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Empirical research articles in sociology

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How to get into empirical research, Contract Programming? There are several types of Software Contractors; each requires a slightly different answer. Temporary Hire . These are folks that really want a full time permanent job but will take a contract job as a temporary fill in. Sometimes clients will use contract-to-hire as a way of pros of technology today trying out a potential employee before making a commitment. We don’t consider these folks as true Independent Software Contractors but rather more like employees in transition. Consultant. This is the empirical research in sociology other end of the spectrum where these folks are specialist in some specific area and have already established themselves with a lot of contacts. Normally these folks don’t actually do much coding but rather do studies and assistance in determining how to approach a problem. Pros Today Essay. Their salaries are usually high but the gigs are short and this is a tough area to break into. It often takes years of working as an empirical in sociology, employee for a prestigious company to quality custom, establish a reputation in a nice little niche in which they can be an expert with little competition.

They have to cultivate contacts long before they step out on their own and then they must spend a great deal of time marketing in order to research in sociology, keep the jobs coming in. Contract coding. Most Software Contractors fall into this area. These are folks that work as contractors at for emily mla essay, client sites to just do coding (or perhaps software testing). The gigs run from 6 months to a year but almost never more than 2 years. Since they are not an employee of the in sociology client they avoid all of the internal politics and most meetings…they just “get things done”. There are a few software contractors that are able to work as software contractors and operate as their own Corp or LLC business. What My College About. However, most become employees of articles a Software Contracting Agent.

This is the type of contractor I would like to address here. So, let me explain how this works: First, think about do i application what type of gig you would like. What skills do you have to offer and what new skills (or experience) would you like to acquire. Obviously you have to have enough skills to get a job but it is always good to look for jobs that might have some aspect that is articles in sociology a little bit of a reach for you. This keeps your resume expanding with new skills. You also want to think about where you want to work.

If you are willing to on distributed, relocate you have a much larger selection of jobs to choose from but if you cannot, consider the commute. Articles In Sociology. The contract gig is about 6 to mla essay, 12 months so be sure you are willing to commute the distance for that duration of time. Jobs that are totally performed over the internet are rare, often lower pay, and empirical articles in sociology, competition for those jobs is heavy. Next you register yourself in the ScGuild.com so you have a place to post your resume where the Google search engines can index it. Then you register yourself with as many Job Databases as you can (at least those that allow you to label yourself as a software contractor). The largest of these is Dice.com. Most contract agents look in Dice but they have to pay to get your resume. So if you know of any contract agents go ahead and send your resume directly to them as well. Be sure to check out the agent on the web before you contact them or reply to their query to be sure you would be willing to do business with them.

When you talk to them by phone and do i write my college essay, you cannot understand their heavy accent, then perhaps you might want to consider a different agent. It is also an advantage to have an empirical research in sociology, agent that has an pros of technology today, office near you (or at least in the city where the contract work will be performed). Both ScGuild and articles, Dice have lots of software contract jobs listed. You can look through the jobs and pick some of interest and contact the agent posting the job. The contact for a job will most likely be an agent and not the end client. You will also start getting job query calls and email from the agents that you have registered with. You may get 2-3 job queries per day in your email. Many of the jobs may not be even close to database, the type of empirical job you are interested in. But consider dealing with those as part of the cost of doing business.

Once you find a job that sounds interesting and meets your criteria you contact the agent and let the quality custom agent submit your resume to the client. Ethically they will not submit your resume to a client without your approval. When you give that approval, be sure to record which agent is doing the research articles submission, to which client (and manager if available) and the date and time of that approval. Quality Custom Papers. It is ok to submit your resume to many jobs at empirical research articles, the same time and it is ok to use multiple agents (as long as they are different clients). Agents may not want to tell you who the client is because competition among agents is fierce but you need to know who the mla essay client is before approving a submission.

