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Beowulf Thesis Statements and …
ap bio darwin essay 1) Individuals begin to ponder what we term as evolution during the classical era of the Greeks and Romans. Anaximander developed theories on beowulf the progression of scaly, fishlike forms to land forms. Empedocles believed createrurs literally fused together: for example if men fused their heads with cattle, then a new organism would form. Most of these combinations died but those that remained became new organisms. 2) One premise was that a population of organism, without any check, would grow exponentially. The reason that few population do in fact sustain exponential growth is is the purpose of college essay, explained be the second premise. This premise states that as resources dwindle, organisms compete with each other for those declining resources. Lastly, the paper thesis, third premise states that only a few survive. Thus, natural selection allows those few individuals with beneficial traits and characteristics to survive at a greater rate than organism without those traits. Youth Culture Music Essay! These organisms may eventually split off from a parent species and research paper thesis become their own species. 3) Carol von Linne believed that species were immutable, unchanging.
This concurred with the need someone to write a research paper for me, Biblical view that each type of organism resulted from divine creation. Lamarck’s theory came to be known as the inheritance of research paper thesis acquired characteristics. Lamarck believed that organisms emerged spontaneously from inanimate matter and then evolved. This evolution was stimulated by an organism’s need for a particular characteristic. Once that characteristic was acquired, it was developed through regular use and then passed on to offspring. Disuse of a body part or characteristic leads to its disappearance from the animal’s body. 4) Wallace, while resting during a night of fever in the Spice Islands, remembered an essay written by Thomas Maltus. Essay Test For Managers! Maltus’s work stated that population grow geometrically but that the food supply grows much more slowly.
Darwin, who began as a physician, joined the HMS Beagle as an research informal naturalist. Test! He collected samples of birds and upon talking to an ornithologist, realized that each bird was a distinct species. He thought for a while that since the Galapogas were similar to the Cape Verde Islands, each should contain similar organisms. However, the organisms of the Galapogos were similar to South American species while the ones in Cape Verde were similar to African species. Evolution had occurred.
5) Darwin delayed publication because he realized how radical his ideas would be. He wanted to beowulf research thesis, gather more evidence before he published what may would view as challenge to vandenbossche thesis, the religious dogma of the research paper, day. 1) Bacteria are either eubacteria or archaebacteria. Eubacteria include cyanobacteria, some of the earliest living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and carry out photosynthesis. They first occurred 3.5 billion years ago and vandenbossche thesis contributed to the development of free oxygen in the atmosphere (helping makes organisms like humans possible). Research! Eubacteria include bacterial pathogens such as the english composition, plague, cholera, and chlamidya. Some eubacteria are also chemoauthotrophs, which derive their energy from the breakdown chemical bonds.
Important chemoautotrophs are nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by beowulf paper plants. Need Someone To Write A Research For Me! Archaebacteria are older and evolved during a time when the earth was a much harsher place. As a result, they tend to live at the extremes. Thermophiles inhabit hot springs or the areas surrounding deep sea thermal vents. Halophiles inhabit highly salty areas, such as the Great Salt Lake. 2) Protists are a eclectic collection of taxa.
They include algae, which are mostly marine organisms. Kelp is a type of brown algae and can form massive underwater groves. Green algae comprises phytoplankton, which forms the basis of most marine food chains. The Sarcodina include amoebas (which move by beowulf research paper thesis use of a psuedopod) and freya vandenbossche foraminifera (which secrete and reside in a calcium shell). Flagellates are protiststs that have a cellular tail and whip it to move along. The flagellate Trypanasoma is responsible for sleeping sickness and beowulf research paper thesis Giarda is responsible for hiker’s diarrhea. 3) Plants likely arose from need someone to write for me aquatic seaweeds, specifically green algae which might have been leafy in shape.
4) Perennial plants live for at beowulf research thesis, least two years whereas annual plants complete their life cycle within one year. 5) Remaining upright (without the aid of buoyant water) is a problem as is the potential for desiccation (dehydration due to intense heat and wind). -vascular cambrium: a ring of freya vandenbossche thesis active cells just beneath the bark. This is where most of the research paper, growth in perennial plants occurs. Need To Write A Research For Me! -growth ring: an annual episode of growth marked by a ring of large and compact cells. It is preserved each year and serves as a useful record of a tree’s age. -sporophyte: a sporophyte is a plant that produces diploid (2n) spores and is diploid. -gametophyte: a plant that is paper, haploid (n) and essay test produces gamates (sex cells) -lignin: a chemical compound found in wood that is a major component in research thesis, the secondary cell walls of plant cells. Due to lignin’s strength, the plant can “stand” upright. -cuticle: a waxy layer that acts as an airtight sealant and model essay helps reduce water loss from interior tissue. -apical meristem: located at research, the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots and provides primary growth (elongation of youth culture essay plant into soil and up into the air) -lateral meristem: provides secondary growth (increase in research thesis, girth). In woody plants secondary growth is freya vandenbossche thesis, responsible for the gradual thickening of the roots and shoots formed from earlier plant tissue. -xylem: a water and mineral conducting tissue consisting of tracheids an dvessel elements. Both are dead at functional maturity.
Tracheids are long, thin cells that overall and are tapered at the ends. Vessel elements are wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered. Water can flow freely through elements whereas in tracheids water must pass through pits. -phloem: carry food from photosynthetic leaves to beowulf paper, the rest of the plant by active transport. Phloem consists of test for managers sieve tube members that facilitate the research paper thesis, flow of what purpose essay fluid from research paper thesis one cell to the next. These are alive at functional maturity and are attached to companion cells (which support the youth music, member, which does not contain nuclei, ribosomes, or vacuoles). -stomata: tiny pores passing though the cuticle which allow for beowulf gas exchange between the plant and environmet.
7) Alternation of generations refers to someone a research paper, the process of diploid and haploid individuals alternating with each other. Paper Thesis! A plant will be diploid some of the time and haploid the rest. Before meiosis, a cell holds a full complement of paired chromosomes (2n) and meiosis results in freya, gametes with half the chromosomes (n). A sporophyte is beowulf paper thesis, a diploid plant while a gametophyte is a haploid plant. Gametophytes through mitosis. Gametophytes fuse to form a zygote which will become a sporophyte.
Spores (produced by sporophytes) 8) Bryophytes (mosses) lack vascular and transport tissue and thrive in dark and damp places. They also lack lignin and thus cannot support themselves. This is why they are found low to need someone to write a research paper, the ground clustererd in mats. Pteridophytes are ferns. Ferns have underground stems (rhizome) and leaves that are aerial fronds that unfurl from coiled young leaves. Spores are produced on the underside of the frond (sporophyte individual). The spores then produce a gametophyte individual, which produces egg and sperm. These egg and sperm, following fertilization, grow directly into the rhizome and fronds of the research, young fern. The seed plants include gymnosperms and angiosperms. They have seeds (protective cases for young embryos) and pollen ( a hardy form of sperm) that is resistant to extreme temperatures and extremes of moisture. The seed consists of a seed coat, plant embryo, and a supply of nutrients.
Gymnosperms. 9) The cell walls of english composition fungi are made of chitin (a nitrogen containing polysaccharide) instead of cellulose. Research Paper! They do not have photosynthesis and do not photosynthesize. 10) Hyphae are structures that produce a feeding mat referred to as the someone to write paper, mycelium. The hyphae continue aboveground to paper, form the reproductive structure known as the fruiting body. 11) Mycorrhizae is the name of symbiotic combinations of fungi and roots. The root supplies sugars to purpose education essay, the fungi while the fungi facilitates the transfer of minerals from the soil to the roots. 12) Animals likely arose from protists. Animals probably arose from paper thesis a choanoflagellate that lived in colonies. Essayez! These flagellates were equipped with flagella and thus were able to move on their own accord and were heterotrophs. They displayed some fundamental aspects of animals.
13) Parazoans are the simplest of beowulf all animals and are sponges. Connected needlelike spicules provide support to a sessile body. They body surrounds an internal cavity lined by flagellated cells. Most parazoans are asymmetric whereas nearly all other animals display some sort of symmetry (such as the youth music essay, eumetozaoans). Platyhelminthes, rotifera, mollusca, annelida, nematode, arhtropoda, echinodermata, chordata are eumetazoans. 14) In protostomes, the first opening becomes the mouth while in deuterostomes the paper thesis, first opening becomes the anus. -porifera: sponges; pass through planktonic (unattached) stage of development; sessile; asymmetric; internal cavity lined by flagellated cells; have needle-like spicules for support. -cnidarians: have radial body symmetry and consist of jellyfish and hydra. They only have two cell layers and also have stinging cells.
There is vandenbossche, no transport system because every cell is in contact with the environment. They have a gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs. -platyhelminthes: compressed and ribbon like; some are free moving while others are parasitic and reside inside a host; planarians glide on cilia that cover their ventral surfaces; tapeworms are segmented. -mollusca: have a hard shell into which they can withdraw. Some (clams) have a pair of closing shells while others (snails) have a single shell. Some are predators with sucker-lined tentacles. These include squids and octopuses. annelids: includes earthworms, which are representative of the basic segmented body plan characteristic of the phylum. As they feed, they pass the soil through their bodies, digest the beowulf, organic material, and leave the inorganic material behind as feces. Leeches are annelids as well. Youth! arthropoda: They are the largest group of animals, segmented, and are surrounded by an exoskeleton. Research! The exoskeleton allows for movement because it is jointed and acts as a protective barrier.Trilobites occupied the Earth for nearly 300 million years then vanished. Arachnids (spiders, scorpions, etc) and crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, and shrimp) are also arthropods. The largest group of arthropods are the insects, most of which are winged. echinodermata: includes starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, and is the purpose essay ancient crinoids. They move along using sweeps of beowulf research thesis their arms or synchronized motion of buffet tube feet.
Their embryology is similar to that of the chordates (they have bilateral symmetry during embryonic development) chordates: comprised mainly of research paper thesis vertebrates (organisms with a back bone). A notochord runs down the long axis of vertebrates. The earliest vertebrates were jawless fishes such as ostracoderms. Fishes with jaws followed as did the cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes. The bony fishes are the largest single group of is the purpose of college vertebrates. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis! Amphibians were the first to employ limbs and need someone a research paper were the first tetrapods.
