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apps dba resume blog I will try to keep this upto date with any new questions that I come accross. New apps questions will be added to the top of this post. Schreiben! Most of the Oracle apps interview questions listed here are technical in natue. Introduction Dissertation! These interview questions span various Oracle Apps modules plus FND OA Framework. For Oracle HRMS and ba thesis schreiben, Payroll interview questions visit HRMS Interview Questions. Dissertation! Question: How will you migrate Oracle General Ledger Currencies and ba thesis schreiben, Sets of Books Definitions fromone environment to another without reKeying? Will you use FNDLOAD? Answer: FNDLOAD can not be used in the scenario. You can use migrator available in Oracle iSetup Responsibility. Answer: Run Reports.

And why not, the Form Function for this screen has a parameter to which we pass name of the Request Group, hence securing the list of Concurrent Programs that are visible in Run Request Form. Just so that you know, there are over 600 form functions for essays Run Reports Question: Can you list any one single limitation of Forms Personalization feature that was delivered with 11.5.10. Answer: You can not implement interactive messages, i.e. Ba Thesis Schreiben! a message will give multiple options for Response. The best you can get from Forms Personalization to do is popup up Message with OK option. English Legal System Essay! b) Add these two concurrent programs to the request group XX_PO_PROGS c) Define a new Form Function that is attached to Form Run Reports d) In the schreiben parameter field of Form Function screen, enter. REQUEST_GROUP_CODE=XX_PO_PROGS REQUEST_GROUP_APPL_SHORT_NAME=XXPO TITLE=XXPO:XX_PO_PROGS e) Attach this form function to the desired menu. Question: Does Oracle 10g support rule based optimization? Answer: The official stance is that RBO is no longer supported by in a 10g. Question: Does oracle support partitioning of tables in Oracle Apps? Answer: Yes, Oracle does support partitioning of tables in Oracle Applications.

There are several implementations that partition on GL_BALANCES. However your client must buy licenses to if they desire to partition tables. To avoid the cost of schreiben licensing you may suggest the clients may decide to permanently close their older GL Periods, such that historical records can be archived. Good! Note: Before running the archival process the second time, you must clear down the archive table GL_ARCHIVE_BALANCES (don’t forget to export archive data to a tape). Question: What will be your partitioning strategy on ba thesis, GL_BALANCES?

Your views please? Answer: This really depends upon how many periods are regularly reported upon, how many periods are left open etc. Introduction In A Dissertation! You can then decide to partition on period_name, or period ranges, or on the status of the GL Period. Question: Does Oracle support running of gather stats on SYS schema in Oracle Apps? Answer: If your Oracle Applications instance is on ba thesis schreiben, 10g, then you can decide to run stats for SYS schema. This can be done by exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats(#39;SYS#39;); Alternately using command dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats(#39;SYS#39;,cascade=TRUE,degree=20); I will prefer the former with default values. If you wish to delete the stats for SYS use exec dbms_stats.delete_schema_stats(#39;SYS#39;); You can schedule a dbms_job for running stats for thesis on teaching SYS schema. Question: Can you use concurrent program Gather Schema Statistics to gather stats on sys schema in oracle apps? Answer: No, Gather Schema Statistics has no parameters for SYS schema. Please use dbms_job. Question: Which table is used to provide drill down from Oracle GL into sub-ledger?

Question: What is the significance of profile option “Node Trust Level” in ba thesis, Oracle Apps. Answer: If this profile option is english legal, set to a value of external against a server, then it signifies that the specific mid-tier is External i.e. it will be exposed to the www. Ba Thesis! In other words this server is introduction, not within the firewall of your client. The idea behind this profile option is to flag such middle-tier so that special restrictions can be applied against its security, which means a very restricted set of responsibilities will be available from such Middle-Tier. Schreiben! Question: What is the significance of statement profile option “Responsibility Trust Level”. Answer: In order to ba thesis schreiben, make a responsibility accessible from an external web tier, you must set profile option “Responsibility Trust Level” at responsibility level to thesis, “External”. Only those responsibilities that have this profile option against them will be accessible from External Middle tiers.

Question: What else can you suggest to restrict the access to screens from external web tiers? Answer: You may use URL filtering within Apache. Question: What is the role of Document Manager in ba thesis, Oracle Purchasing? Answer: POXCON is an immediate concurrent program. Legal Essay! It receives pipe signal from the application when a request is made for approval/reservations/receipts. Question: How to debug a document manager in Oracle Apps? Answer: Document manger runs within the concurrent manager in Oracle Applications. When an application uses a Document Manager, it sends a pipe signal which is schreiben, picked up by the document manager. There are two mechanisms by which to trace the document manager. Apa Format Research! 1. Set the ba thesis schreiben debugging on by using profile option. Speech! STEP 1. Set profile option Concurrent:Debug Flags to TCTM1.

This profile should only generate debugs when set at ba thesis, Site level(I think, as I have only tried site), because Document Manager runs in a different session. STEP 2. Bounce the Document Managers. STEP 3. Retry the Workflow to statement dreams, generate debugs. Ba Thesis! STEP 4. Reset profile option Concurrent:Debug Flags to blank. STEP 5. have a look at in a dissertation, debug information in ba thesis schreiben, table fnd_concurrent_debug_info.

This can be done by thesis on teaching setting profile option “Initialization SQL Statement Custom” against ba thesis, your username before reproducing the on teaching english issue. Ba Thesis! The value of this profile will be set so as to enable trace using event 10046, level 12. Question: You have written a Java Concurrent Program in english legal system essay, Oracle Apps. You want to modify the CLASSPATH such that new class CLASSPATH is effective just for this program. Answer: In the options field of the concurrent program you can enter something similar to below. -cp your custom lib pathused by Java Conc Prog :/home/xxvisiondev/XXDEVDB/comn/java/appsborg.zip:/home/xxvisiondev/XXDEVDB/comn/java. Question: How will you open a bc4j package in jdeveloper? Answer: Oracle ships a file named server.xml with each bc4j package. You will need to ftp that file alongside other bc4j objects(VO’s, EO’s, AM, Classes etc).

Opening the server.xml will load the complete package starting from AM(application module). This is a mandatory step when building Extensions to framework. Question: In OA Framework Self-Service screen, you wish to disable a tab. Schreiben! How will you do it? Answer: Generally speaking, the tabs on a OA Framework page are nothing but the SubMenus.

By entering menu exclusion against the responsibility, you can remove the tab from self service page. Answer: You will need to do the introduction in a dissertation below steps. a.Go to Mid Tier, and open $OA_HTML/cabo/styles/custom.xss. bEnter below text( change colours as needed) c cd $OA_HTML/cabo/styles/cache. dTake a backup of all the ba thesis schreiben css files. eDelete all the files of following pattern oracle-desktop*.css. The idea here is to delete the informative essays cache. Next time when you logon to Oracle Apps Self Service, the Framework will rebuild the css file if found missing for your browser.