The same job may be offered by articles in sociology, different agents and sometimes it is hard to and cons today, tell they are the same from the job description. But this is articles important because if a client receives your resume from two different agents your resume will be automatically rejected. Clients do not want to case studies on advertising, get involved with legal issues around who had the right to offer your resume. My personal policy is that a client (not just the job) “belongs” to the first agent that told me about it and empirical research, I try to avoid having any other agent submit me for any job on the same client unless it is a very large client and it is obviously a different manager. If you are lucky you will be contacted for papers on distributed an interview for one of the empirical research articles in sociology jobs that you were submitted for. Sometimes there will be a preliminary screening by phone but if the and cons of technology essay client is interested in you they will ask you to come in for a job interview. For most clients, an interview for a contract job is not as rigorous as it might be for articles an employee job.

But be prepared. Do your research on the client and the job as much as you can so you have some idea as to how to answer their questions in their context and point out the skills that you have that would best match their job. Of Technology. As a contractor you will be doing a lot of these interviews so after a while you will get good at it. During the job interview the client will probably spend some time talking about the job. Take some notes. In many cases this will be the research articles only time someone will take time to explain both broadly and in detail what they want you to do. If the client picks you to be the contractor, you will be contacted by the agent and what write my college essay about, asked to come in and sign a contract. If you have other jobs for in sociology which you have also had interviews you can drag your feet a little before accepting if you think you might like one of the other jobs better but it is what do i write my college application about a risk. I usually take the articles in sociology bird-in-hand, the hard first gig offered. When you accept a gig, you must immediately send notices to research in sociology, all other agents which have submitted your resume and what write my college about, let them know that you are no longer available. It is unfair to them if you don’t notify them right away.

When you arrive at the office of the agent you will be presented with a contract to sign. Empirical Articles. PLEASE read all of it. This contract has been carefully crafted by very expensive lawyers to be in the best interest of the agent and not you. Most agents belong to an association of agents and pay into quality, a legal defense fund. This fund can be used to hire lawyers to defend the agent against you or sue you if you default on any term in the contract. Empirical. Consequently all agents in the association use the same contract. So, be sure you carefully read each clause and ask if you do not understand a clause.

You can ask to have a clause changed more to your liking but I have never been successful in getting them to change it. The contract will most likely contain clauses that state that you cannot work for the client (except through the agent) in any capacity for up to 2 years after your contract expires (the Non-compete clause) and any work you perform becomes the intellectual property of the client, not you. And Cons Today Essay. The contract must also state the hourly rate at which you will be paid and sometimes there will be a cap on the number of hours per week you are allowed to work. You will be paid when the client pays the agent. Empirical Research. Payment to you may not always be weekly. The agent assumes no risk.

You assume all of the risk if the client does not pay the papers on distributed database bill. If you cannot live with the empirical research wording in the contract then you must be prepared to today, walk away from empirical in sociology it without the gig. This is just the way it is. The agent adds their fee to your billing rate and will obtain a contract with the client. The agent’s fee is work brings normally around 30%. If they can get you to go lower on research articles in sociology your rate sometimes their fee can be even higher. The agent will not tell you how much they get from the client. Sometimes the write application about client can tell you how much you are costing them but often they are prevented from telling you in their contract. Once you sign the contract, you become the employee of the research in sociology agent as far as taxes are concerned. Each week you will submit a statement of the hours that you worked, signed by the client, and the agent will send you a check, minus the deductions for taxes and benefits when the client pays the brings success agent. Empirical Research Articles In Sociology. Expect a fairly long delay to get the first check.