Tetrapod means four footed but is understood to be a taxonomic term (snakes and whales are also tetrapods). Research Paper Thesis! 16) amnion = a thin membrane that encloses the embryo in watery amniotic fluid. cleiodic egg = a leathery shell (in reptiles and monotremes) or a brittle shell (in birds) that contains the amnion and the amniotic fluid. The egg also contains the chorion (which is used for respiration) and the yolk sac (food for the growing embryo). placenta = specialized tissues along the inside wall of the female uterus connected to the fetus by an umbilical cord. The placenta passes nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood to someone for me, the fetus and fetal CO 2 to beowulf paper, the mother for elimination. 17) A habitat is an organism’s ecological address (where it lives). Its niche is its ecological profession (the habitat is where it lives while the niche is how it lives). A fundamental niche describes the full range of available resources that can be used (predators, temperature, humidity, living space, etc). Freya Vandenbossche Thesis! The realized niche is the amount of resources that the organism actually uses. 1) Nilsson-Ehle crossed true breeding red and white wheat plants, producing intermediate colored plants.
These F1 plants were then crossed with each other, resulting in seven discrete varieties. These seven forms occurred at the same ratio through multiple crossings. This demonstrated that Mendalian genetics can produce “smooth” variation. Furthermore, the presence of polygenic traits (traits controlled by multiple genes) can also account for “smooth” variation. Individual traits can be accounted for by discrete Mendalian genetics yet still produce “smooth” variation amongst a population. 2) A polygenic trait is one controlled by multiple genes whereas a monogenic trait is controlled by beowulf paper one gene. For example, height is a trait controlled by multiple genes whereas the color of flowers can be controlled by one gene. 3) A locus is youth culture music essay, a fixed position on a chromosome. A diploid organism has pairs of homologous. Each pair has corresponding loci. An organism may have one allele at each loci.
The alleles do not have to be the same. (For example, a heterozygous individual has allele A on one chromosome and allele a on the other at the same locus). 4) A population is a group of interbreeding organisms of the same species that exist together in both time and space. A gene pool consists of all the alleles found in a population. 5) Lowercase p represents the frequency of the dominant allele in a population. Lowercase q represents the frequency of the recessive allele in the population. Beowulf Thesis! P-square represents the proportion of individuals that are dominant homozygotes, q-square represents the proportion that are homozygote recessive, and 2pq represents the proportion that are heterozygotes. 6) A population is at equilibrium (according to the Hardy-Weinberg theory) if the allelic frequencies are not changing.
This means that the values of a research paper p and q do not change from what they originally were. The values of p and q stay constant. 7) For a population to be at equilibrium it must be very large (more resistant to large changes in allelic frequency), random mating of individuals (there is no selection for certain alleles), there is paper thesis, no immigration/emigration (no loss or gain of alleles), natural selection is not occurring (frequencies are not increasing or decreasing), mutation is not occurring at a high rate (new alleles not being introduced). Certain population may be small, rarely is mating random (mates seek the best members of the opposite sex), rarely does immigration not occur in an ecological sense (influx of exotic species, climatic events cause individuals to youth culture music essay, move, etc) and natural selection often is occurring (though it may not be drastic). 8) w 2 = 0.16 so w = 0.4 so W = 0.6. so 2pq = 0.48 (proportion of heterozygote individuals) 9) Heterozygote advantage refers to a situation in which natural selection maintains genetic variation by favoring heterozygote individuals. Beowulf Research Paper! For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, children heterozygous for the sickle cell allele sometimes display the negative effects associated with sickle cell disease but are at a better advantage overall because the abnormal blood cells are harder for the malaria parasite to penetrate.
Those who are homozygous for the allele suffer too much from sickle cell disease for vandenbossche it to be an overall benefit while those who do not have the research, allele are at a considerable disadvantage. Need A Research Paper! Therefore, natural selection favors the heterozygotes in this case. 10) Microevolution refers to the change of research paper allelic frequencies within a population (such as the presence of peppered moths or the presence of heterozygote carriers of the sickle cell allele). Microevolution can occur relatively quickly, in just a few generations. Macroevolution refers to the large scale changes that lead to the origin of essayez buffet higher taxa (orders, families, phyla). These new taxa come about as the result of the accumulation of many small changes.
Thus, microevolution [can lead to] leads to macroevolution. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis! 11) The evolution of the English moth is a form of directional selection. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population of the moths was centered around a “mean” of white color but the “mean” shifted and was now centered at black (the allelic frequencies drastically changed). 12) Genetic drift is vandenbossche thesis, change in the gene pool due to chance. If a new allele is introduced into a large population, the new allele will take a very long time (many generations) to spread into a large proportion of individuals because there is a large gene pool that it must alter. In a small population, the gene pool is small (if an allele cannonballs into the pool, a larger proportion of individuals feel the impact). 13) Both forms of change in beowulf research, the gene pool are random. However, the two are different.
Bottlenecks occur when a population is freya thesis, under pressure and research thesis its size is reduced. Therefore, changes in allele frequency are more drastic and affect the reduced population more. The founder effect occurs when a population is not under pressure but derives from a few individuals and therefore there is need someone to write paper, little genetic variability in ensuing generations. 14) For gene flow to occur, there must be an exchange of beowulf fertile individuals or gametes. Test For Managers! This is would occur more easily between two populations that overlap in time and space. It is paper thesis, harder for individuals to migrate to an isolated island or for what is the gametes to research thesis, be carries to an isolated island. 15) The Hardy-Weinberg principle allows us to calculate what would happen if natural selection were not occurring and then compare what does happen in the real world. The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to what is the of college essay, calculate allelic frequencies and thus examine the genetic basis for evolution because speciation begins when the allelic frequencies of two populations begin to diverge.
1) Chromosomes are paired and each individual receives one from the father and one from the mother (within the pair). During meiosis, segments of the homologous chromosomes at the same loci (location along the chromosomes) “swap”. Even though the genes at the exchanged sites may be similar, different alleles may be present on each chromosome resulting in more genetic variation. In diploid organisms, sex results in an enormous variety of potential offspring. Because there are millions of sperm that have undergone meiosis and millions of beowulf ova that have undergone meiosis (and thus variation has increased), the resulting embryo is unique. Even bacteria exchange circular pieces of DNA known as plasmids, thus increasing the genetic variation among a population that reproduces through binary fission.
2) DeVries, a Dutch botanist, who worked with evening primroses passed by a field and saw of essayez form of primrose that was new to him. After experimenting with primroses and other organisms, DeVries observed that new varieties seemed to occur spontaneously through mutation (he referred to these varieties as mutants). Beowulf Research Thesis! DeVries expounded the youth culture music essay, theory that new species arose suddenly due to large mutations. Through research, it has been proven that mutations are the ultimate source of variation. 3) A point mutation is one or a few alterations in the base-coding sequence of the gene’s DNA, thus producing a new allele of the gene. Point mutations consist of insertions, deletions, or substitutions.
Even small changes in the nucleotide bases can change the amino acid being coded for and thus the entire shape of research a protein. Essay Test! In sickle cell anemia, one of the amino acids (there are 574) comprising hemoglobin results in the formation of an abnormal hemoglobin molecule. Paper! -During meiosis, unequal crossing over occurs, resulting in a chromosome with repeated segments coding for the same genetic material. The chromosome with the need someone to write a research for me, duplicated segments can accumulate mutations in one of the genes and still have a functional segment of DNA left. The segment of DNA coding for hemoglobin has enough material to code for six units but only four are present in an individual at any given time. The other two can be called upon beowulf research paper when physiological conditions change. Paper For Me! This phenomenon arose from gene duplication millions of years ago. -Within chromosomes, sections can be flipped around within their chromosomes (inversion). Pieces of chromosomes can get transplanted to other chromosomes (translocation). At times, inversions can be beneficial. Among fruit flies, certain inversions become common in colder climates and decrease in thesis, warmer climates and confer advantages to music, flies living in colder areas.
Polyploid can also occur. Polyploidy is the presence of multiple sets (more than two) of beowulf thesis chromosomes (4n, 8n, etc) . Polyploidy solves the “problem” of crossing over for chromosomes with gene duplications and is a major factor in plant evolution. A polyploid plant’s “haploid” 2n gametes can fertilize with other 2n gametes and form a 4n plant (a tetraploid). 4) Homeotic genes (Hox genes) are master genes that control other genes responsible for the formation of body parts. Major changes between animal phyla are correlated with duplications in need to write paper, Hox genes or in an increase in beowulf paper, the number of essayez buffet menu Hox genes (changing the way and order in which body parts form or adding new segments altogether). Hox genes are tuned on beowulf research paper thesis and off repeatedly during embryonic development, responding to the changing chemical and youth music anatomical conditions within the embryo. Beowulf Research! They can also control individual genes that are downstream.
5) Mutations introduce necessary variation. Usually, they have negative effects because they disrupt a fine tuned system that has evolved over millions of years. However, for large scale change to occur, major genes must often change as well. Evolution depends upon mutation. Sex is is the purpose of college education essay, important from an evolutionary standpoint because it introduces variation as well. Through meiosis, each sperm or egg cell is different. Sex allos for these to combine and produce an individual whose genetic blueprint is unique and beowulf research paper thesis who may harbor genes that could prove useful in the future (in terms of a population). Explain the buffet menu, difference between abiotic and beowulf research paper thesis biotic factors. 1)Abiotic: Physical non living factors like Climatic conditions and habitat harshness. Biotic: Factors due to competition between and predation among living organisms.
2)Define biological fitness. What role does fitness play in selection? Fitness is relative reproductive success of individuals, within a population,in leaving offspring in the next generation (contributing to the gene pool). Offspring of composition fitter species are selected for survival.Fitness is the relative ability to survive and reproduce. 3) Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection. Give examples of each. Weeding out of organisms by biological processes without deliberate or directed human intervention. Weeding out of organisms by research paper thesis humans for humans. A Research Paper! Example Brown snails are rare in Meadows but are common in Beech woodlands.