Question: Can you extend and substitue a root AM ( Application Module) in schreiben, OA Framework using JDeveloper. Answer: You can extend the AM in jDeveloper, but it doesn’t work( at least it didn’t work in 11.5.9). I am hopeful that Oracle will deliver a solution to this in the future. Answer: You will need to attach a post notification function to the Workflow Notification. The PL/SQL code will look similar to below:- The below code will display an error in culture, the notification when user attempts to schreiben, create a Duplicate Vendor Number. itemtype IN VARCHAR2. ,itemkey IN VARCHAR2. ,actid IN NUMBER. ,funcmode IN VARCHAR2. ,RESULT IN OUT VARCHAR2. CURSOR c_get_response_for_new_vendor IS. FROM wf_notification_attributes wna. WHERE wna.notification_id = l_nid. AND wna.notification_id = wn.notification_id.

AND wn.message_name = wma.message_name. AND wn.message_type = wma.message_type. AND wna.NAME = wma.NAME. AND wma.SUBTYPE = #39;RESPOND#39; AND wma.format = wl.lookup_type. AND wna.text_value = wl.lookup_code. AND wma.TYPE = #39;LOOKUP#39; IF (funcmode IN (#39;RESPOND#39;)) IF l_activity_result_code = #39;NEW_VENDOR#39; AND does_vendor_exist(p_vendor = v_newly_entered_vendor_num) RESULT := #39;ERROR: VendorNumber you entered already exists#39;; WHEN OTHERS THEN. Question: How to make concurrent program end with warning?

Answer: If the concurrent program is of type PL/SQL, you can assign a value of 1 to the “retcode” OUT Parameter. For a Java Concurrent program, use the code similar to below. //get handle on request completion object for research reporting status. Answer: Assuming your executable script is LOADPO.prog, then use the commands below. Ba Thesis Schreiben! ln -s $FND_TOP/bin/fndcpesr $XXPO_TOP/bin/LOADPO. Answer: Use table ad_bugs, in which column bug_number is the patch number. ,to_char(creation_date, #39;DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS#39;) dated.

WHERE bug_number = TRIM(#39;bug_number#39;) ; Answer: If cost of the workflow activity is introduction, greater than 50, then the ba thesis schreiben workflow activity will be processed in background mode only, and it won’t be processed in online mode. System Essay! Answer: You can eiter use wf_engine.start_process or you can attach a runnable process such ghat it subscribes to a workflow event. --a)if initiating the process using start_process, do the ba thesis below. Question: On 10g, how will you use awr? Answer: By running below scripts. These are both the same scripts, but with differing parameters.

Question : How will you configure Apache to run in music, Debug mode, specifically usefull when debugging iProcurement ( prior to 11.5.10). Answer : After 11.5.10, FND Logging can be used for debugging Oracle iProcurement. Answer : Yes, this can be done without customization, i.e. by ba thesis using OA Framework Extension coupled with Personalization. Implement the following Steps :- a) Extend the VO ( View Object ), to implement the new SQL required to support the LOV. Essay! b) Substitute the schreiben base VO, by using jpximport [ similar to introduction dissertation, as explained in ba thesis schreiben, Link ] c) Personalize the LOV Region, by speech essays clicking on Add New Item. While adding the new Item, you will cross reference the ba thesis newly added column to VO. Question: Can you do fnd_request.submit_request from SQL Plus in Oracle? Answer: You will need to initialize the global variables first using fnd_global.initialize. v_session_id INTEGER := userenv(#39;sessionid#39;) ; ,USER_ID = your user id from fnd_user.user_id ,RESP_ID = You may use Examine from the essays screen PROFILE/RESP_ID ,RESP_APPL_ID = You may use Examine from the screen PROFILE/RESP_APPL_ID ,LOGIN_ID = 3115003--Any number here.

Answer: First thing to ba thesis, do is to english system essay, enable trace. Preferably, enable the trace with Bind Variables. This can be done by selecting menu Help/Diagnostics/Trace/”Trace With Binds and ba thesis, Wait” Internally Oracle Forms issues a statement similar to below:- alter session set events=#39;10046 trace name context forever, level 12#39; ; This will enable the trace with Bind Variable values being shown in the trace file. Introduction In A Dissertation! The screen in Oracle Apps will also provide the name of the trace file which is ba thesis schreiben, located in dissertation, directly identified by. select value from schreiben, v$parameter where name like #39;%us%r%dump%#39; Doing a tkprof with explain plan option, reviewing plans and stats in thesis on teaching english language, trace file can help identify the slow performing SQL. Ba Thesis! Answer: “Gather Stats” will simply gather the stats against existing tables, indexes etc. However Gather Stats does not create any new indexes.

But “Program Optimizer[RGOPTM]” can create indexes on GL_CODE_COMBINATIONS, provided accounting segment has the indexed flag enabled, Question: You have written a piece of code in POR_CUSTOM_PKG for Oracle iProcurement, but its not taking any effect? What may be the reason? Answer: Depending upon which procedure in POR_CUSTOM_PKG has been programmed, one or more of the below profile options must be set to Yes. Culture Essay! POR: Enable Req Header Customization. Ba Thesis Schreiben! POR: Enable Requisition Line Customization. POR: Enable Req Distribution Customization.

Question: What is the key benefit of punching out to suppliers catalogs rather than loading their catalogs locally in Oracle iProcurement? Answer: Punchout has several advantages like, Catalogs don’t need to be loaded locally saves space on your system. You can get up-to-date list of catalogs by punching out and informative essays, also you get the benefit of up-to-date pricing information on ba thesis, vendor items. Question: Does oracle have a test environment on english essay, exchange? Question: Does Oracle Grants use its own schema or does it uses Oracle Project Accounting schema? Answer: Although Oracle Grants has its own schema i.e. GMS, it reuses many of the tables with in Oracle Projects Schema like PA_PROJECTS_ALL, PA_EXPENDITURE_ITEMS_ALL, PA_EXPENDITURE_TYPES etc. Question: How to make an ba thesis schreiben Oracle Report Type concurrent program produce an excel friendly output? Answer: Comma can be concatenated between the thesis language column values, however a better option is to create tab delimited file, as it takes care of ba thesis schreiben commas within the informative essays string. For this, use SQL similar to below in the report.

Question: What are the ba thesis settings needed for printing bitmap reports? Answer: Get your DBA to configure two files i.e. uiprint.txt default.ppd. For details, refer to Metalink Note 189708.1. Question: For a PL/SQL based concurrent program do you have to issue a commit at the end? Answer: The concurrent program runs within its own new session. Youth Culture Essay! In APPS, the default database setting enforces a commit at the end of each session. Ba Thesis Schreiben! Hence no explicit COMMIT is required.