It is custom papers a very good idea to have at least a two month salary cushion in your bank account to cover the lags in payment. The agency may offer a benefit package with health and life insurance but the contractors usually must pay all costs. Often you can get better insurance at research articles, lower cost as an individual. So shop around for insurance and set up your own retirement plan. Once you start a gig, it is very bad form to quit before it is complete. This is not like an employee relationship…you signed a contract that you will perform the work at that location for that duration of time. You have an obligation. The client can dismiss you at research papers, any time without notice for no reason but you are not allowed to research in sociology, just quit. If you do, you can be sued or at pros and cons today essay, least you will find that the agents in your local area talk to research, each other and you may end up on essay a black list. If the job turns out to be a really bad environment, suck it up and do what you need to do to finish.

If you finish the project early the research articles in sociology client may let you out by terminating your contract early. You don’t have to renew the what my college about contract so there is always an articles in sociology, out eventually. While you are on a contract, cultivate the case on advertising contacts among the supervisors and fellow workers on the job. Empirical Research. The non-compete clause of your contract prevents you from by-passing the agent and working directly for the client during the non-compete period but after that it is fair game. Also, supervisors do move to other companies and you never know where these contacts will surface. It is good to what do i application essay, know someone on the inside when applying for a contract job. Also, keep your ear to the ground. Be aware of where projects are being re-assigned or cancelled and empirical, the general financial health of the client.

After a while you will learn to sense when change is afoot. It is then that you want to be looking at other contract jobs so you are ready to papers, submit your resume as soon as you are told your contract is research articles terminated. If you do this right there will not be a gap in your income. You don’t qualify for unemployment benefits so you need to be nimble. At the end of a contract, renewals are often offered for those contractors that have worked out well, assuming there is more work to be done. However, most clients will put a cap of 1-1/2 to 2 years that someone can work as a contractor. This is because of the uncertainty written into the federal tax laws. If someone contracts too long at a client, the quality custom papers IRS may decide that they are really an employee of that client and require the client to pay back withholding and fines even if the contractor has paid taxes. Most clients don’t want to risk it and impose the cap. As a rule-of-thumb always give a little more than the empirical articles in sociology client asks for, even if it means working a few unpaid hours.

After working with a client for a while you will see what things matter the most to pros and cons of technology, the client. It is amazing what giving a little extra attention in those areas will do for empirical research your reputation…and future work. Cyber Security is Crucial for what write my college application essay about Small Business Owners. Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber security has become a hot topic for consumers and businesses alike. With many corporate organizations being breached over the course of empirical in sociology a few years, it has many people on high alert as it pertains to protecting sensitive data both on studies on advertising and offline. Though small business owners might assume that they are less likely to be hit than major companies – think again.

Why Small Businesses Are Targeted. Though you may have read about security breaches within companies like Home Depot and Target, small business are often the targets for empirical hackers. Small businesses essentially have more digital assets, which can be beneficial to cyber criminals. Mla Essay. Not to research articles, mention that with a smaller budget, many small corporations don’t have the same layers of protection that a larger firm would have. While there may be no direct reason for your small business to what do i write my college application essay about, be attacked, what antivirus companies and professionals are learning is that attacks are typically carried out with the use of software on a larger scale. The moment businesses establish digital platforms such as websites, blogs, or social media accounts, hackers are likely scanning it for vulnerabilities. What Are the empirical research articles Most Common Forms of Attack? There are several types of cyber attacks that can take place. While many of these are the result of external sources (i.e. hackers, viruses, malware) it is also possible for the breach to come from case within. Data Breaches – At the top of the list are data breaches.

A data breach is an occasion in which sensitive, confidential business information is accessed, stolen, or distributed by research articles in sociology, an unauthorized individual. What My College. This could include consumer contact information, company strategies and financial reports, and other relevant business property and trade secrets. Empirical Research Articles. Investing in cloud based security systems, such as Trend Micro’s virtualization security, protects businesses from database security potential data breaches by setting up firewalls and backing up all stored information. Advanced Persistent Threats – APTs are long term attacks in which a hacker will break into the company’s network. The trick is the breach is done in several stages to prevent detection. There are ideally five stages to an APT, which include researching the target, delivering malware, discovering internal defenses, retrieving data on a periodic basis, and exploiting that information. Distributed Denial of Service – DDoS attacks are the act of intentionally overloading a server. Empirical Research. The main objective with this attack is to what do i write my college, shut down the company’s website or network system. Users are then unable to access their site which can ultimately lead to the demise of your business operations or at empirical research in sociology, the very least a ruined reputation. Internal Attacks – As explained previously, attacks don’t always come from an unknown source, they can easily come from someone within the organization.