Green snails are rare in Beech woodlands and common in green meadows. Example Dairy farmer breeds cows which give high volume milk and hold back on those with low production. Beowulf Research Paper! White water snakes on the islands of Lake Erie. The banded snakes are easily lost to predation. Oil content in corn was artificially divided by essayez buffet selecting only beowulf paper thesis high oil content yielding corn and other successively lower in kernel oil. 4. Describe the various patterns, or types, of natural selection. Give examples for each.
Directional Selection: When one genotype (and the resulting phenotype) replaces another. For example, in industrial England, the allele for essay for managers white colored moths declined and the allele for black colored moths increased as white colored moths were selected againts (because the beowulf paper thesis, trees became black with soot). The black moth genotype/phenotype replaced the. Disruptive selection: Disruptive selection increases the music, extreme genotypes/phenotypes in beowulf research paper, a resulting population. For example, in an area of light colored and very dark soil, organisms which are at the extremes of the population will be selected for whereas organisms in the middle (gray organisms, for example) will be selected against. Sexual Selection: Males with more prominent characteristics are more attractive to females. Since more attractive males contribute most to the gene pool, less attractive males (males with small horns for freya vandenbossche thesis example) are selected against. Male peacocks with the most brilliant displays are more likely to beowulf, contribute to the gene pool. 5)Define sexual selection and describe how it relates to sexual dimorphism.
Members of one sex mostly males have greater physical powers or flashy ornamentation enjoy better success in attracting a mate and thereby benefit from reproductive success. This form of selection is essay, called sexual selection. Secondary sexual characteristics exhibited by either males or females ,like male lions have mane and adult male sea lions are larger in size. Males and females differ morphologically and exhibit different secondary sexual characteristics a condition referred to as sexual dimorphism. 6. What are the advantages and disadvantages, from an evolutionary standpoint, of sex? Advantages:Larger,stronger males with elaborate features fare better breed more often and pass on their secondary sexual characteristics.Secondary sexual characteristics are health certificates which ensure that the research thesis, best characteristics are passed on essay test to the next generation. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis! Sex allows for more shuffling of allele combinations, which means there is is the purpose education, a better chance that beneficial allele combinations can arise.
The spread of a mutation within a population is also slower because a mutated allele is thesis, often paired with a healthy allele (in offspring) that may negate the effect of the youth culture essay, mutated allele. Sex allows for much more genetic variability, which means that natural selection has a more diverse gene pool to work with. Beowulf Research Thesis! Disdvantage:secondary sexual characteristics sometimes may make the thesis, next generation of species more. Prominently visible and hence vulnerable to predators (for example, the male peacock's display attracts predators as well as mates). Sex also involves considerable expendature of energy and beowulf research paper thesis time, whereas asexual organisms can easily reproduce by budding or mitosis. Sexual reproduction also takes more time (the process of meisosis itself is culture music, longer than mitosis).
A sexually reproducing population often canot reproduce as quickly as an asexually reproducing population. Chapter 6 Questions for Kardong. 1. Research! What areas of science provide evidence for youth music the occurrence of evolution? Fossil science paleontology ,comparative anatomy,comparative embryology and vestigial and Atatvistic structures. Research Thesis! 2. Freya Thesis! For the above fields, describe what that evidence is, and how it supports the idea of evolution through natural selection. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis! 3. Fossil science paleontology: Fossils clearly indicate that species were not created separately but ,simple bacteria evolved first and then eukaryotes then multicelluar organisms. To Write For Me! - comparative anatomy: Different species exhibit basic underlying similarities. -comparative embryology: mammal embryos have gill slits, illustrating that mammals can be traced back to beowulf research paper thesis, amphibians and other marine organisms which evolved through natural selection to meet the needs of living on land. -vestigial structures: humans have a coccyx bone, a remanant of a tail. This provides a link to reptiles and other organisms that had tails (showing our common descent) -atavistic structures: the reappearance of ancestral traits allows us to youth essay, peer into beowulf our ancestry and provides clues as to which organisms we are related to. 4. Define the freya vandenbossche, following and give examples: a. Homologous structures: Same features that can be traced back to a common ancestor. b. Example: Birds wings and mole’s arms can be traced back to common ancestor(reptiles). Research! c. Analogous structures: Structures which perform same function but cannot be taced back to a common ancestor. Need Someone To Write For Me! d. Example wings of Bats and beowulf research thesis bees are used to fly but cannot be traced back to a common ancestor. e. Homoplastic structures: Structures look alike but may not be homologous or analogous. f. Example: Wings of essayez buffet menu insects which look like leaves. g. Vestigial structures: Rudimentary structures which remain form the past. h. Example: Hip and hindlimb bones of whales (the appendinx in humans). i. Beowulf! Atavistic structures: Are throwbacks, return of structures typical of ancestors.
Example: Additional toes in modern horses. j. Founder effect: Phenomenon in which rare traits are common in new and culture essay isolated locations. k. Example: Polydactyly is beowulf, common among the Amish because the original families who immigrate to the US had unusually high rates of polydactyly (and the paper, associated allele) l. Biogenetic law: Early events of embryonic development retain clues to evolutionary events. m. Example: Gill slits in embryonic development of mammals reinforce evolutionary connection to beowulf research thesis, earlier organisms (such as amphibians) n. Preservationism: Embryos maintain earlier evolutionary non functional organ Example:Gills in mammals birds and reptiles. Essay Composition! o. Biogeographic realms: Land is divided into 6 biogeographic realms. p. Example: Australian realm with 20 mamalian and 7 endemic families. q. Center of origin: Region where a species is localized is called as center of beowulf research origin. r. Example:Black birds have center of origin in Nearctic and Neotropic realms. s. Of College! Neodarwinian evolution: Advances in evidence and biological changes 150 years after Darwin,with clear understanding of beowulf research genes,DNA and need someone paper for me natural selection. This is the modern theory of evolution. t. Phylogenetic trees: Branching systems of hypothesized relations and sequences in evolution.
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How to beowulf research thesis, Write a Cover Letter for Internships. Written by Laura Riley. Updated April 10, 2017. Laura Riley is a writer who specializes in career advice and professional development. She has a Master’s degree in Student Affairs and Higher Education from youth culture essay, Miami University. You’ve heard it before: “No one actually reads a cover letter.” “Cover letters are pointless.” There’s actually proof that writing an outstanding cover letter can get you an internship. If you’re thinking, “Hmm I’m really not sold on this whole perfect cover letter thing.” Or maybe you’ve heard that college students don’t really need them.
Hang tight. I’m going to explain exactly what a professional cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, I’ll outline a step-by-step process to help you write an research paper thesis outstanding cover letter. And the freya, best part? This article includes multiple, full-length cover letter samples. These samples will help you write a solid cover letter from beginning to end. One that’s good enough to secure your dream internship. Before we jump in, let’s take a look at beowulf research paper thesis, exactly what’s included in this article : I’m sure this comes as no surprise:
As a college student, you will likely apply for internships (if you haven’t already!) As you may know, students who have internship experience increase their chance of securing a full-time job offer upon vandenbossche, graduation. Research Paper Thesis! Many interns actually accept offers before they even graduate. According to a study conducted by Vault, 73% of student interns said they received or expected to receive a full-time offer from their internship employer . Internships and essay test, cooperative education programs (co-ops) give you an opportunity to gain experience in your desired career field prior to graduation. By gaining hands-on, specialized experience, you become more competitive in the job market. Internship experience is important. To secure an internship, you need to submit a quality resumé, cover letter, and at research paper thesis, times, additional application requirements. If you submit an outstanding application, you’ll receive an invitation to interview.
And if you hit your interview out of the thesis, park, you’ll receive an internship or job offer. This means that believing the myth that cover letters are irrelevant can be detrimental to your professional success. Paper! Your resumé and cover letter are the foundation of your success as a job applicant. Your cover letter basically exists to tell a company, “Hey, I really, really, really want this internship.” In a more professional way, of course. A professional cover letter is an important document to send in with your résumé when applying to a job. Vandenbossche Thesis! It provides additional information about why you are the best candidate for the job.
After the paper, employer reads your cover letter, you want them to read your resumé, check out your LinkedIn profile, visit your online portfolio, or better yet, do all three. On nearly every social media site, the first thing you do is buffet menu, create a profile, or at minimum, a username. Let’s take Instagram for example. When you land on an Instagram profile for the very first time, you quickly scan the user’s bio and the photos at the top of their feed. If you aren’t immediately engaged by what you see, you probably won’t come back. Follow for a follow? No thanks. The same thing happens in the job search.
Your cover letter acts as your Instagram bio. Your cover letter offers a first impression of beowulf research thesis who you are as a professional and what you’re all about. It’s your chance to music, grab a recruiter’s attention. This means your cover letter has to beowulf, be good! While you unfortunately can’t use emojis to amplify your cover letter, you can still make your cover letter interesting to read. It’s your job to engage the hiring manager, recruiter, or search committee. In a sense, you want them to follow you. You want them to double-tap your activity and leave comments like, “We would love to freya, hire you!” If you’re thinking, “ But that’s not always the case. People don’t always read cover letters .” You’re right.
There are definitely recruiters who don’t read cover letters. But for every recruiter who doesn’t read your cover letter, there’s a recruiter who bases their entire hiring decision on how good your cover letter is. I recently talked to a hiring manager who was shocked at the number of beowulf research paper thesis applicants who didn’t submit a cover letter along with their resumé. She said, “I will NEVER hire an applicant who doesn’t submit a cover letter. It’s not that they’re unqualified, but I can’t put the experience on their resumé into context.” Don’t make that mistake. Particularly if your previous work experience doesn’t say a lot about how you’ll be a great fit for the company that you’re applying to. If you truly want an internship, you need a cover letter.
Not spending time on your cover letterbecause you assume it’s not going to be readcan be incredibly costly. And not hearing back from a company after you submit your application gets old really quickly. So, what’s the purpose of culture essay a cover letter anyway? The purpose of a cover letter is 3-fold: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a specific position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the internship position.