Question: What is the best way to add debugging to the code in apps? Answer: Use fnd_log.string , i.e. FND Logging. Introduction Dissertation! Behind the schreiben scenes Oracles FND Logging uses autonomous transaction to insert records in a table named fnd_log_messages. ,message = #39;your debug message here#39;); FND: Debug Log Mode. FND: Debug Log Enabled. FND: Debug Log Module. Question: If you wish to trigger of an update or insert in bespoke table or take some action in response to a TCA record being created or modified, how would you do it? Will you write a database triggers on TCA Tables? Answer: There are various pre-defined Events that are invoked from the Oracle TCA API’s. TCA was Oracle’s first initiative towards a fully API based approach, which means the screen and the processes all use the same set of APIs for doing same task.

In order to take an informative essays action when these events occur, you can subscribe a custom PL/SQL procedure or a Custom Workflow to ba thesis schreiben, these events. Some of the important TCA events are listed below:- Question: In Oracle OA Framework, is the papers research MDS page/document definition stored in database or in the file system? Answer: The MDS document details are loaded into database, in the following sets of tables. The Document is loaded via XMLImporter, as detailed in schreiben, XMLImporter Article. Question: In a Oracle Report data group, you have a “data link” between two queries. Introduction! How do you ensure that the data link is made Outer Joined?

Answer: The data link is an Outer Join by default. Schreiben! Question: How does substitution work in OA Framework? What are the benefits of using Substitution in OA Framework? Answer: Based on the user that has logged into OA Framework, MDS defines the context of the logged in user. Based upon informative essays, this logged in context, all applicable personalization are applied by MDS. Given that substitutions are loaded as site level personalizations, MDS applies the substituted BC4J objects along with the personalizations. The above listed steps occur as soon as Root Application module has been loaded. The benefit of using Substitution is to extend the schreiben OA Framework without customization of the underlying code.

This is of great help during Upgrades. Entity Objects and Validation Objects can be substituted. I think Root AM’s can’t be substituted given that substitution kicks off after Root AM gets loaded. Question: In OA Framework, once your application has been extended by substitutions, is it possible to revert back to remove those substitutions? Answer: yes, by setting profile option “Disable Self-Service Personal%” to Yes, keeping in mind that all your personalizations will get disabled by this profile option. This profile is also very useful when debugging your OA Framework based application in introduction, the event of ba thesis schreiben some error. By disabling the personalization via profile, you can isolate the system error, i.e. is being caused by your extension/substitution code or by schreiben Oracle’s standard functionality. Question: How can you import invoices into Oracle Receivables? Answer: You can either use AutoInvoice by populating tables RA_INTERFACE_LINES_ALL, RA_INTERFACE_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL RA_INTERFACE_SALESCREDITS_ALL.

Alternately you may decide to use API ar_invoice_api_pub.create_single_invoice for Receivables Invoice Import. Question: How do you setup a context sensitive flexfield. Answer: Note: I will publish a white paper to thesis statement dreams, sho step by step approach. But for the purpose of ba thesis your interview, a brief explanation isa)Create a reference field, b) Use that reference field in “Context Field” section of DFF Segment screen c) For each possible value of the context field, you will need to create one record in section “Context Field Value” ( beneath the global data elements). Question: Does Oracle iProcurement use same tables as Oracle Purchasing? Answer: Yes, iProcurement uses the same set of requisition tables as are used by Core Purchasing. Question: What is the english name of the schreiben schema for tables in tca. Answer: AR (at least till 11.5.10, not sure about 11.5.10).

Question: Are suppliers a part of thesis on teaching english language TCA? Answer: Unfortunately not yet. However, Release 12 will be merging Suppliers into schreiben, TCA. Question: What is the link between order management and language, purchasing. Schreiben! Answer: Internal Requisitions get translated into Internal Sales Orders. Question: How would you know if the purchase order XML has been transmitted to vendor, looking at the tables. Answer: The XML delivery status can be found from informative essays, a table named ecx_oxta_logmsg. Use the query below. ,decode(eol.result_code, 1000, #39;Success#39;, #39;Failure#39;) AS status.

FROM ecx_oxta_logmsg eol. WHERE edoc.msgid = eol.sender_message_id. AND eog.out_msgid = edoc.msgid. ORDER BY edoc.document_number. Question: You have done forms personalization, now how will you move it from one environment to another? Question: What are the key benefits of forms personalization over ba thesis custom.pll? --Multiple users can develop forms personalization at any given point in speech, time. --It is fairly easy to enable and disable forms personalizations. --A programmer is not required to do simple things such as hide/disable fields or buttons. --Provides more visibility on customizations to the screen. Question: Tell me some limitations of forms personalization when compared to schreiben, CUSTOM.pll? --Can#39;t create record group queries, hence can’t implement LOV Query changes. --Can#39;t make things interactive, i.e. Introduction! can’t have a message box that gives multiple choices for ba thesis example Proceed or Stop etc. Question: Give me one example where apps uses partitioning?

Question: Give me one example of securing attributes in iProcurement. Answer: You can define Realm to bundle suppliers into a Category. Such realm can then be assigned to speech essays, the User using Define User Screen. Security Attribute ICX_POR_REALM_ID can be used. By doing so, the user will only be made visible those Punchout suppliers that belong to the realm against their securing attributes.

Question: Can you send blob attachments via workflow notifications? Answer: Yes, you can send BLOB Attachments. written by subbarao , October 19, 2006. written by Anil Passi , October 19, 2006. written by subbarao , October 19, 2006. written by schreiben Anil Passi , October 19, 2006. written by SAYEED AHAMED , November 17, 2006. By this one can have a idea on. Oracle apps FAQ. written by SAYEED AHAMED , November 17, 2006. Essays! By this one can have a idea on. Oracle apps FAQ. written by ba thesis Phani , December 11, 2006. written by Phani , December 11, 2006. written by amar , December 15, 2006. written by amar , December 15, 2006. written by busireddy , December 20, 2006.

Iam looking for apa format job in ba thesis, Oracleapps technical consultant. Plz send any documents in Po which is use full in technical side. written by apa format research busireddy , December 20, 2006. Iam looking for job in Oracleapps technical consultant. Plz send any documents in Po which is use full in technical side. written by artur bakhtriger , December 21, 2006. written by ba thesis artur bakhtriger , December 21, 2006. Thesis English Language! written by ashwinkumar , January 10, 2007. written by ashwinkumar , January 10, 2007. Ba Thesis Schreiben! written by Rajendra , January 22, 2007. Plz send me the PO,AR Interface related Documents and the tables used in these two interfaces.. written by Rajendra , January 22, 2007. Plz send me the PO,AR Interface related Documents and the tables used in these two interfaces.. written by Manju , January 26, 2007. i have a doubt how to attach more than one table name in valueset of type TABLE? pls explain with example. written by venkata , February 06, 2007. written by kumar , February 17, 2007. written by Muskan , February 23, 2007. written by Anil Passi , February 24, 2007. written by Anil Passi , March 12, 2007. written by mohan , May 04, 2007. English Legal System Essay! with 4.5 year in IT industry , for ba thesis the last 1.8 years i am. in dreams, Oracle Applications with basically. functional or technical ?? written by anil passi , May 04, 2007. Given that you already have techie experience, then its better to carry on with your skillsets and enhance them where possible. Ba Thesis! written by santhosh , May 16, 2007. I have a doubt in Oracle Alerts. English Legal System Essay! Is that possible to submit a concurrent program through Alerts? If so how can we achieve it? written by basu_manasi , May 16, 2007.

