family gatherings.
Still, it is steps thematic relaxing . The smell of websites for research papers, coffee brewing is more intoxicating at this time, so with hot cocoa, served with a bit of writing thematic, peppermint and impossible mini-marshmallows. I also love Fall because of Thanksgiving. This is a breathtaking hub, I could go on and on why I love Fall. Thanks! cardelean 6 years ago from Michigan. Fall is writing essay definitely the most beautiful season. I love the bounty that fall provides for us in addition to the beautiful leaves. Introduction In A Dissertation! Thank you for sharing such wonderful thoughts about steps writing thematic essay, fall. Fall is my favorite season too! I live in in a, California, so the color change may not be as brilliant as in some other places, but I still love it. I have always wanted to go visit back east where I have heard the fall colors are truly gorgeous.
Dave Mathews 6 years ago from NORTH YORK,ONTARIO,CANADA. Autumn is my favorite season too. Not just for all the beauty in color, but also for the fact that autums is harvest time for many of our farm produce and fruits. SJmorningsun25 6 years ago. I love autumn, too! Thanks for sharing your thoughts. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. It's so nice to hear that everyone else loves the fall season like I do. It's a great time to steps essay, take photos, enjoy the eid weather and reminisce. I almost love spring as much as fall, but not quite.
Thanks for the great comments. inaniLoquence 6 years ago from Singapore. Autumn is absolutely beautiful. Unfortunately, we don't have it here in steps writing, Southeast Asia. Instead, we enjoy/suffer rainy and dry seasons throughout the book on sunset year. It's the steps essay tropical paradise but it would be fantastic to book of the, experience the Autumn months!
Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from thematic Arkansas, USA. I do think fall is beautiful, but I vacillate between it and spring as my favorite season. Database Paper! Fall reminds me that winter is coming, and I loathe winter. Spring gives me hope that warmer, brighter days are coming. Still, the colors of fall are incredible. Steps! And the poem is adorable. Very nice hub! I voted many things on this one! I agree Fall is the best season not too hot and not too cold.
My husband loves it also. The thing that I really don't like is the peace dream sun goes down early and I can't enjoy more the temperature outside , cook outs and look at nature at its best. I still love Fall second to Spring, then Summer last is Winter. Your pictures are very beautiful thanks. I also wrote a hub on this same subject. It seems to be most everyones favorite. Love you pics and writing essay article. I could just feel your excitement.
Enjoy. Sciborgs 6 years ago from cheat essays New York. Nice pictures used! Fall is easily my favorite season, beautiful scenery, that perfect not to hot, not to cold weather, and, of course, Halloween is in the Fall, love Halloween! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Fall is my favorite season! I got my camera ready this year and waiting for the leaves to change, then I can publish a Photo Journey!
I am lucky to live in New England! Great Hub! Voting up and sharing! Mamadrama 6 years ago from steps writing essay Upstate NY. Best Season EVER!! I love Autumn! flagostomos 6 years ago from Washington, United States.
I hear you. I absolute love autumn as well. Something about it reminds me of simpler times, back when I was a kid and Fall meant going back to school. My favorite is report on sunset of the sabertooth Saturday afternoon, when the sun is starting to steps thematic, head under the horizon and the afternoon sky feels hazy. It's like bright but not bright at the same time. Websites For Research! The air smells crisp and life just comes to a stand still. But to be honest with you I love all the seasons for steps writing, different reasons. David Stillwell 6 years ago from sabertooth Sacramento, California. I love the thematic Autumn months.
I enjoy the way the database trees change and steps essay the weather can be warm and cool at the same time. The sky is book on sunset of the full of steps writing, geese and clouds and the wind is essay world peace impossible dream a flutter with all that nature must do to prepare for winter. A really great hub Applecsmith! very well written and full of wisdom. andrewwilliams63 6 years ago. When the sun is out Autumn is beautiful, unfortunately that doesn't happen much in the UK! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to steps essay, someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in eid all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.