If done right, your cover letter will serve an actual purpose (beyond checking off an research paper thesis application requirement or turning in a class assignment). Your cover letter can get you an interview. If you’re familiar with how to essay, write a resumé, you know the paper, purpose of a resumé is to communicate your achievements to a potential employer. Unlike a cover letter, a resumé never uses personal pronouns like “I” or “Me”. Instead of saying, “I created a social media campaign,” a resumé states, “Created social media campaign”. Test! Because of this traditional formatting, it can be difficult for internship applicants to express their personality. “I feel like my resumé makes me sound super boring.”
Guess who’s here to save the day? The misunderstood cover letter. For some reason, cover letters don’t get the love they deserve. But cover letters are actually pretty cool. They can help you tell your professional story. Let’s look at an example. Say your resumé includes the beowulf paper thesis, following entry: Volunteer, Community Food Pantry.
Inspect and sort 100 pounds of food donations per week to ensure they meet quality and safety standards. While that’s a solid resumé bullet point, it doesn’t tell the vandenbossche, entire story of why you chose to volunteer and what your experience with the food pantry taught you. Research Paper Thesis! The bullet point doesn’t discuss how volunteering changed you as a person, or influenced your professional goals, and most importantly, it doesn’t discuss how volunteering will help you excel at your internship position. If we assume this volunteer experience is relevant to the internship you’re applying for, your cover letter provides a great opportunity to tell this story in a research paper, more detail. Here’s a good example of what you could write in your cover letter: “Through my volunteer work with the Community Food Pantry, I discovered my passion for nonprofit business. Each week, I collaborate with ten other volunteers to sort food donations. I am dedicated to beowulf, ending poverty and hunger and would be thrilled to intern with the Hunger Relief Organization.” Being able to tell your story is test, what makes a cover letter incredibly valuable. This can set you apart as an applicant and most importantly, help you secure your dream internship or job! Before I explain how to format your cover letter , let’s review the three primary goals : Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company.
Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the position. Let’s look at each goal in more detail. Goal 1: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. The first goal is pretty straightforward. In your cover letter, you need to formally introduce yourself to the hiring team. You can accomplish this in beowulf paper, a single, well-crafted sentence. Below are two good examples: Example 1: “As a sophomore majoring in social work at University of model Southern California, I am passionate about supporting vulnerable individuals and beowulf paper thesis, groups.” At a minimum, you should include your year in school (or when you plan to graduate), along with your degree, major, minor, or area of study. Goal 2: Communicate your interest in a position and company.
A second requirement is to communicate your interest in the position and company. Always tailor your cover letter with the exact position title and the name of the company you’re applying to. Freya Vandenbossche! Here are two great examples: Example 1: “When I discovered the psychology internship with the research paper, Counseling Center on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to gain exposure to freya, the field of psychology alongside experienced psychologists and beowulf research paper, counselors.” After you introduce yourself and communicate your interest in the position and company, there is one additional piece of information you must include.
Don’t miss this step: Goal 3: Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate. This is the most common mistake students make. You need to connect the dots for an employer of how your journey and essay test, experiences make you the best candidate for the position. Don’t just say, “I’m the beowulf research thesis, best candidate”. Prove it. Explain what makes you well-qualified. Share the experiences and youth music, courses that have prepared you to be an effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Let’s look at an example. Say a company is seeking a graphic design intern.
In the job description, the company outlines their minimum requirements: an thesis intern who understands how to use Adobe Creative Suite, can effectively collaborate with a dynamic team, and understands basic design and marketing principles. Here’s one way to demonstrate how you’re the right pick for the job: My coursework, campus involvement, and professional experience make me a well-qualified applicant for essay for managers this position. Coursework . I have completed courses in Graphic Design and Photoimaging. As a result, I am proficient in research paper thesis, Adobe Creative Suite. Campus involvement. For the past two years, I have been a member of the Graphic Design Club. We collaborate to create websites and essay english composition, marketing materials for beowulf paper thesis nonprofit organizations. Essayez Buffet Menu! Professional experience. As an beowulf paper thesis employee with the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs, I design marketing materials for essay test on-campus events including Greek Week, along with various philanthropic events. There you have it!
Introduce yourself to a prospective employer, communicate your interest in a position and company, and most importantly, explain why you’re a well-qualified applicant. Now that you understand the research paper thesis, core components to any cover letter, let’s explore what makes each type of cover letter unique. What types of cover letters are there? As a college student, you should know about youth music, three different types of cover letters: Internship Cover Letters Entry-Level Cover Letters Cover Letters for paper thesis jobs where you do not have any relevant experience. I’ll outline what makes each of these cover letters unique and explain exactly how to write a cover letter tailored to vandenbossche thesis, an internship and an entry-level position. I’ll also show you how to solve the problem of paper not having “relevant” experience.
What makes an what is the of college education essay internship cover letter unique? By definition, an internship is a position in an organization where a student or trainee can gain work experience. While the beowulf research paper, organization does not expect you to come in with years of experience, they expect you to come ready to learn. Though you’re undoubtedly contributing to essay for managers, the organization as an beowulf paper thesis intern, internships provide an opportunity for you to someone to write a research, learn while gaining hands-on experience in research thesis, your desired field. So what’s the bottom line? An internship cover letter must explain what you want to learn and why you want to learn it. Tell the vandenbossche, organization how their specific internship complements your academics. Outline why you’re interested in joining the organization. Explain how the internship will help you develop as a professional and beowulf research, set you up for success upon graduation. But don’t forget, you also need to communicate mutual benefit. Youth Culture! While you want to research, grow as a professional, you need to add value to their team too.
So it’s important that you tell the company exactly what you can bring to their organization (in addition to what is the of college education, what you want to learn). Let’s look at a couple of research paper examples: Example 1: “I am excited by the chance to need someone to write a research paper for me, contribute to ABC Company and am prepared to beowulf thesis, engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and freya thesis, value non-stop growth as described by the internship description.” Example 2: “Shadowing case managers and attending mental health meetings seems like an thesis incredibly beneficial experience. I am excited by the chance to essay for managers, contribute to your organization and beowulf, am prepared to engage in continuous learning.” Both examples not only explain what the applicant is excited to learn, but also each applicant mentions how they’re excited to contribute to the organization. Explaining what you want to learn is an thesis essential component to beowulf paper thesis, writing a cover letter for an internship or co-op experience. What makes an entry-level cover letter unique?
If you’re in your last year of college, then this section is for you. Need For Me! You’re preparing to research paper, start a full-time job upon freya vandenbossche, graduation. Congrats! An entry-level cover letter differs slightly from an beowulf internship cover letter. Essay English Composition! While it’s still important to communicate how the position aligns with your professional goals, you need to beowulf research, emphasize why you’re well-qualified for the position. At the beginning of this article, I outlined how to demonstrate your qualifications.
You need to explain what experiences and essay test, courses have prepared you to beowulf paper, be an english composition effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Your cover letter should answer the following questions: Why are you well-prepared for beowulf the position? What specific experiences prepared you for the position? How has your academic coursework provided the knowledge to excel in is the purpose of college education, this entry level role? Entry-level positions are undoubtedly competitive.
You need to market yourself effectively and beowulf thesis, communicate your value to an employer. Convince them to hire you! How do I write a cover letter if I don’t have relevant experience? If you don’t have “relevant” experience, come on test down off that ledge. I’ve heard it before: “I can’t get a job without experience, but I can’t get experience without a job.”
Yes, you can. Here’s how: Let’s say you want to apply for beowulf paper thesis a marketing internship. Below are the requirements of the culture music, internship as outlined by the job description: Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in business, communications, advertising, or related field Strong teamwork, communication, and critical thinking skills. Familiarity with Adobe Creative Suite Experience with SPSS.
Pretend you’re currently a sophomore at a large, public university. Beowulf Thesis! Because classes fill up quickly, you haven’t taken any major-specific courses. This year you completed Business 101 and Management 105, but you have zero marketing experience. Freya Vandenbossche! Beyond classes, you’re an active member of an on-campus organization called Women in Business, but in terms of work experience, you only have a part-time waitressing job on the weekends. You’re still qualified. This is where transferrable skills come in. A transferable skill is beowulf paper thesis, a skill that is relevant regardless of the freya vandenbossche, position you are applying for. You take these skills from job to job. Common examples of transferable skills include teamwork, organization, communication, time management, and research thesis, leadership. Think back to the example above. As a waitress, you collaborate with wait staff, provide customer service to restaurant patrons, and communicate effectively to thesis, ensure orders are submitted correctly.
Are you thinking: “Okay, but how is that relevant to beowulf research thesis, marketing?” The internship outlined above requires strong teamwork skills. You have those. It’s your job to demonstrate your ability to work in a team. Here’s an example of what you could write in your cover letter: “As a member of Women in Business, a 60-person student-run organization, I collaborate with my peers to menu, plan leadership events and bring speakers to campus. In addition, as a waitress at Good Food Restaurant, I work with a 6-person team to ensure high-quality service and satisfied guests. I enjoy collaborating with colleagues and would appreciate the opportunity to paper thesis, learn alongside your team of experienced marketing professionals.” You have the skills. You just have to essay, prove it. Even if you don’t have hours of specialized work experience in your field of study, you have more transferable skills than you realize.
Give yourself some credit. At this point, we’ve already covered quite a bit. You understand what a cover letter is, what purpose it serves, and why you need one as a college student. Paper! You know three types of cover letters and youth essay, what makes each type unique. Paper! You also understand how to leverage transferable skills when you don’t have “relevant” experience. Let’s get to need, the actual writing. How should you format your cover letter? Whichever type of cover letter is most appropriate for youinternship, entry level, or no relevant experiencethe fundamentals remain the same. While you want to stand out and be creative, there are a few specifications you need to research paper thesis, abide by. In this section I’ll discuss the following: length, margins, font size, font style, color, quantity of paragraphs, and bullet point usage. (We've gone into even more detail about the different cover letter formats in our Cover Letter Format Guide for model english Internships article)
Length: As I’ve mentioned, a cover letter gives you a chance to tell your story. Research Thesis! But slow down. You aren’t writing a novel. Need A Research Paper! A cover letter should never be longer than one, single-spaced page. In terms of word count, your letter will typically be only 200-400 words. Margins : It’s best to beowulf research paper, use standard 1-inch margins, but you may use margins as small as .5 inches. Whatever you choose, be sure the margin size is consistent on all sides. Font : When choosing a font, make sure it’s easy to read.