I underwent training in Apps and presently on search for jobs in Apps. How much opportunity do I hold to get into job and what would u suggest. Thanx and regards. written by manasi , May 17, 2007. Thanx for the constant guidance to all apps professionals. Can u just tell me the validations carried for journal import in schreiben, gl_interface. Apa Format! A real time example wud be helpful.

How do we know as to what validations r to be carried for the open interfaces in AP AR. Do they depend on the data in flat file?. Bear with me I am a beginner. Ba Thesis Schreiben! Thanx and regards. written by apa format papers research Santhosh , May 18, 2007. written by schreiben Anil Passi , May 18, 2007. written by Sunny , May 22, 2007. written by Anil , May 29, 2007. written by Anil , June 06, 2007. written by Uma , June 06, 2007.

I want to find out the good thesis dreams forms names in schreiben, apps? how to check the form names? written by satish , June 16, 2007. I am having one doubt in API-HOOK.Actually I have created a Package ,using SIT.For that i have Hooked.The API-HOOK is working for youth culture music the Oracle Forms. But if i going to the create the data in selservice the hook is not working..why ? i have used hr_sit_api. Ba Thesis! please help me on.. In A! written by Anil Passi , July 31, 2007. Schreiben! written by Uttam , August 07, 2007. I am having an speech issue with my Oracle Workflow Manager. In the console, where u have options to restart the notification mailer and all those stuff, When i try to click on the workflow items under Related links -- Throughput-- Work Items, it just hangs for eternity. I am not able to view any of the ba thesis workflow items. I tried analysing all the Workflow tables and also the restart of some components, but it still hangs. Can you please let me know how to resolve this or what the reason for this would be.

Appreciate your help in this. written by Mark , August 12, 2007. written by preethi_vasala , August 20, 2007. Thanks for the guidance to all apps professionals. i had 5 years experience as a oracle developer. Recently i finish course for essay oracle apps technical (finance). Ba Thesis! Please i need interview question for essays only technical (finance) . I can see all questions and ba thesis, answers in this blog, but i confuse which one technical or functional. if possible can you provide for me only technical (finance) questions and answers. and good thesis dreams, any other tips for getting job for technical consultant#8230; written by manasi , September 01, 2007. Pl explain about TCA.

Have gone thru SolutionBeacon's PDF but unable to get a clear concept. All I get is ba thesis, that it is a model to on teaching english language, deal with the complex customer relationships. Also I wud like to know the difference between AR and TCA and why actually this came into existence. written by Ashish Bhatt , September 01, 2007. Ba Thesis! written by Anil Passi , September 01, 2007. written by Anil Passi , September 01, 2007. written by manasi , September 03, 2007. Informative! Thanx Anil. Can u suggest me a link which wud help me understand the Oracle service contracts and oracle core contracts apart from the pdf. written by shankar choudary , September 22, 2007. can u suggest me a good guide for ba thesis schreiben reports and forms. In A! written by ba thesis Suresh1 , September 27, 2007.

written by madhusudhan , October 01, 2007. Can you please share FAQ's about Apps Manufacturing(Functional) written by Nakhla , October 14, 2007. English! written by sarithad , October 15, 2007. written by schreiben krishnab , October 16, 2007. Youth Music Essay! written by suguna , October 20, 2007. written by Anil Passi , October 20, 2007. Please can you elaborate your question. written by schreiben krishnab , October 22, 2007. written by krishnab , October 22, 2007. Dissertation! written by krishnab , October 30, 2007. written by ba thesis silpa , November 01, 2007. Iam looking for job in apa format research, Oracleapps technical consultant. can u send me a resume. written by silpa , November 01, 2007. moreover iam looking for job in Oracleapps technical consultant. so can u guide to prepare a oracle resume. written by schreiben Frida , November 13, 2007. written by introduction RajeshD , November 16, 2007. written by SSaritha , November 16, 2007. written by RajeshD , November 16, 2007. written by ba thesis schreiben Liji , November 19, 2007.

written by ramesh katla , November 24, 2007. written by english legal ramesh katla , November 24, 2007. written by Athahar Parvez , November 27, 2007. written by Chandra 123 , November 27, 2007. How come Oracle is not giving option to see Record History from self service modules. What if we wanted to see table name and who,when updated that particular data ?

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The Social Significance of Plays you Study. As historical circumstances and cultural developments influence the ba thesis writing, production and reception of plays and performances, the social significance of any play is essential to interrogate if you wish to understand all the features of plays you are studying. This type of study may require you to research a range of social and historical concepts, events, developments and phenomena that appear to be extraneous or external to good thesis the play itself. For example, You may be asked to investigate the ba thesis schreiben political systems and conflicts during an era in which plays were written and to on teaching language consider how they impacted upon the creation of schreiben, a particular style of play. Eg. Introduction In A? What major political events were occurring when Roman comedy was at its zenith? You may be asked to investigate the economic changes in various eras and to ba thesis consider how economic changes influenced the plays that were published. Eg.

Why were some of Shakespeare’s plays edited in Victorian England and how might such approaches be linked to the development of Britain’s economy? You may be asked to good statement dreams investigate the era in which plays were produced and to compare material conditions of audiences today to those of ba thesis, audiences in the era in which a play was written. Eg. Would contemporary audiences be concerned about catching the plague if they attended the theatre and would they understand text that subtly referred to physical symptoms of the plague? The Performance Significance of music essay, Plays you Study. Written forms of plays are often recognised as the permanent records of dramas while performances of plays are recognised as ephemeral activities that are difficult to record. While the construction of plays and performances are two separate crafts, the performance of ba thesis schreiben, a play is ultimately the only way to test whether or not a play actually works for an audience and the elements of a performance that support a production of a play are essential to consider and distinguish from the play. While practical activities in tutorials enable you to experiment with performance possibilities, the plays you will study have usually already been produced. Finding information about various productions will enable you to consider more possibilities and may draw your attention to difficulties you may need to address when producing plays.

This kind of dissertation, information also prompts you to ba thesis consider the technical limitations and developments that have influenced the evolution of theatrical performances and why so many differences are evident in productions of the same play in different eras or cultures. Such study may require you to analyse the choices accompanying the production of research, elements such as acting styles, theatre spaces, set design, lighting, sound, directing and costuming. This kind of study may also require in depth analysis of reviews of performances or consideration of any particular edits or translations of texts used for schreiben a production. For example, You may be asked to investigate the influence of electricity on lighting designs for theatres. English Legal System? Eg. How did the ba thesis schreiben invention of harnessed electricity impact upon english the production of plays in theatres? You may be asked to investigate how different theatre spaces influenced the development of different acting styles. Schreiben? Eg. Why were oratorical skills and athleticism so important for the plays performed in the Ancient Greek festivals? You may be asked to evaluate a production’s decision to get rid of detailed staging instructions outlined in a play.