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consumerism essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over writing thematic essay, the past decade or so, it is database research, hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Steps Writing. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for database research distinguishing between what is essential and thematic, what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the database developed world descend into writing thematic essay, a paroxysm of peace, ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of writing thematic essay, nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of citing websites papers, ideology or a convergence between capitalism and steps writing thematic essay, socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the in a dissertation West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in steps writing essay the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in essay both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the writing thematic end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of essay impossible, postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the thematic end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an book sabertooth, original one. Steps Thematic Essay. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of in a, historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by writing essay Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of essay world peace, social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the writing thematic essay first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of book report sabertooth, more or less fixed natural attributes. Essay. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the in a application of thematic, science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is book on sunset of the, our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from steps writing thematic direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to of the sabertooth, save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the thematic essay continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on essay on ramadan, the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the essay ideals of the cheat essays French Revolution, and steps thematic, the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and database, equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of steps writing thematic essay, history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution.
While there was considerable work to book report on sunset sabertooth, be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and writing thematic essay, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the introduction dissertation liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in steps writing essay this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the citing for research effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of steps, civilization to paper, implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and thematic, mastery of nature, the essay peace struggle for writing thematic the universal recognition of rights, and dissertation, the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist.
But in steps writing thematic essay the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the essay remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in essay the European Economic Community, until his death in dissertation 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of steps writing thematic essay, history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on introduction dissertation, the heels of writing essay, World War II and at the very height of the in a Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the steps writing meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well.
Hegel's view of the on ramadan eid relationship between the writing ideal and essay eid, the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and steps thematic, thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and essay, equality that had driven the steps writing thematic essay French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the eid form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of essay, later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is cheat essays, our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of steps thematic, political or historical phenomena, and cheat essays, our disinclination to steps writing, believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the citing websites for research level of steps thematic, subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on dissertation, defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on thematic, the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. World Peace Dream. It is precisely this kind of writing essay, individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the essay world basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of steps, Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. Cheat Essays. But in writing essay fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the cheat essays piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and steps writing essay, one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the eid Spartan hoplite over steps, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the essay world early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by steps writing essay the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of dissertation, production, far from writing essay being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and essay on ramadan, that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit.
As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the steps thematic essay ethic of report on sunset sabertooth, work and steps thematic, saving and essay peace, family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to steps thematic, understand that the impossible dream roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and writing, culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. Research. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the writing thematic essay victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to essay, prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of writing essay, socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in world peace dream the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and steps essay, risk over the Catholic path of poverty and in a dissertation, security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the steps result of the victory of database, one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in writing the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in research paper the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon.
Hence it did not matter to steps writing thematic essay, Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of citing for research, Europeans had not been universalized throughout the essay world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the report on sunset ability to defend in essay depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the report of the sabertooth role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in essay the name of ideas that exist in book on sunset of the sabertooth the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by steps writing his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of on sunset, a particular state of writing thematic essay, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of websites for research papers, advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the essay universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in world dream fact reached the end of history? Are there, in steps thematic other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure?
If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the essay eid challenges to liberalism promoted by writing thematic essay every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in book sabertooth important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of steps writing, world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in database Albania or Burkina Faso, for steps essay we are interested in paper what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by writing thematic a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Database Research. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the steps thematic idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. Papers. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and writing thematic, all of the on ramadan pro-fascist movements spawned by steps writing thematic essay the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.
This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in report on sunset the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. Steps Writing Thematic. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of world impossible, our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is steps writing, not the papers inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the writing major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in introduction dissertation an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is thematic, not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in report Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the steps thematic future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.
0NE MAY argue that the introduction in a dissertation socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for steps writing essay the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of cheat essays, imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to steps writing, liberalism to be decisively defeated was the cheat essays fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of steps writing, American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from world peace dream that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to steps writing thematic, democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by database research paper following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Writing Thematic. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for research paper access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and steps essay, hence in promoting political liberalism as well.
The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in database research Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. Steps Writing. What is cheat essays, important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Steps Writing Thematic Essay. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and on sunset of the, political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and writing, broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and essay on ramadan eid, oldest culture in Asia, China.
The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of steps essay, ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in research paper 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in steps writing essay the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in essay on ramadan order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in steps writing thematic only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in dissertation China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to steps writing essay, Brezhnev and Stalin, and on sunset sabertooth, the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.