Some appropriate fonts include Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Tahoma, or Times New Roman. Stay away from fancy curls and fonts that only belong on horror movie posters. As a way to brand yourself, you may choose a different font for your name in the header of your cover letter. Essayez Menu! Other than this exception, be sure to beowulf research, use the of college essay, same font throughout for consistency’s sake. Font Size: Use size 10- to paper, 12-point font. This will ensure the font is large enough to read, but small enough to freya vandenbossche thesis, create a professional and polished look. Color : Unless you’re a graphic design major or a creative professional, you’ll typically use black font. If you’re applying to a creative industry, a tasteful splash of color may be appropriate (recommendations are covered at the end of this article in more detail). Paper Thesis! If you’re printing your cover letter to mail or use at a career fair, use black ink on white, cream, or ivory paper.
Left align each paragraph. There is no need to vandenbossche thesis, indent the first sentence of each paragraph. Instead “Return/Enter” between each paragraph. This will create a balance of beowulf text and whitespace, making your cover letter easier to vandenbossche, read. Bullet Points: Some resumés use a lot of beowulf thesis bullet points to outline someone’s accomplishments, but can bullet points be used on a cover letter? Sparingly. Use bullet points to briefly summarize information where appropriate. For example, you may write something like this: My academic background, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this computer science internship. Academic background. What Is The Of College! I have completed courses in computer science, statistics, and systems programming resulting in a 3.9 Major GPA.
Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Computer Science student organization, I develop and beowulf, facilitate computer science presentations. Leadership experience. This year, my classmates elected me as the sophomore representative for the college student government assembly. Bullet points can be an effective way to essayez buffet menu, communicate multiple qualifications, while abiding by the one-page length requirement. Those are the basic style guidelines when it comes to creating a cover letter. Now let’s check out the key sections of a letter. What are the key sections of your cover letter? The following are essential cover letter sections: header, date, greeting, company address, and salutation.
I’ll define each section and discuss exactly what to include. I’ll also share detailed examples of what to write. Header : A cover letter header is the information at the top of your cover letter. It includes your name and contact information, the date you’re applying, and the company’s mailing address. In the header, it’s important to include your full name. If you’re in beowulf research, the process of changing your name, plan to change your name during the recruitment process, or recently changed your name, it may be appropriate to include your new name with your former name in vandenbossche, parentheses. If your name is research paper, “Elizabeth” and you go by culture, “Beth,” then it’s entirely acceptable to use Beth on your documents. If your legal name is “Wayne” and beowulf research paper, you prefer to go by “Thomas,” then you may write it as “Thomas (Wayne) Johnson” to freya vandenbossche, avoid any confusion. When it comes to contact information, you should include your email address and a phone number where the company can reach you with follow-up questions, or to beowulf, schedule an interview.
You may also choose to for managers, include a URL link to your LinkedIn profile or an online portfolio showcasing your work. Here’s the most important part: You must use a professional email address. Your school email address is a good option. If you prefer to use a personal email, make sure it’s professional. While you want to stand out, a creative email address like alliecat@ or iwantajob@ isn’t the way to do it. Beowulf Paper! Create a generic johnsmith1@ account, or use the .edu email address provided by your university.
Unprofessional email addresses get resumés rejected more than 75% of the time. Date : After you include your name and contact information, you need to include the date you’re applying for the position. Right-align the date in the space below below your name and contact information. Company Address: While you probably won’t snail mail your cover letter, as a professional document, tradition tells us to include the company mailing address. Although you’re not typically submitting a hard copy of your resumé, after sending off your application, it’s in the possession of human resources. You don’t know if it will be printed, mailed, sent to another department for review, or any combination of these scenarios. Determine the music essay, company name, mailing address, and research paper, department (if applicable).
Left-align this information after the date. Greeting : The most appropriate option for a greeting is ‘Dear’. It’s also advantageous to refer to is the purpose education essay, the hiring manager by their name in your salutation. For example, “Dear Ms. Mary Johnson,”.
When writing the salutation, ensure the name and title are correct. For example, a person with the name ‘Taylor’, may prefer the beowulf research, title Mr., Ms., Mrs., or none of the youth culture essay, above. Make sure you use the correct title before their surname. If you don’t know what to use, opt for their first and last name only. Salutation: Don’t use “To Whom It May Concern”, or “Dear Sir/Madam”. Do your homework and figure out the “Whom” actually entails. If you’re lucky, a company will list a contact person near the research paper, bottom of the job description. Use this contact name in your cover letter. If the company does not specify who the hiring manager or recruiter is, still do not resort to, “To Whom It May Concern”.
In this case, here’s what you should do: After thoroughly reviewing the job description, work up the courage to call human resources. HR is your friend, so there’s no need to be anxious. Here’s what you could say: “Hi, I’m preparing an to write a research paper application for your open internship position #12345. Beowulf Thesis! I’m wondering who the hiring manager is for this position.” Oftentimes, human resources will provide you with the information. Other times, they may say, “Just address it to HR.” In this case, I recommend using “Dear Hiring Manager and culture music essay, Search Committee” as your salutation. Now that we’ve covered the basic formatting rules and the core sections of a cover letter, let’s talk about an paper thesis incredibly important rule for every cover letter you write.
Don’t forget this: You must tailor your cover letter to every single position and essay, unique company you apply to. What does it mean to beowulf research paper thesis, tailor a cover letter? Tailoring a cover letter is exactly what it sounds like. A tailor, or a person who alters clothing, adjusts clothing to essay for managers, fit unique, individual people. A shirt tailored for Person A will not fit Person B as well as it fits Person A. You should take the same approach when writing a cover letter. It’s kind of like giving a birthday gift. While you could safely give any person a gift of cash, it can come off as impersonal (like you forgot it was even their birthday). Why? Because it’s a generic gift. Just as you would avoid giving a generic gift to beowulf research, your best friend.
You should avoid giving a generic cover letter to your dream employer. In short, you should never submit the vandenbossche thesis, exact same cover letter to more than one position or company. Tailoring a cover letter requires additional effort on beowulf paper your behalf. Buffet Menu! You need to conduct company research and understand the thesis, position inside and essayez, out. You’ll use this information to paper thesis, create a unique cover letter that is english composition, appropriate for a specific job and a unique company. If you’re thinking, “How would one company know if I send them the same exact cover letter I sent another company?” Truth be told, they probably won’t find out.
But that’s not the paper thesis, point. If your cover letter is so generic that you can submit it to multiple positions at different companies, it’s not unique enough. The recruiter will immediately recognize your cover letter as a generic template, and it will end up in the trash can. Let’s go back to the birthday gift analogy. When you purchase a birthday gift for purpose of college essay your best friend, you most likely base your decision on a few things: What are they interested in? What do they enjoy? What do they need? What do they want?
You then use what you know about your friend to inform your decision of what to buy. It’s the same when it comes to writing a cover letter. You must conduct company research to answer similar questions: What type of research paper candidate is the company interested in? What does the company value and essayez, enjoy? What needs and pain points does the company need to solve?
What does the research paper, company want from you as an applicant? To be successful, you must integrate the answers to need someone for me, these questions into research paper, your cover letter. While some of the content in each letter will undoubtedly overlap, do your best to create unique content for each position. While the term ‘research’ can be intimidating, I have good news: You don’t have to someone to write paper for me, be a scientist to do good research.
To conduct company research, there are a few key resources: Explore the company website. Google the company to discover current events. Visit websites such as Glassdoor.com, where candidates, current employees, and former employees rate companies. Some examples of what you may research are the company mission, vision, or recent news. You’re looking for information that is relevant to beowulf research paper thesis, the position and details that make you excited about the essayez menu, company.
At this point, you understand what a cover letter is and what it means to tailor your cover letter. This cover letter template is not tailored to any specific company or position. Research Paper! This is a bad, scratch that, TERRIBLE cover letter: To Whom It May Concern, I am writing to apply for youth culture essay an internship I recently found on beowulf paper thesis your website. I believe I am the best candidate for this position based on my academic coursework and freya vandenbossche, my relevant experience.
I match exactly what you are looking for in a candidate. As a college student, I understand how to use Microsoft Word and Excel. Beowulf Paper! I am passionate, detail oriented, and hard-working. I am really excited about the opportunity to model essay composition, join your company. Beowulf Paper Thesis! Attached you will find my resumé which explains my experience in further detail.
Thank you for your time. I look forward to the possibility of interviewing. It may be more appropriate to end that letter with, “I am sincerely boring,” but you get the point. In brief, this is what is wrong with the above example: X No header (i.e. applicant name, contact information, date, company address) X Generic and essay, outdated salutation (i.e. “To Whom It May Concern”)
X Cliché and boring introduction. X No mention of the internship title. X No mention of the company name. X No proof as to why the applicant is the “best candidate” X Applicant includes generic skills (i.e. Paper Thesis! Microsoft Office and test, Excel) Don’t write a cover letter like this. Beowulf Research! You will put the recruiter to sleep. Minneapolis, MN 12345.
Fashion and Design. New York City, NY 56789. Dear Ms. Debra Glod, When I discovered the fashion internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to complement my coursework with experience in a fast-paced environment.
As a junior majoring in Fashion Merchandising at for managers, University of beowulf paper Southern California, I am passionate about essayez buffet menu, creating original concepts and executing designs. My leadership experience, design coursework, and creative portfolio make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Leadership experience. As the President of the on-campus student organization, Fashion and Business, I produce an annual fashion show with over 30 models and 250 attendees. Design coursework. I have a 3.9 Major GPA after taking introduction to textiles, fashion sketching, computer-aided fashion design, and advanced apparel development. Creative portfolio.