Eg. How would the total departure from the thesis statement staging instructions in Ibsen’s play The Doll’s House influence the meanings generated in a production of this play? Essay assignments give you opportunities to explore a range of topics and written styles and to formulate your own original and ba thesis schreiben, innovative approaches to different subjects. For example, if your essay question gives you scope to look at a number of essay, different plays, try to avoid common or popular choices and look for ways of offering a view or analysis that is insightful or unusual. Ba Thesis? Your lecturer has probably read a million essays on Shakespearean comedies or analyses of thesis, well-known Australian plays like The Removalist or Blackrock so they will appreciate and respond to original ideas and schreiben, innovative arguments you are able to develop and defend. While we hope you will explore the many different components in drama and that you will have brilliant ideas to communicate, you must remember that there are different types of essays that offer you various ways to construct and communicate the ideas you are developing. So, before you begin writing, consider which type of essay you are being asked to write (see outline of essays below).

Basic Guide to Essay Writing: members.tripod.com/ Anderson, Jonathan and Millicent Poole. Thesis and Assignment Writing . Brisbane: John Wiley Sons, 1994. Bate, Douglas and Peter Sharpe. Harcourt Brace Writer’s Handbook: For University Students . Thesis? Sydney: Harcourt Brace, 1996. Clanchy , John and Brigid Ballard. Essay Writing For Students: A Practical Guide . Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1991. There is always some degree of analysis involved in essay writing and most assignments develop your abilities to analyse and research. However, when you are asked to provide an analysis of schreiben, a set play or topic, you are being asked for a particular type of essay . Analysis involved more than a description of a field of speech, study and more than a list of your observations or a survey of observations made by others. Ba Thesis? Analysis requires you to examine your own responses and ideas about the subject you are investigating.

To offer an insightful analysis of statement dreams, a subject, you must consider a variety of claims that have been made about your subject. To find the variety of claims, you MUST conduct research. Research is important because you will only ba thesis schreiben, be in a position to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the subject you are investigating when you have located a variety of information and opinions. As it is easy to be overwhelmed by the amount of material and english system essay, the range of resources available for research, students need to remember that they are researching a particular topic that is part of a large field of knowledge. Schreiben? To avoid becoming sidetracked, it is good thesis dreams, useful to consider what information you need to understand and assess the topic you are researching. When you have conducted thorough research of a topic, you will be able to offer an analysis of a subject that is supported by well-informed arguments and sound evidence (see section on research below). An analytical essay offers your view. While your research identifies other people’s views, their arguments and evidence are included to support your central claim. An analytical essay can often include the following sections in ba thesis, various orders: A summary or outline of the subject you are analysing Your claim about the subject (a position that you have formed in response to your research and reading) An analysis of assumptions that have been or could be made about the subject you are analysing An analysis of any hidden or implied arguments associated with the subject you are analysing An analysis of any contradictions conflicting statements about the subject you are studying that are different to english essay each other or to the responses you have had An analysis of evidence that supports your claim A summary that explains why your claim is more appealing than others. A sample assignment topic for an analytical essay:

The Medieval Play Everyman is described as a morality play. In a well-argued essay, identify at ba thesis schreiben least three moral virtues included in the play and consider whether these virtues were likely to in a be developed by people in the era and culture in which the play was produced. Your essay should include references to the text and a detailed analysis of ba thesis schreiben, relevant social discourses and material conditions evident at the time of the play’s production. Traditionally, a dramaturgical essay differs from an analytical essay in speech essays, that it approaches the script as a script for performance as well as a piece of literature. That is, this type of essay takes into account the performative elements of a play.

A person writing a dramaturgical essay therefore has to be able to ba thesis schreiben imagine and analyse elements that are used in english system, a production of the play. A dramaturgical essay is still likely to analyse literary features (things like the rhythms of the written language, poetic images and ba thesis schreiben, structures). However, the interpretations and analysis of plays offered by music essay a dramaturg will include references that are relevant for particular performances and productions. When you are asked to write a ‘dramaturgical’ essay you will also need to consider what task you are being asked to perform. Since there are many jobs and many types of analysis conducted in a theatre production, you will need to understand the specific aspect of a production you are expected to research, analyse or develop. To do this, you need to understand what is involved in dramaturgy. Dramaturgy is a word used to ba thesis schreiben collectively describe the english legal system essay arts and ba thesis, techniques used to analyse and informative, produce theatre. Dramaturgs or, in schreiben, some spellings, dramaturges are individuals employed by theatre companies for their knowledge and understanding of theatre arts, techniques and functions. While dramaturgs are most commonly employed to help research and develop productions, the tasks they perform are varied and often negotiated by theatre companies. Tasks can include: Developing a ‘dramaturgical protocol’ which is a package of statement, information for a production that offers relevant historical, social, performative, political or literary information Providing literary advice to theatrical productions and playwrights (and sometimes film corporations) Analysing, editing, adapting, translating or choosing translations of texts, Offering support and feedback for new work Collaborating with directors, designers and actors Reading and evaluating scripts Researching performance histories Conducting close textual analyses of schreiben, plays Developing ‘concepts’ for a production Researching, writing and designing theatre programmes Locating promotional material for productions.

As dramaturgy is an evolving field, it is also a good idea to research the various roles and organizations that are associated with this activity before writing your essays (or accepting a contract with a theatre company!) A sample topic for an assignment that requires a dramaturgical essay: Queensland Theatre Company is culture music, mounting a production of ba thesis, Sophocles’ Oedipus the english legal system essay King . You have been appointed as a dramaturg on this production and the director has asked you to ba thesis do research for two different tasks. Find material that discusses the social and historical significance of essay, blind prophets presented in Ancient Greek plays and then write an essay for the production’s programme notes. Your essay is to explain the historical significance of blind prophets and explain how these ideas may be related to ba thesis schreiben contemporary Australian views of clairvoyants and fortune-tellers. Your second task is to find some images of informative speech essays, blind prophets that have been staged in other productions of Ancient Greek plays. You are to write a brief annotation on each of the productions that will be distributed to all members of the productions design team. The annotations must therefore accurately describe any significant details of the set, lighting and costume designs used in other productions and ba thesis schreiben, briefly explain why such designs would or would not work in the space being used at QTC.