An employee with administrative privileges intentionally uses their information to access confidential company documents and data. While this attack could take place with a current employee, it is usually the work of a disgruntled employee who was recently fired. Malware – Another attack is with malware. This is best defined as malicious software. It is a program that might be sent to a company computer. When accessed, the program causes damage or allows unauthorized access to company information.

There are several types of malware each with their own set of risks. This includes viruses, worms, Trojans, and work, spyware. Phishing – One of the most common cyber thefts is phishing. This is research articles in sociology when pertinent data is and cons collected such as login credentials, credit card, or banking information. It typically occurs through a website or email that looks legitimate but isn’t. When users access this link or site, they enter personal information which is later used for fraudulent purchases and empirical research articles in sociology, other reasons.

Though modern technology has provided businesses with a wealth of case on advertising conveniences, it can also be the very thing that causes a company to crumble. Empirical Research Articles In Sociology. If you believe that being a small business will protect you from the above mentioned threats, you should really reconsider. By investing in antivirus software and educating your staff, you can ultimately prevent a lot of these cyber attacks from papers on distributed taking place within your organization. Surviving in the Software Contractor World. Becoming a contractor is a bold move, and for research articles many people, it is such a daunting idea that they would not even consider taking such a step. This is why the rewards are potentially enormous, and for emily mla essay, not just from a financial standpoint. Contractors might be perceived as experiencing less security or perhaps certainty than people in permanent roles, but the pay-off for research articles in sociology that is significantly more freedom and flexibility. A contractor is essentially his or her own boss and write my college essay, while this comes with additional responsibilities, it provides a means of control over empirical articles in sociology one’s life that permanent employees rarely, if ever, get to experience. Software experts, like most IT professionals, are particularly well suited to mla essay, contractor roles and articles, are therefore well-placed to enjoy the benefits of this type of career and the associated lifestyle.

Here are some things to consider to ensure success when working as a software contractor. Emphasize specialist skills. The work of a software expert tends to be based on projects and therefore has an a rose, inherently temporary nature. In addition, so many organizations now require specialist software support in which such individuals can find themselves in demand in a wide range of industries. Empirical Research Articles. Understanding one’s specialist skills, and ensuring these are presented in pros and cons today the most impressive way, is key to winning new business. Build a network. Publicity is also critical to winning new business, and word-of-mouth is the best way to empirical articles in sociology, achieve that publicity. Recommendations and testimonials from previous employers are very helpful and provide essential credibility.

A strongly maintained network of fellow IT professionals will also serve as a means of identifying new employment opportunities. Finally, it is research papers security also potentially a way of ensuring one’s skills remain up-to-date so that career progression is not neglected. Get organized. Being one’s own boss sounds very appealing, but it means being individually responsible for a wide range of things that an employer would typically take care of and that many people therefore take for granted. Responsibilities such as pay and taxes can be time-consuming and onerous, and enlisting the support of an umbrella organization such as www.atlantic-umbrella.com can be hugely helpful, as they will take care of this sort of empirical research thing, freeing up the individual to research papers database security, devote his or her time and research, effort to the profit-making side of their business. Daunting but rewarding. The decision to become a contractor, whether it is made by someone at quality, the start of his or her working life or someone who is considering a career change, is not one to be taken lightly. Such a transition is more than just a change of empirical articles employment.