My portfolio includes original sketches and drawings created in Adobe Illustrator. It can be viewed by visiting email@example.com. As described by the internship description, I am eager to grow into beowulf research thesis, a bold and interactive designer. Thesis! I believe your organization provides a rewarding opportunity to beowulf paper thesis, engage in continuous learning. My enclosed resumé expands on my leadership experience and academic coursework. As I prepare for a career in fashion, I am dedicated to understanding the essay test for managers, field by collaborating with an experienced design and production team.
Thank you for paper thesis your time and consideration. I look forward to culture music, hearing from you soon. In brief, this is a great example because it includes the following: ? Name, contact information, date, and company address. ? Tailored salutation including the research thesis, hiring manager’s first and last name. ? Unique introduction that communicates the applicant’s interest and passion in the position, company, and freya thesis, industry. ? Specific internship title “Fashion Internship” ? Company name, “XYZ Company” ? Use of the term “well-qualified applicant” vs. “best candidate” ? Unique skills that are relevant to the position (i.e. leadership, design, and creative work) ? Description of the research, applicant’s desire to grow as a professional. Use this as a model when crafting your letter. What to include in your actual cover letter? Now I’m going to essayez menu, walk you through a 4-step process for writing a cover letter. This process helps you narrow down your experience and determine what is most relevant to the position and company.
You only have one page to communicate how you match exactly what the employer is looking for in a candidate. Let’s use a 4-step process to accomplish this task. Step 1: Highlight the beowulf research paper thesis, job description. Step 2: Select three job responsibilities you want to essay test, focus on in your cover letter. Step 3: Identify three of your accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications the research, employer seeks. I’ll take you through each step and essay test, describe exactly what to do. This is an effective way to write a cover letter.
Let’s jump in! Step 1: Highlight the job description. You may be asking, “What’s the point of this?”. As you already know, the purpose of beowulf research thesis a cover letter is to what is the of college education essay, get a potential employer to beowulf paper thesis, read your resumé. You do this by model english composition, demonstrating how you match exactly what they’re looking for. Well, what are they looking for?
The answer to this question is in the job description. The purpose of this step is to determine the most important requirements. To highlight the job description, either print a hard copy and grab an actual highlighter, or copy and paste the contents of the job description into your favorite word processing program. You should make note of the following: Core responsibilities Required qualifications Preferred qualifications Keywords Patterns and themes. A job description will typically label the core responsibilities, required qualifications, and preferred qualifications. Beowulf Paper Thesis! Those should be easy to freya vandenbossche, determine.
That being said, there won’t be a section labeled “Keywords” or “Themes.” This is where you have to do a little work. It’s your job to read through the job description and determine what is most important to the employer. Ask yourself the following questions: What words are repeated throughout the job description? What responsibilities are emphasized in the job description? Let’s look at the following example of research paper thesis a job description for a marketing internship. The example outlines responsibilities, minimum qualifications, and preferred characteristics. Carefully read through each section. Marketing Internship Job Description.
Conduct social media marketing campaigns Collect quantitative and qualitative data Perform market analysis and someone to write a research paper, research on competitors Collaborate with co-interns and marketing team to analyze data Support marketing team in daily administrative tasks Present findings to marketing team. Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a bachelor’s degree Interested in marketing and/or business-related career Effective writing and verbal communication skills. Pursuing a degree in marketing, business, graphic design, communications, or a related area of study. When you review this job description, a few things should be obvious. You know the employer is looking for an intern who is interested in social media marketing and beowulf research paper thesis, data analysis. After further review, you can also make an additional conclusion:
Conclusion : The company seeks an intern who is an effective communicator. Clues : The job description not only requires someone with “effective writing and verbal communication skills”, but the essay english, intern must also be able to collaborate with colleagues and research, present findings to the marketing team. Both of youth culture these responsibilities require a heightened level of communication. That’s a pattern or theme. After reviewing the job description in detail, you observe a common thread, pattern, or theme regarding one skill across multiple bullet points. Use this knowledge to your advantage. Dedicate several sentences in your cover letter to beowulf paper, proving how you’re an effective communicator. For example, you may write: “After reviewing the job description, it is clear that XYZ Company values effective communication. If hired as the Marketing Intern, I would leverage my experience in Toastmasters International, a non-profit organization dedicated to for managers, helping members develop public speaking and leadership skills.
I have a proven ability to communicate messages effectively and would apply this ability as a Marketing Intern.” Let’s say you highlight the job description and determine there are ten core responsibilities and qualifications the employer wants. Do you write about all ten? Probably not. Beowulf Research Thesis! If you remember correctly, a cover letter can only be one page long. You cannot adequately cover ten different requirements in a single page. So how do you determine which skills to focus on? This is where step two comes in. Step 2: Select which job responsibilities you want to focus on. After you review the job description in detail and need someone paper, highlight the beowulf thesis, most important parts, you need to choose which of the youth music essay, many responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter.
Unless the job description is very shortand the company only highlights three requirementsit’s unlikely you will be able to discuss every single requirement in beowulf paper thesis, your cover letter. Here’s what you do: Determine what the company values the most . What does the company emphasize in the job description? Take into consideration your own experience and qualifications. If the job requires communication, teamwork, accounting, and essayez menu, customer service, and you’re not confident in your accounting skills, then you don’t need to focus on beowulf research paper that requirement in your cover letter. At the same time, if accounting skills are listed as a minimum required qualification, then you’re not qualified for the internship. Take time to narrow down not only what is most important from the what purpose, company’s perspective, but also what you are most qualified for.
To simplify the writing process, I recommend choosing three job responsibilities to beowulf research paper thesis, focus on. For Managers! Once you do this, you’re ready for step three. Step 3: Identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. After you’ve identified three job responsibilitiesas outlined in the job descriptionyou now need to identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to research paper thesis, those responsibilities. You should only buffet, highlight the most relevant accomplishments. Not necessarily the most exciting achievement, but instead, the accomplishments and beowulf research thesis, activities that are closely related to what you would actually be doing with the is the purpose of college education essay, company. After choosing three requirements and three accomplishments, you’re ready for step four. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to research paper, the qualifications they seek. In a sense, you need to put together the pieces of the puzzle. You need to demonstrate how your skills and accomplishments match what the english composition, company is looking for. You have three responsibilities and three accomplishments.
Connect the dots. We’ll look at additional examples of how to do this in beowulf paper thesis, the next section. How do I write the introduction, body, and closing? As with any good story, the cover letter has a beginning, middle, and end. I will refer to these as the introduction, body, and closing. Let’s look at each section in further detail.
I’ll describe how to write each section and what of college, show you real samples of what you could write. Th intrduction two a covr leter is crushal. If you want your cover letter to end up in the trash in record-breaking time, make an ugly spelling error in your first sentence. Research! Hiring managers quickly disqualify candidates from consideration because of spelling errors. The core components of someone a research paper your introduction include the following: 1) Briefly introduce why you’re writing. 2) Give a short overview of who you are. 3) Tailor the introduction to research paper thesis, the company and position. If you want to immediately bore a recruiter, open your letter with, “I am writing to apply for”.
As one of the essay test, most common introductions, that’s not an effective way to stand out from the beowulf research, other applicants. Even if you spend significant time tailoring the rest of your cover letter, a recruiter may assume you submitted a template because the music, phrase is so overused. It’s cookie cutter and unfortunately, we’re not making cookies. Avoid this phrase and replace it with something more creative. Begin your cover letter with a sentence that communicates your personality, while still remaining professional.
You can accomplish this by starting with a personal anecdote. For example, you could write: “When I was a teaching assistant at my local middle school, I discovered my passion for working with kids. I am committed to” Don’t feel confined by what is considered standard or traditional. As long as your content is professional, you can be a little creative. This is your opportunity to infuse your personality.
Think of it this way: If you were reading a cover letter, what would engage you? As you explore samples, make note of the cover letters that seem boring and those that inspire you to keep reading. After you engage the reader, it is important to demonstrate two things: You did your research. Beowulf Research Thesis! You tailored the letter to the specific company and position. Here are a few great examples: “When I discovered the environmental science internship on Internships.com, I was immediately excited by the opportunity to join a sustainable organization like XYZ Company.” This opening sentence indicates your interest, why you’re writing, and culture, demonstrates that you researched the company. Beowulf Paper! By including the single word “sustainable,” the company will know that you did your research, provided they’re truly a sustainable company.
It may be tempting to need someone a research, say, “I believe I am the best candidate for the position.” This is an paper empty claim. Instead, use the need a research, remainder of the letter to prove that you are well-qualified for the position. Those are the building blocks of a quality introduction. One succinct, yet engaging paragraph where you do the following: State why you are writing.
Provide a brief overview of paper who you are. Tailor to company and need someone to write for me, position. Give a brief overview of what you’re about to discuss in the body. If done well, the introduction will invite the recruiter to beowulf paper, continue reading. Let’s talk about what you include in the body. How do I write the body of a cover letter? After you grab the recruiter’s attention with an engaging introduction, it’s time to craft a compelling body. The purpose of the someone to write for me, body is to prove your qualifications to the reader. It’s important to be specific about your qualifications and research paper, clearly describe how they relate to the position.
This is of college essay, where you need to match the requirements outlined in the job description with your most relevant skills and qualifications. Let’s look at two different examples. Here’s an example using bullet points: My academic coursework, communication skills, and research paper, leadership experience have prepared me well for this position. Academic coursework. For Managers! I have completed courses in business communications, marketing, and strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 GPA.
Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience. This year, my classmates elected me as the junior representative for the college student government assembly. I am excited by the chance to contribute to beowulf thesis, your organization and am prepared to buffet menu, engage in continuous learning.
I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. Here’s a traditional example (without bullet points): As outlined in the job description, it is clear you seek an intern who is research paper thesis, familiar with human resources. Over the past two years, I have completed courses in business communications, marketing, and purpose education, strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 Major GPA. I would leverage this understanding to advance the Human Resources division with your company. Additionally, as the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and beowulf research paper, facilitate presentations on music essay behalf of the organization. I have a proven ability to research, communicate effectively in someone to write paper for me, writing and in person. I am well prepared to present information on paper thesis behalf of essay human resources and would enjoy learning alongside your skilled team of representatives. I am excited by beowulf research paper thesis, the chance to contribute to purpose education, your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. The most important part of the body is demonstrating how you match the requirements outlined in the job description . If you can do that, you will set yourself up for success.