The Dramaturg’s Network. Cardullo, Bert. Essay? What is ba thesis, Dramaturgy ? New York: P. Lang, 1995. Meagher, John C. Pursuing Shakespeare’s Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and Strategies in His Playmaking . Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2003. A theatre review evaluates the impact of a production as a whole rather than focusing on one element such as the choice of play, the script, the playwright or any other component involved in mounting a production. Thesis? Unlike an analysis of literary components of a play, a review offers your evaluation of ba thesis, all the components in informative essays, a performance and discusses whether the components were used to successfully (or unsuccessfully) convey meaning in a production. Your evaluation will need to consider the successes, failures or tensions within the ba thesis schreiben production and will demonstrate your ability to papers identify and analyse a number of elements involved in a performance. Some of the components that may be contained in a review include: A brief synopsis of the ba thesis plot or aims of the production An analysis of how the script was supported or interpreted throughout the production An analysis of the mood or atmosphere established An analysis of the introduction in a acting styles used by performers and an analysis of ba thesis, any significant performances explaining why they were good, mediocre or bad An analysis of the directorial choices evident An analysis of the set, lighting, sound, costumes and other effects Your personal opinion supported by reasons to justify your opinion. A sample question for a theatre review:

Write a 1000 word review of Queensland Theatre Company’s production of introduction in a, Edward Albee’s play The Goat: Or Who is Sylvia? Essay writing skills common to all styles of essays. A good place to ba thesis start is to informative speech essays imagine a PICTURE of your essay structure. A common structure found in ba thesis, most academic essays is the one below. While getting an overall picture of culture, your argument helps you organise your material, your essay must demonstrate your ability to research appropriately and demonstrate your ability to use and understand a number of analytical and literary skills. Ba Thesis? You demonstrate these skills when you communicate your ideas effectively through a clear structure, a persuasive argument, a good range of evidence to in a dissertation support your argument (research and referencing) and appropriate expression of your argument and schreiben, evidence (the language and music, style you select to convey the ideas being outlined). The criteria used to schreiben assess your essay account for introduction each of these areas so you must carefully consider how you are using these elements when you are writing your essay (see criteria sheets below). Clive.

Manual of Style for schreiben Essay Writing . St Lucia, Qld: Dept. of History, The University of Queensland, 1999. Examples of criteria used to assess your essays: 1. Good Thesis Dreams? Criteria for assessing essay Structure. Imprecise and vague focus on the problem. Vague focus on the. The problem is defined. The problem is ba thesis, clearly defined. Concise and accurate statement of. No clear statement. Statement of youth culture music, method presented. Statement of method presented using appropriate terminology.

Clear and systematic statement of. method using appropriate terminology. Essay shows little. relevance to topic. Essay relates to. discusses the topic. Essay discusses the topic in an informative way. Essay discusses the topic in an insightful way. Much of the evidence inaccurate or.

Limited amount of supporting evidence. The evidence is reliable. Accurate presentation of schreiben, evidence. Accurate presentation of appropriate evidence. Essay rambles and lacks continuity.

The focus of the essay is english system, weak. Material presented in. a logical order. Material presented in. a logical order which helps to build an argument. Logical argument that makes solid statements about the topic. Little evidence of originality. Essay covers material on a general level. Essay covers material on a general level and schreiben, extends this by wider research. Essay presents some new ideas which were not covered in class.

Original creative work which shows an speech essays active engagement with other scholarly thought. 3. Criteria for assessing essay Research Referencing. Inadequate acknowledgement of sources. Refers to general sources. Adequate acknowledgement of schreiben, academic sources. Good acknowledgement of academic sources. Excellent acknowledgement of scholarly sources. No evidence of youth culture music essay, Research.

Evidence of small. amount of ba thesis schreiben, general research. Evidence of research that is relevant to the topic. Evidence of wide research. Evidence of wide scholarly research.

Essay has used a small number of sources. Adequate consultation of sources. Essay relies on statement dreams a broad range of schreiben, sources. Excellent choice of scholarly sources. Some inaccuracies in. Correct referencing using an accepted citation method. Correct referencing using an accepted citation method.

4. Criteria for assessing essay Language Style. Clumsily written with. much incorrect punctuation. Awkward use of youth, expression. Fluent piece of writing. Fluent piece of writing which uses sophisticated language. Much inaccurate usage. Several ungrammatical sentences. Accurate usage of grammar. Grammar used with stylistic flair. Much incorrect spelling.

Mostly correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout. Several errors in. in the Bibliography. Bibliography correctly set out using MLA Style.

*For good advice on how to improve sentence or paragraph construction have a look at: Durham, Marsha and Roslyn Petelin. The Professional Writing Guide: Writing Well and Knowing Why . Warriewood, NSW: Business and Professional Publishing, 2001. The follow graphic will help to visualise the process that is required when you write an essay: The biggest pitfall for students writing Tertiary Level essays is schreiben, being under-prepared for informative speech essays the topic. Researching your area thoroughly is an important elementary task. Ba Thesis? All essays must demonstrate a high level of research and comprehension of primary and secondary sources.

You can assume that researching your topic at papers University is the norm unless otherwise advised by schreiben your lecturer. The types of research material that will be most useful to students in the Humanities include books, journal articles, book reviews, newspapers, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, etc. The internet can be a useful tool although you need to be sure that the material comes from a repudable academic site. Over-reliance on internet sources is not acceptable. The ACU Library has many tools to help you find material that will be useful to your studies. ACU subscribes to many useful databases. However, you need to be aware that many of the journals that are cited in the database are not held on campus.

The Library provides students with helpful guidelines for finding resources on campus. Informative Speech? There are Library 'finders' for ba thesis schreiben many disciplines including Drama. All essays need to follow a standard model of referencing. The ACU Study Guide provides clear examples of how you should incorporate references into your writing. This is essential reading for all subject areas offered at ACU. If the ACU Study Guide does not cover the specific item that you are wanting to english system essay include in ba thesis, your essay you can refer to the comprehensive manuals that are located in the Reference Section of the Library. For Drama essays students should use the thesis on teaching english language MLA method of referencing. You will also find Simon Ryan and Delyse Ryan's Essay Writing Guide useful. Make a habit of reading journal articles very carefully to learn how academic discourse is presented in essays. This will usually demonstrate an acceptable style for the inclusion of quotations and ba thesis schreiben, other citations. Look carefully at language the way writers discuss the material.

If you want to enter into the academic discussion you need to be familiar with the appropriate discourse. Presenting a workable structure for your argument is schreiben, one of the most difficult skills that you will be required to demonstrate in essays. You must order your material in a coherent and logical manner. Make sure that everything you say is directly relevant to your topic. While you are writing continually refer back to the question to youth culture check that you are not going off on a tangent. Be wary of making grandiose statements which are not supported by your evidence. A favourite starting line for essays is Shakespeare was the greatest writer in the history of Literature. This is completely unable to be proven in a 2000 word essay and it is unlikely that lecturers would ask you a question that would require such a response. To help temper your use of sweeping statements ask yourself can I back this up with a citation?—if you can't then leave it out. Forgetting to Cite Your Sources: You must always cite your sources.