But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for thematic the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of for research, authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the steps Chinese elite. It is citing websites for research papers, hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in steps thematic essay Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and essay world peace dream, recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about thematic China from the standpoint of world history is for research papers, not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the steps essay pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to in a, assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the thematic essay changes that have taken place to date.
Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the introduction dissertation chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to steps writing, make predictions for policy purposes, but to citing websites for research papers, look at steps thematic underlying trends in the sphere of introduction in a, ideology and steps writing essay, consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and introduction in a, could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Essay. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to citing for research, rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and thematic, their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of citing for research, economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and thematic essay, prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of for research papers, new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in thematic essay the current implementation of the sabertooth reform, most notably the essay absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the on sunset leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of steps writing thematic essay, ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to in a dissertation, much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Essay. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in essay the sphere of internal party affairs, and steps essay, has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the websites papers reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for writing thematic essay their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to book of the sabertooth, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the writing essay Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is database, doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and steps essay, his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of in a, Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos.
All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and thematic, various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to websites for research papers, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the writing essay democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the essay world impossible dream economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is steps essay, terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the essay eid label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of steps writing essay, history it is database, not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of steps writing thematic essay, human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in for research any simple way. Steps Thematic Essay. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of for research, Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of writing thematic essay, losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and citing for research, may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. Writing Essay. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on citing websites papers, the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in steps essay recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to citing for research, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Writing Thematic. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to websites for research, recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Steps Essay. In the essay contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and steps thematic, it is for research, hard to believe that the essay movement will take on introduction in a dissertation, any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.
It is steps, certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of cheat essays, Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by steps thematic essay the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and research paper, continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is steps thematic, not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in citing websites for research papers the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from thematic mild cultural nostalgia to essay world peace impossible, the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of essay, independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete.
Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is citing, impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in steps thematic essay liberal societies, then, the cheat essays present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for writing many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the report sabertooth developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in steps the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to on ramadan, be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the steps writing thematic overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is - not very much. Essay. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of steps writing thematic, great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to citing papers, understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for thematic essay example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of cheat essays, thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century.
This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is steps writing thematic essay, changing in websites for research papers the Soviet Union, but do not want to steps writing thematic, accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the research paper notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on steps thematic essay, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the introduction in a dissertation ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. Writing Thematic. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for on ramadan the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from steps writing essay nation to nation, from a crude belief in essay on ramadan the legitimacy of steps writing thematic essay, force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to cheat essays, give people of steps writing, color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in cheat essays the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. Writing. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and essay eid, played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over thematic, non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones.
But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the essay on ramadan eid Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and steps, shorn of cheat essays, any real relevance to foreign policy, with the steps writing thematic consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. Book Report Of The. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of writing thematic essay, history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by introduction an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and writing thematic, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in introduction Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of steps writing essay, course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in essay peace impossible dream international politics, even in self-defense.
The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to steps thematic essay, cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in paper its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam.
But the former is explained by commercial motives and thematic essay, the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. On Ramadan Eid. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of steps writing thematic essay, military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the book present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to steps writing thematic, restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of essay, traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and steps thematic, slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history.
And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. On Ramadan. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and steps essay, Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and cheat essays, wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in writing thematic the grip of history, and papers, they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in writing thematic myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in report of the Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and writing, Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at citing for research the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Thematic. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is cheat essays, available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to steps writing essay, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and eid, incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Steps Essay. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. Paper. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the steps essay very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is essay on ramadan, itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of essay, philosophizing.
That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the essay recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only steps writing thematic economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. Database Research Paper. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in essay China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10.
The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and book report, led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to steps thematic essay, its nationalism, of course, since the latter is citing for research papers, exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in writing the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to websites, country. Steps Writing Thematic. (back to text) 12.
I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of citing for research, Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Thematic Essay. (back to text) 13. Book On Sunset Sabertooth. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and writing thematic, pluralism. (back to text) 14. Dream. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the steps thematic Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. World Impossible. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and steps thematic, the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.
See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Impossible. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to writing essay, admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the essay world impossible Allied victory which had been based on steps essay, the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. Essay. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46.
New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Steps. (back to text)