How do I write the research thesis, conclusion of a cover letter? Finally, like any good letter or story, you need a well-crafted conclusion. In the closing section, you should do a few things: Summarize why you are qualified for the position. Express your appreciation for essay test for managers their time and consideration. Here’s a solid example of how to wrap up a cover letter: My enclosed resumé expands on thesis my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. Essay Composition! As I prepare for beowulf research thesis a career in human resources, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field. Thank you for your time and consideration. Model English! I look forward to hearing from you soon.
That’s it. An introduction, body, and conclusion tailored to beowulf paper, the company and essayez buffet menu, position. Research! Prove that you can do the job and you’re incredibly excited by the opportunity. We’ve covered a lot so far. To Write A Research Paper! By this point, you understand what a cover letter is, the purpose, why you need one, and a step-by-step process for writing an outstanding letter tailored to a unique position and beowulf paper, company. Now let’s check out the top 10 tips for crafting your cover letter. Top 10 cover letter tips and hacks. Be a person. If you think back to earlier in this article, you’ll remember a common resumé concern is: “I feel like my resumé makes me super boring.” The same can happen with your cover letter.
I highly recommend infusing your personality. In addition to highlighting your skills and campus involvement, your cover letter should express your individual personality. You’re a human after all. Menu! Make sure your cover letter expresses who you are. Address the right person. I shared tips for finding the correct person to address your cover letter to. Make sure you not only find the correct person, but adjust the beowulf research paper thesis, salutation for each letter you write. It can be an awful mistake to tailor your entire cover letter and forget to look up the correct contact person. Essay! Worse yet, you leave the contact person from the last company you applied to on your letter to a new company. Make sure you address the correct person and spell their name correctly.
Engage the reader at the beginning. Just like a good book, the research, first sentence of need to write for me your cover letter needs to draw the research paper, reader in. Vandenbossche! Avoid cliché phrases like, “I am writing to apply for research paper thesis your internship.” Or, “I’m writing in response to your recently advertised position.” Instead, write something unique, yet professional. Share your passion. If you have a connection with the company, don’t be afraid to name drop. Need To Write A Research! Name dropping is beowulf research paper, when you include the name of a friend, family member, or acquaintance who is connected to menu, the company. If done correctly, this may improve your credibility and your chances of securing the beowulf, internship or full-time position. For example, you may write: “After speaking with the current principal, Kathy Johnson, at your meet-and-greet event, I am incredibly excited to apply for the summer school teaching position with Unicorn Unified School District.” Name dropping can showcase your professional network, while signifying an essay test for managers extra level of effort. Focus on the most relevant examples. Do not include a comprehensive list of your college involvement. Research Thesis! Your cover letter should not look like you turned the contents of your resumé into complete sentences and paragraphs.
Instead, choose a few relevant examples and tell a story. Be specific. Don’t write, “I conducted in-depth marketing research”. Instead write, “I used SPSS to education, analyze survey data.” Using generic claims and beowulf research, buzzwords does not add value to your cover letter. Tell the hiring manager exactly what you did and why it matters to their company. Showcase the freya vandenbossche thesis, results of beowulf paper thesis your work. Let’s extend the previous example, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Why did you do that?
What was the result of your work? And most importantly, why does it matter to the employer? To strengthen that sentence, you could write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data and better understand the target audience. Model Composition! This experience will be incredibly beneficial as a Marketing Intern with ABC Company. Include key ideas as outlined in thesis, the job description. Earlier in the article, I told you how to determine keywords and patterns by reviewing the job description. Here’s a trick for finding keywords. Use the ‘Find’ function. Essay! The ‘Findrsquo function is a keyboard function where you press and hold Control+F (Windows), or Command+F (Mac).
After you release the buttons, a search box will appear on your screen. Type in likely keywords such as “communication” or ldquo;communicate”. Your computer will highlight every appearance of beowulf thesis this word. Determining where the word is used will help you tailor your cover letter. Keep it brief. No cover letter should be longer than one page. What Is The Purpose! By focusing on the most relevant skills and not reiterating your entire resumé, you’ll be well on your way to writing a succinct cover letter. At the same time, you need to find a happy medium. Your letter should not be several sentences.
Create 3-5 well-written, concise, yet detailed paragraphs. Follow the employer’s instructions. Research Paper Thesis! The employer’s instructions outweigh any recommendation you find online (or in essay english composition, this article). If the employer asks you to answer a specific question, or share your availability in beowulf research, the cover letter, follow their instructions. There are a few exceptions to this rule. Freya! It is against the law for an employer to ask you for thesis the following information: What country are you from? Is English your first language?
Do you drink socially? Are you married? Have you ever been arrested? What religious holidays do you observe? Do you have children? If an what of college education essay employer requests this information (or any other information you feel uncomfortable sharing), you do not need to include that information in your application. Paper! It may be a red flag and you probably do not want to work for that company. Those are the top 10 cover letter tips and tricks! Be sure to check out our seperate article regarding cover letter tips and essay english composition, tricks. Next let’s check out some common cover letter pitfalls and how to avoid them.
Top 10 cover letter mistakes to avoid. Typos. I can’t say this too many times. Beowulf Thesis! Ensure that your cover letter is free of typos. Review the letter yourself, read the letter out loud, and have a friend check it over. You will kill your chances of freya vandenbossche being interviewed if you make one too many mistakes.
Focusing too much on yourself. A cover letter is your chance to explain why you’re qualified and passionate about the job opportunity, but it is not ALL about you. The key to a great cover letter is explaining how you can solve a problem for the employer. Beowulf! You need to explain why you’re interested in the company. Be careful not to focus on yourself too much. Not tailoring your letter to the company or position. Generic phrases such as “Dear employer” or “I would love to work for your company” can create an freya vandenbossche altogether weak cover letter. Take my advice and research paper, tailor your cover letter to the specific position and company. Dissect the job description and conduct company research. You will quickly stand out as a quality applicant if you can prove your interest in the position and freya vandenbossche thesis, organization.
Including taboo topics. Sometimes it can be difficult to know what’s allowable and what is taboo. While you want to research paper thesis, add personality to essay, your cover letter, you must avoid writing about things that are uncomfortable or irrelevant to the position. Do not include information that is considered protected class such as your religion or race. Thesis! Unless these are integral to the positionfor example, you’re applying to be a choir director at a churchthese are unnecessary additions. Being cliché. I get it. It can be tempting to Google, “cover letter sample” and use a ready-made template found on the internet. While this may seem like the easy option, it will hurt your chances of securing an internship or full-time job.
Recruiters review resumés every day. Model English Composition! They can immediately spot a template cover letter. If you found the cover letter example online, so can they. Take time to write a unique cover letter that expresses your personality and communicates your qualifications. Rewriting your resumé.
A cover letter is paper thesis, not a resumé. It serves an what purpose education entirely different purpose. Don’t waste cover letter space by simply reiterating what is on your resumé. Include a story, integrate your personality, talk about the company, and beowulf research paper, discuss your passion. Over-explaining. Don’t be a rambler. Take time to cut out unnecessary words and phrases. Refrain from repeating the same skill multiple times with different examples. If you want to discuss how you’re an excellent public speaker, share one example.
Remember, you submit a cover letter and resumé in hopes of securing an interview. If you receive an invitation to interview, you’ll have the essay composition, opportunity to research paper, describe your experiences in what purpose education, further detail. Being too pushy. If you search the web for beowulf cover letter samples, you’ll inevitably come across samples that say something like, I will call your office in a week to schedule an interview. While you want to present yourself as an assertive and confident professional, that approach is typically too pushy and can hurt your chances of getting an essayez buffet menu interview. An alternative is to say, I welcome the opportunity to speak with you about how I can contribute. Or “I look forward to hearing from you soon.” You can communicate your sincere interest without being pushy. Starting with your name. While your name is an beowulf research paper thesis important piece of information to music essay, include on your cover letter, opening a letter with “My name is Casey Smith” takes away prime real estate. Instead, start with a relevant skill or qualification to grab their attention. Unless you’re a celebrity and everybody knows your name, it’s not the best option.
Sharing irrelevant information. I get it! You care about beowulf research, ALL the experiences you have gained. This attachment can make it incredibly difficult to let things go. But letting go of irrelevant information is what purpose of college education, key to writing an outstanding cover letter. Yes, it’s awesome that you volunteer with ten different organizations, but not all ten volunteer experiences are relevant to every internship or job you apply for. You need to paper, narrow down your accomplishments and delete what is irrelevant. Is The Purpose Of College Education! This will not only cut down on the fluff, it will highlight what’s truly important. There you have it. Essential tips and paper, mistakes to avoid.
Before we wrap up, I want to freya vandenbossche thesis, discuss two nontraditional cover letters and share a helpful sample. What do nontraditional cover letters look like? By now, you understand how to make your cover letter unique and why it’s important to infuse your personality. There are a few industries and positions that call for an extra level of creativity and design. If you’re pursuing a creative degree, this is for you. Graphic Design Cover Letter . Research Thesis! If you’re a graphic design major, or another creative type, it’s advantageous to reflect this in essayez buffet menu, your cover letter. But don’t forget the basics. Before you attack the design, ensure the spelling, grammar, and paper thesis, sentence structure is solid.
Then, take a few liberties with your design. Adjust the essay for managers, layout, choose the perfect typography, and add a splash of color. While you don’t want to go overboard, you should use your letter as an opportunity to demonstrate your skills. As a creative major, you should also include a link to your online portfolio. Paper Thesis! The hiring team will review your portfolio for design basicsfrom color choice to typography, white space usage to freya vandenbossche thesis, contrast. Research! While this is an awesome opportunity to showcase your work, it requires a heightened attention to freya, detail. Check for beowulf paper spelling and grammar throughout. Video Cover Letter. Need Someone Paper! A video cover letter can be a unique way to showcase your skills. Some IT companies and tech-based startups are opting for video cover letters in place of traditional letters. Just like a traditional letter, you want the content to engage the research paper thesis, viewer and encourage them to check out your resumé and portfolio.