All of ba thesis schreiben, your information has to have come from apa format research somewhere. Therefore, it is extremely important that you say whose ideas and information you are referring to. You are allowed to ba thesis schreiben express your own ideas but make sure you do not take credit for someone else's work. Copying someone else's exact words or ideas: Students should familiarise themselves with ACU's rules regarding plagiarism. For information regarding the University's policy refer to the ACU's Academic Regulations ( Regulation 6.4) and the Academic Honesty Policy (Item 7). Poorly presented work: Presentation is an important part of assignment writing. Hand-written work is english legal system essay, not acceptable. Student access to ba thesis computers is available on legal essay campus. All work should be typed and ba thesis schreiben, include a Cover Sheet.

You cannot hope to be convincing in your argument if spelling, typographical or grammatical errors appear in introduction in a dissertation, your work. Word processing packages have spell checking facilities although these should not be relied upon solely. Schreiben? For example, a computer spell check will not pick up that you have typed from instead of form because both words are spelt correctly. There is no substitute for proof-reading your work. Reading your work aloud is an excellent way of making sure that your writing makes sense as well as giving you an opportunity to spot pesky errors.

The worst spelt word in University essays only consists of three letters. Students misspelling this particularly word is a pet-hate of most academics. Example: The dog's bone is buried could be written as Its bone is buried it's = a contraction of it is Example: The dog is asleep could be written as It's asleep If you are having trouble with your tertiary studies ACU has staff who are here to help you.

Ann Majkut runs Study Skills Courses and introduction in a, it is strongly recommended that you attend these as they will help you in all of your subjects.

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How to Write a BA Thesis: A Practical …

7 Resume Writing Tips to ba thesis, Get You to the Finance Interview. You’ve set your sights on landing a new job, perused the dreams, different accounting and finance roles, and found a position that could be your perfect fit. Now it’s time to whip your professional persona into shape, which means you could use some resume writing tips. Ba Thesis? The fact that this crucial page — two pages, at the most — can make or break your chances of being called for an interview is hardly a secret. But what are the odds of pushing your resume to introduction dissertation, the top of the hiring manager’s pile instead of the shredder? Pretty good, if you follow the advice of Clint Ahlgrimm, who coaches candidates on resumes and ba thesis schreiben, is a division director at Robert Half Finance Accounting. Thesis On Teaching Language? Here are seven of his resume writing tips to help you make sure your future employer realizes you’re the one for the job. “A lot of people hire resume writers and come back with the ‘summary resume,’ which is the wrong format for financial and accounting job seekers,” Ahlgrimm says. “Every hiring manager I’ve talked to ba thesis, would rather see a reverse-chronological format.” So put your newest and most relevant position first, and go backward from there. Just don’t go back too far.

Unless you have a compelling reason to list work experience that goes back to the ’90s, limit your resume to the last 10 years. You can bring up anything older than that in youth music essay the interview. Schreiben? Many companies filter their incoming resumes through a computer program to weed out candidates who aren’t a good match based on keywords. That filter means your resume may not ever make it to papers, the hands of a hiring manager. Study the job description and look for ba thesis keywords and action verbs such as “diagnose,” “financial compliance” and music essay, “sales forecasting.” Use these keywords wherever applicable in your resume. Ba Thesis Schreiben? The more your keywords align, the greater your chance of rising to the top of the stack. No clip art or pictures, Ahlgrimm says, and save anything quirky for the cover letter. He remembers seeing a resume from a candidate who had a gap in employment and explained it this way: “CEO of a household of 4.” “I get it; she was a stay-at-home mom. Statement? But the resume is schreiben not really the place for that, not for an accounting role, anyway.” This resume tip applies to a variety of items you’ll list on your resume: Use years and months for your employment dates.

Rather than write, “I worked there from 2015-17,” you should use the on teaching, years and the months, such as, “from December 2015 to April 2017.” That way it doesn’t look like you are hiding breaks in ba thesis schreiben your work history. In A? Provide more than the company name. When you list where you’ve worked, include what type of company it is, whether it is a nonprofit organization, public accounting firm, manufacturing company, and so on. Also note how large it is, either in terms of revenue, or with the number of employees. Spell out your skills and ba thesis, certifications. Certifications, of legal essay course, are among the best ways to demonstrate dedication to your specialty. You might have one of the most popular finance certifications — CPA or CMA (Certified Management Accountants) or Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) — or a specialty credential, such as the Energy Risk Professional (ERP). Either way, make sure all the acronyms have a place in your resume. If you’re working on a continuing education course, that, too, could be listed in the education section of your resume. Give the nitty-gritty on your software and systems know-how.

For each company you worked for, what software did you use to ba thesis, do your job? Do you have systems experience with Microsoft Dynamics, or have you had Oracle training? The more Excel you know, the better, Alhgrimm says. “I’ve seen people get jobs because they were so good at in a, Excel. Hiring managers love seeing that you can build a macro to automate tasks or that you work on pivot tables, lookup and schreiben, reference functions, or IF statements (a function that checks whether a condition is met).” Go into details with your job duties. Informative Speech? Have you reconciled accounts? How many accounts you have reconciled? What types of ba thesis schreiben accounts were they — bank accounts, general ledger accounts, balance sheets?

If you were a manager, how many employees did you oversee? Did you work in payroll? What kind of payroll and in what states? You get the idea. Speech Essays? In addition to detailing your job duties, especially the ones where you went above and beyond, be sure to highlight your accomplishments and promotions.

Try writing miniature case studies that include specific results. For example, writing that you “inspected accounting systems” is fine, but take the description a step further and ba thesis schreiben, offer a statistic that shows how you helped your firm increase its efficiency or played a part in thesis on teaching language reducing costs. Did you assist with a software implementation, or were you responsible for a new procedure? How much time and money did you save the company? Including results will demonstrate to your potential employer that you’re a problem solver who is aware of the importance of your role in ba thesis an organization.

6. Youth? Catch your grammer grammar errors. Typos, misused words and careless spelling on your resume bring only trouble to your job search. Grammatical mistakes in your resume make you look sloppy and negligent. Don’t rely on spell and schreiben, grammar checkers; they might not catch extra or missing words, subject-verb disagreement, inconsistent tenses, wrong punctuation choice, or words like “where” when you meant “were.” To make sure you catch all the errors, print your resume and read it out loud. Then have a language-savvy friend or family member proofread it.

7. Include your less-obvious soft skills. Employers are increasingly looking for informative essays evidence of soft skills in ba thesis resumes of good thesis statement dreams job seekers. For example, including your public speaking skills tells a potential employer you’re capable of presenting your ideas and schreiben, reports to clients. Business acumen is another important soft skill. Also, it’s not unusual these days for social media savvy to show up on an accountant job description, so when you see that, incorporate your skills with Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and any other applicable tools. As your career evolves, you’ll find yourself constantly revisiting and revising your resume. Remember to legal system essay, give it a quick once-over for every new job to ba thesis, which you apply and keep up to speed on in a dissertation, industry demands for finance and schreiben, accounting professionals. Ready to english essay, show us your new and improved resume? Clint Ahlgrimm is division director at schreiben, Robert Half Finance Accounting.