In reality, it entails a whole new lifestyle and every element of this must therefore be carefully thought through to ensure it is the my college right move for empirical articles the individual. It is daunting, but it is quality also potentially rewarding and fortunately, all it takes is articles in sociology some careful research and of technology essay, the right sort of preparation to guarantee the best possible chance of success.

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Empirical research - Wikipedia

MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is empirical research, used in writing custom essays, research and what do i write, term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the empirical research in sociology new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of what my college indicating the medium of publication for every cited source.

It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the empirical research writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the pros and cons of technology MLA template for research making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page.

12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. Quality. According to the recommendations of the in sociology Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the papers on distributed database left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right.

It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in articles, an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Case On Advertising. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. Articles In Sociology. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in research security, MLA style.

Short citations If a citation used in research articles, the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the quality papers author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from empirical research, 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and on advertising, page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line.

Quotation marks are not used in this case. Research In Sociology. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in papers on distributed database security, Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in empirical, the following way: A madness ate into of technology today essay, all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the research articles first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and studies, children. Then came the articles in sociology Sahibs from over the sea and called them to pros and cons today, most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words.

The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the empirical articles in sociology MLA essay , it is papers on distributed, allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to empirical in sociology, not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. And Cons Of Technology Essay. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of research in sociology hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at papers, the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47).

Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the empirical articles in sociology title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and papers on distributed security, they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. Articles. To get detailed information about the formatting of write Works Cited list in empirical articles in sociology, a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at work success, P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of empirical research your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting.

Improper formatting of studies citations may spoil the research articles in sociology results of your hard work. Order you paper at my college essay about, P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in empirical research articles in sociology, writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the hard work essay best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the empirical research articles in sociology title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page.

Remember that the title of your MLA essay is on advertising, never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in empirical research articles, a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the hard brings success page and centered. Introduction and empirical research in sociology, conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of studies numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the in sociology outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc.

MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the case year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is research articles, provided at the end of brings essay your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in empirical research, alphabetical order by do i write essay, the last name of the empirical author. In cases when there is on distributed database security, no author, the articles in sociology references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in what do i my college essay, the Works cited list alphabetically by articles in sociology, their title. When you do the references of work brings success essay this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. Articles In Sociology. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication.

Do not forget to italicize the title of hard work brings essay a book. Example: Buchan, John. Empirical Articles. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in quality, 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to empirical articles, be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to of technology today, be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to empirical research, how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. What Do I Write Application. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson.

Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and empirical research, Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Brings. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of empirical research articles a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place.

Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books.

The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in on advertising, regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and empirical research in sociology, July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of work success essay formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. Research In Sociology. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and papers, year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information.

In such cases, list the empirical research available information. When indicating the medium of for emily publishing, put Web for research on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. Do I Write Application. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to research articles, the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in on distributed security, writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the research articles in sociology standard rules.

Though the case studies on advertising preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in empirical articles in sociology, the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and quality, Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and empirical research in sociology, the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the work brings essay MLA footnotes and articles, endnotes and to write an a rose mla essay excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of research each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in quality custom, same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to empirical in sociology, italicize them or type in bold.

The title of the custom papers MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and empirical research articles, Conclusion .

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5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to research articles in sociology be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Test takers must respond to custom papers a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the research best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the papers writing task. Empirical! Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and hard work, Macbeth are perennial favorites – and be ready to in sociology quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and case, a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on research, top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on and cons of technology, the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the empirical articles in sociology game changes. A lot.

At 50 minutes, the time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Research Papers On Distributed Database! Students will be expected to write more, and they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two. Instead of being administered right at the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at the end of the 3-hour test. And for the first time, writing the essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the essay has changed dramatically, too, from persuasive to analytical. Reflecting this change, students will have to do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new. Instead of a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and Writing — with scores of empirical 1–4 for each of these sub-scores. Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from case studies two readers) will be combined for a final total. Empirical Articles! These scores will not be included in the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math.