He’s worked as a recruiting manager in the San Francisco Bay Area since 2014 and has his bachelor’s degree in business administration and finance. More From the english legal, Blog. The Results Are In: Robert Half's 15th Annual Suit Drive. Robert Half collected over schreiben 24,000 items of professional clothing during our suit drive. Learn other highlights from the event in this infographic.

Boost Your Pay in 2018 With a Staff Accountant Salary. Do you have a four-year accounting degree and a year of english system essay experience? Find out how you’re in a great position to land a staff accountant salary. 5 Top Time Management Tools to ba thesis, Give CPAs More Time in the Day. Apa Format Papers Research? How can CPAs create more time in their work week?

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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Ba Thesis Schreiben! And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Good Dreams! Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and schreiben, the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on apa format, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the schreiben, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an informative attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to schreiben, preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and english legal essay, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the ba thesis schreiben, threat of thesis language, Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Ba Thesis Schreiben! The Germans feared the consequences to youth culture essay, themselves of schreiben, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. In A! The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of ba thesis schreiben, all they feared for english system essay the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for schreiben a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to thesis on teaching, patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and ba thesis, waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Informative! Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for ba thesis schreiben another two years. Culture Music Essay! Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in ba thesis schreiben, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in in a dissertation, November 1914 and resulted in ba thesis, a major war in the Middle East. Most important of thesis english language, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the ba thesis, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of informative essays, war on Germany on schreiben, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and system essay, Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by ba thesis the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the speech essays, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and schreiben, field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Dreams! J. Ba Thesis! C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of english legal essay, character to extricate himself from the ruin of schreiben, his plans and introduction in a, order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the ba thesis, 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to thesis on teaching english, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in ba thesis, 1914.

These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the culture essay, war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of ba thesis schreiben, Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by speech essays the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on ba thesis schreiben, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the youth culture, German line held and ba thesis, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.

The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Culture Essay! But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of ba thesis, Ypres. Music! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to ba thesis, the strategic agenda. Legal Essay! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in schreiben, July. Statement Dreams! At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in ba thesis, the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Youth Culture Essay! This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the ba thesis, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of introduction, Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and ba thesis schreiben, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Thesis Language! Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in schreiben, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for thesis on teaching english Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on ba thesis, Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on introduction in a, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of schreiben, 1917 and by youth music essay Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and ba thesis schreiben, large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the thesis english, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in ba thesis schreiben, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in english, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and schreiben, a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of music, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the schreiben, biggest internment camp in apa format, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by schreiben the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by thesis dreams a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of ba thesis schreiben, British forces in in a, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Schreiben! Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in music, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by ba thesis schreiben the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and essays, surrendering only ba thesis after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and good thesis dreams, the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and ba thesis, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the introduction in a dissertation, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the schreiben, Atlantic, the thesis on teaching language, Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Ba Thesis Schreiben! German resort to apa format research, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in ba thesis, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for informative essays political and military leaders to control events. Schreiben! The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of informative speech essays, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of ba thesis, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Essays! Rationality went out of schreiben, season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of research, international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of ba thesis schreiben, Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to introduction in a dissertation, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and ba thesis schreiben, costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against apa format Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Ba Thesis Schreiben! They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to thesis statement, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an ba thesis schreiben outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to good statement, win the war by ba thesis schreiben attrition at good dreams Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to ba thesis schreiben, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by speech knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and ba thesis schreiben, defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the apa format papers research, Russians six weeks to put an schreiben army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to introduction in a dissertation, defeat France. Schreiben! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in introduction, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Ba Thesis! The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Thesis Language! It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the ba thesis schreiben, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the music, movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the schreiben, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the essays, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the ba thesis, war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the speech, inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of ba thesis schreiben, strategic control. Thesis On Teaching English Language! The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in ba thesis schreiben, Britain and speech essays, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the ba thesis, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of apa format papers research, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of ba thesis, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Culture Essay! Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the ba thesis, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on research, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at ba thesis least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and on teaching, they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the ba thesis, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.

Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of in a, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. Ba Thesis Schreiben! British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of introduction, war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Ba Thesis Schreiben! Germany was forced for the first time to confront the apa format research, reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of ba thesis schreiben, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of culture essay, northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and ba thesis, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of youth culture music essay, men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Ba Thesis! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. English! A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of ba thesis schreiben, all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and youth music, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and ba thesis schreiben, the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the english legal system essay, German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the schreiben, peace. Essays! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from ba thesis schreiben, it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in legal, a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. Ba Thesis! There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in thesis dreams, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only schreiben be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. On Teaching English Language! Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and ba thesis schreiben, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on apa format papers research, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to ba thesis schreiben, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the apa format research, levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Ba Thesis Schreiben! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on speech, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of ba thesis, economic, social, and political change. Speech Essays! Europe in ba thesis schreiben, 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and legal system, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and ba thesis schreiben, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the english language, numbers needed to work on ba thesis, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and speech essays, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in schreiben, any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the thesis, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to ba thesis, offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Legal System Essay! Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of schreiben, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of essays, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into schreiben the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in youth culture essay, order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to schreiben, break these trench lines once they were established and apa format research, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of ba thesis schreiben, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and english, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.

It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on ba thesis schreiben, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. On Teaching English Language! The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and ba thesis schreiben, direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in dreams, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Ba Thesis! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the dreams, autumn of ba thesis, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the music, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only ba thesis schreiben with rifle and essay, bayonet. Ba Thesis Schreiben! In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against informative speech essays poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the ba thesis schreiben, number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the good dreams, autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. Ba Thesis! A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of introduction dissertation, machine-gunners located in ba thesis, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to introduction in a dissertation, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and ba thesis schreiben, speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon legal essay, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to schreiben, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Music! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at ba thesis schreiben which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of in a dissertation, all states. The Allies were in ba thesis, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. English! 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of ba thesis, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the informative speech essays, old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Ba Thesis Schreiben! Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in english, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of ba thesis, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in thesis on teaching english language, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Ba Thesis Schreiben! Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the english essay, best in Europe and provided some of the schreiben, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Good Statement! All sides tried to explain and justify the war and ba thesis, used increasingly refined techniques of informative, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of ba thesis, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the statement, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of ba thesis, North and good thesis statement dreams, South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in ba thesis, everywhere by english language 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and ba thesis schreiben, the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and thesis english language, the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of ba thesis, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the good thesis statement dreams, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Schreiben! Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Thesis! The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of ba thesis schreiben, British military leadership. In A Dissertation! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of ba thesis schreiben, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the thesis on teaching english, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in ba thesis, protecting their Far Eastern empire. Youth Music! They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and ba thesis schreiben, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in english legal system, 1919, 'but an ba thesis armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Essays! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.