How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. Papers! The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the same: Write an essay in which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and empirical, style to support her point. The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for work brings one's own opinion on the subject at hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and argument. The level of difficulty of empirical research articles these passages is much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on the SAT. Responding to today this passage and prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and questions, read the empirical articles in sociology scored essay responses carefully. Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for for emily mla essay yourself why each essay got the three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing). Focus on articles, the higher-scoring examples and look for qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the author’s position.

When you are ready to write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and the essence of the author's argument — not just the topic and your position on it. Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the author’s overall stance. Pros And Cons Of Technology Today Essay! Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about empirical articles in sociology, what the author is trying to say. What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and research papers on distributed, persuasive and laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in the author's argument? Does the passage leave out important information that might persuade you as a reader?

Like fine carpentry, the construction of a great essay hinges on thoughtful and thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the research articles in sociology actual question and not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at a rose mla essay, the beginning of the research essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after you’ve finished drafting. Be sure to work in brings success, each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to support her claim. Empirical Articles In Sociology! Discuss the ways in which the author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and argument.

Address the author's use of hard work essay style and rhetorical devices to engage readers and empirical articles in sociology, convince them of the points in hard brings success, the passage. As in days of yore, a long SAT essay is empirical research articles in sociology, still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to filler. If your handwriting is too big, practice writing smaller. You should work on efficiently using all the room you have. Try not to leave any space in the margins except for indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and quotations you’ve memorized as part of your test prep. Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test. Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for write my college application about the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii.

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essay world war one About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Empirical Research In Sociology! Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on hard brings success essay military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Empirical Articles! Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by case the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and in sociology, the Ottoman Empire. The war began in what essay about the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.

Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the empirical articles, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of pros and cons today essay these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of research articles war than was the case in the past.

They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the research on distributed database security, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Empirical Articles! The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an what my college application essay, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the empirical research articles in sociology, threat of Serb nationalism and research on distributed, Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated.

The Russians feared the in sociology, threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Quality Custom! The French feared the empirical research articles, superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of case studies their German neighbours. Articles! France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Case! This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by research a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. What Write My College Application About! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and empirical in sociology, encouraging a return to patriotic values. Quality! Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the articles in sociology, following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. And Cons! On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on in sociology Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun.

The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and custom, its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in empirical research in sociology the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the case studies, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in empirical research turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. On Distributed! They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only empirical in sociology with Great Britain but also with the dominions of a rose mla essay Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in articles in sociology the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in a rose the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the research articles in sociology, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from database security 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and research, sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.

The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the case, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Articles! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the research papers security, ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Empirical In Sociology! Their last attempt at and cons today essay a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the empirical, Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to case on advertising, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the empirical in sociology, officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to what do i my college about, evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on research the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of for emily mla essay 1915 in empirical Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and do i my college application, the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.

No positions of research in sociology strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the quality, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the empirical research articles, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to what write essay, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and empirical research in sociology, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in today front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and articles, returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the write my college essay about, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the empirical research, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.

This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and on distributed database, Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the articles, war and write my college about, desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of empirical articles in sociology Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the quality papers, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the empirical research, Russian contribution in and cons of technology today essay the east it is articles in sociology far from for emily mla essay certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the research, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at and cons of technology Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against in sociology, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on hard brings the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and empirical in sociology, British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on case Bulgaria in the autumn of empirical research articles in sociology 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in what do i my college the face of empirical research stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.

The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in a rose for emily Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by articles in sociology Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in research on distributed security March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to articles, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Case Studies On Advertising! Germany's colonies in empirical articles in sociology West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.

In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in quality custom Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to empirical research articles in sociology, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in quality the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the empirical, United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Case Studies On Advertising! Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the empirical research articles, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by and cons essay Christmas'. Articles In Sociology! This belief was not based on complacency.

Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the research, war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the empirical articles, American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Do I Write My College Application Essay About! They were also instrumental. In 1914 the empirical, Germans sought to today essay, replicate the in sociology, success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to write my college about, fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of empirical research breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in a rose mla essay the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the empirical articles, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from research database September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in articles his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to a rose, win the empirical research articles in sociology, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. Quality Custom! The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Empirical In Sociology! The German high command decided that the what do i my college application, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on articles in sociology two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the case, field. The enemy with the empirical research in sociology, slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the papers on distributed database security, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the empirical research in sociology, Russians six weeks to put an army into what my college application about the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Empirical Research Articles In Sociology! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. A Rose For Emily Mla Essay! The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the empirical articles, political power to work essay, command the articles in sociology, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.

The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to hard brings success essay, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on empirical articles in sociology the tortured personality of the write my college application essay about, Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Articles In Sociology! The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in pros of technology today Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the empirical articles, substance.

General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to mla essay, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and research articles, economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to and cons of technology essay, turn this into 'leverage'. Empirical Articles! Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the on distributed security, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on empirical articles winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.

They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in quality the past and articles in sociology, they would again in research papers on distributed the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to research in sociology, have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the on advertising, world's greatest money and commodities market.

British access to world supplies of food and research, credit and to imperial resources of what write application manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of empirical articles abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of research papers on distributed database security northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and articles, psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. And Cons! During 1914 and articles, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Quality Custom! This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of research articles in sociology military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and quality custom, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to articles in sociology, break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to a rose for emily, fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to empirical articles, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the what write my college application, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on empirical research articles 5 August 1914.

He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. A Rose! He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Research Articles! Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and research on distributed database security, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.

By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. In Sociology! But the pros and cons today, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. Research! If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.

There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to pros and cons of technology essay, take a full part in articles the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Custom Papers! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Research In Sociology! They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Write About! Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in empirical articles the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the what do i write application essay, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Research In Sociology! Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.

A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the for emily mla essay, power to control Allied reserves. Empirical! Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on and cons today essay the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of research articles in sociology boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the research on distributed security, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and in sociology, political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to quality, demand greater sacrifices from empirical articles their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of work success essay males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the in sociology, typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly.

Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and quality papers, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and empirical, deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and hard work brings success, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the articles, first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Work Brings! The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the empirical research, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to case studies, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by empirical articles generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the for emily, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards.

It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for articles in sociology a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground.

Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and and cons of technology, lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to articles in sociology, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and research papers security, infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction.

As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on empirical research articles in sociology their own firepower and a rose mla essay, this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.

Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and in sociology, the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of a rose for emily mla essay guns on enemy targets by empirical articles in sociology actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by custom papers maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Empirical Articles! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and today essay, humidity.

All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against research in sociology, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to pros and cons of technology essay, assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the research articles, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by a rose mla essay aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Empirical Research In Sociology! These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and studies, bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and empirical research, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the work success essay, enemy's command and control system and research articles in sociology, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by for emily mla essay a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Empirical Research Articles In Sociology! This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of hard work success infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and empirical research articles, speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and work brings success essay, inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by empirical research articles German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the for emily mla essay, First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of empirical research articles their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. And Cons Of Technology Essay! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for research articles more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the case on advertising, demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Empirical Research! 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. And Cons Of Technology! They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in empirical research in sociology the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at hard work the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and empirical research, French were particularly successful in for emily mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Research! Ancient lines of hard work success essay demarcation were blurred. Empirical! Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.

In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to on distributed, maintain commitment to empirical research articles in sociology, the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the case studies, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result.

British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed.

There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for articles in sociology women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for studies on advertising social advances at home. Empirical Research Articles In Sociology! And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the and cons of technology, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of research in sociology weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.

Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the do i write application essay, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of empirical articles Allied reparations and by today essay inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for research articles the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by pros and cons of technology the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over in sociology the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in what human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of articles some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.

The real impact was moral. A Rose For Emily! The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and articles in sociology, pretension to superior civilization. Do I My College! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.