You’re essentially creating a movie trailer. Where a traditional cover letter is bound to one page, a video cover letter rarely exceeds 60 seconds in freya vandenbossche thesis, length. Brevity is research paper thesis, still important. Keep in mind the essay test, purpose of beowulf research thesis a cover letter and craft your content around these three primary goals: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for model english the position.
What’s key here is that your personality and energy come through. Unless you’re camera-shy, there’s no need to beowulf research paper, write an entire script. Choose a few bullet points to focus on and discuss your qualifications. Music Essay! You want to research paper, come across as genuine as you can, without trying too hard! 456 Business Road.
Phoenix, AZ 85001. Ms. Nichole Favret. 123 Business Street. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Dear Ms. Nichole Favret,
When I discovered the accounting internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to complement my coursework with practical experience. As a junior majoring in youth culture, Accounting at University of Southern California, I am enjoy compiling reports and completing audits. Research Paper! My academic background, communication skills, and youth music essay, leadership experience have prepared me well for beowulf this position. Academic coursework . Need! I have completed courses in intermediate accounting, cost accounting, business law, and individual income tax, resulting in a 3.9 Major GPA. Research! Communication skills . As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Accounting Club, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the essay, organization. Beowulf Research Paper! Leadership experience . Essayez Buffet Menu! As a chapter leader of Delta Sigma Pi, a business fraternity on campus, I recruit new members and discuss the value of the organization.
I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and beowulf research, am prepared to freya thesis, engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by research paper thesis, the internship description. My enclosed resumé expands on my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. As I prepare for an accounting career, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. That’s what a solid cover letter looks like from beginning to end.
Check out menu, more professional cover letter examples here. People read cover letters. As you now know, an outstanding cover letter can get you an internship. You have every tool, example, and piece of advice necessary to write a superior cover letter. You understand exactly what a cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, you have a step-by-step process to beowulf paper thesis, help you write an outstanding cover letter. Whether you’re applying for a summer internship, or submitting your first application to a full-time position, you’re well prepared. Congratulations on getting this far.
Set aside time to write an outstanding letter. It will be easier than you think and model, more rewarding than you imagine.
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Beowulf Thesis Statement | Choice Of …
“The Return of the Native” by Thomas Hardy Essay Sample. The novel entitled “The Return of the Native” by Thomas Hardy was always perceived ambivalently, as the plot itself is to great extent paradoxical. Research! First and menu foremost, “The Return to the Native” is a novel about human desire to escape or break free, in which the person uses any available methods. One of the main characters of the book, Eustacia Vye, is an embodiment of this spirit of liberation and breach of heath as a prison, where her revolutionary spirit is actually locked. Thus, the central theme in “The Return of the Native” is Eustacia’s escape from the beowulf thesis, heath, manifested first and foremost through using ancient Greek symbols, whereas the other characters are to essay test certain degree secondary, as they are designed to help or create additional barriers to her flight. Eustacia is beowulf research paper a 19-year-old sensual beauty, who has only one dream: to be strongly loved by a worthy man, who would take her way from freya this desolate Egdon Heath settle down somewhere in exotic lands. Paper! Due to the fact that she lives in a bleak localty, the only worthy man she meets is Damon Wildeve, an inn owner, very passionate and impulsive personality. Both partners in this couple seem to fit each other in terms of for managers their sensual natures and the desire to play with another’s affections: “”You give me no peace. Why do you not leave me alone?
I have seen your bonfire all the beowulf thesis, evening.” The words were not without emotion, and youth culture essay retained their level tone as if by a careful equipoise between imminent extremes” ( Hardy, 2001, at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/122, Book 1, Ch.6). The young woman, in turn, carries and beowulf research presents herself as extremely determined and for managers psychologically resistible person: being asked by Wildeve is he caused her pain, she responds: “”But perhaps it not wholly because of you that I get gloomy”, she archly added. “It is my nature to feel like that. Beowulf Paper Thesis! It was born in my blood, I suppose” (Hardy, 2001, Book 1, Ch.6). On the other hand, Wildeve cannot endure such a cruel lovegame for a long time and decided to essayez buffet menu marry Thomasin Yeobright, a humble and simple girl with kind and loving heart, who seeks to research create a supportive family and live in the heath. However, on their wedding day, the essay test for managers, marriage license appears invalid – this either deliberate or unintentional act, coducted by Wileve, deeply hurts and humiliates Thomasin, the girl therefore rejects Wildeve (Alcorn, 1977).
In this sense, Eustacia is beowulf research forced to to write a research paper search for another appropriate person to connect her life with, as she decided to reject Wildeve. “She often repeated her prayers; not at paper thesis particular times, but, like the essayez buffet, unaffectedly devout, when she desired to pray. Her prayer was always spontaneous, and paper often ran thus, “O deliver my heart from this fearful gloom and essay test loneliness, send me great love from beowulf paper thesis somewhere, else I shall die” (Hardy, 2001, Book 1, Ch.7). Later, Eustacia meets young Clym Yeobright, Thomasin’s cousin and early love. Thus, it seems like Eustacia intentionally tries to destroy Thomasin’s happiness, but in fact the former is blind in her desire to leave the heath. On the other hand, in english order to beowulf ensure Clym hasn’t fallen in love with Thomasin again, she helps arrange Thomasin and Wildeve’s marriage. Thus, the couple begin their family life, even though Diggory Venn, a true embodiment of unselfish and what is the purpose education sacrificing love, who has been loving Thomasin for years, proposes to her. Eustacia, in turn, accept Clym’s proposal, but financial problems and Clym’s progressing eye disease gradually undermine their relationships. Mrs.Yeobright shares her capital equally between her niece Thomasin and her son Clym, but because of Venn’s machinations, Eustacia and Clym do not receive their half. Beowulf! Furthermore, because Clym’s eyesight deteriorates, he is thesis not able to teach at beowulf thesis school and therefore decided to work as furze-cutter, although both Mrs.Yeobright and Eustacia are extremely discontent with this choice.
In fact, the young woman has expected a totally different life: due to the fact that Clym has recently returned from Paris, he still has a kind of “glamorous cover” (Carpenter, 1964, 188) on his appearance, manners and erudition, so his young spouse hopes to move to Paris, “a gay city” (Hardy, 2001, Book 2,Ch.4). When she realizes that her goal is unachievable, Eustacia meets with Wildeve in order to ask him for assistance in her flight – the young man, tired of culture essay Thomasin and longing for new adventures, elopes with Eustacia, but on their path to absolute freedom, the two ex-lovers sink in the weir. As Judith Mitchell states, “What counts is what the heroine provokes, or rather what she represents. She is the paper, one, or rather the love or fear she inspires in the hero, or else the youth culture, concern he feels for beowulf thesis her, who makes him act the for managers, way he does” (Mitchell, 1993, TCLC, at www.enotes.com). Indeed, the description of beowulf research paper Eustacia’s personality is quite useful in the central theme of freedom, or break-through.
The character is on the one hand very realistic, but not typical for Victorian society, as Eustacia’s portrayal is what is the purpose education essay saturated with pagan motifs. First of all, “Hardy connects her to the Tartarean heath by speaking of her first as “the raw material of a divinity””(Alcorn, 1977, p. 311). The author implies that Eustacia is a goddess exiled from her own Olympus represented by thesis, the so-called beau-monde of need to write paper Budmouth and placed because of his grandfather’s whim to the Tartar of the heath. The author often refers to thesis her as to a character of ancient tragedy and mentions her habit to act as a prophetess “ of Delphian ambiguity” (Vigar, 1974, p. Youth Music Essay! 274). All aforementioned features make the paper thesis, character similar to the Godden of the essayez, Underworld, Hecate, as well as to Cumaean Sybil (Vigar, 1974). Due to the fact that in Hardy’s epoch witchcraft and beowulf research thesis the control over the other world were implicitly viewed by the signs of freedom, impermissible freedom from societal mores, Eustacia is one of buffet menu hypostases of the spontaneity and otherness, but enormous willpower and independence were needed to reveal these traits at the time of Victoria’s reign (Alcorn, 1977; May, 1986)). “Hardy’s description of her soul as “flame-like” suggests the research, torment that the fraudulent consellors Ulysses and Diomedes suffer in Limbo, “as viewed from the brink by the sublime Florentine,” Dante Alighieri, in his Inferno” (May, 1986, p. 117). Eustacia’s unruly desires and mysterious nature, conflicting with her social status, are indicative in terms of the essayez buffet, freedom and escape theme. Another argument in favor of the paper thesis, importance of flight as major plotline of the novel is the essayez menu, description of the heath as a separate and self-sufficient character (Alcorn, 1977; may, 1986)).
On the one hand, the heath is a setting of the writing, so it is important as a background of thesis all events. On the other hand, the heath seems to model english composition live its own life, moreover, seems to leave deep footprints in the relationships among the characters. For instance, Venn adores this place and beowulf research paper thesis therefore plans to build his future in Edgon Heath, Thomasine seems deeply ‘acculturated’ and ‘acclimatized’ to its mood (Vigar, 1974), even Clym, who has returned from the lush city, seems hypnotized by the heath so that he stays in this forgotten place instead of moving with his young wife to a more appropriate place, where the couple is essayez buffet more likely to find new impressions and interest in beowulf research life. “The heath is a driving force in itself, a force that goes by its own free will and nature” (Vigar, 1974, p.147). As for Eustacia, she is the only character, who feels the miasmas of gloom and spiritual impoverishment, coming from the heath, thus, the place becomes its rival and creates new obstructions and barriers to Eustacia’s flight. The heath interferes into her relationship with Wildeve, who often sees her sweetheart gloomy and depressed because of her daily routines, close-knit with the heath. Culture Essay! The local climate is so dangerous that it causes the deterioration of Clym’s health state, so that Eustacia is literally bonded by the place (May, 1986; Vigar, 1974). Finally, when her struggle with the element reaches culmination and the woman attempts to elope with Wildeve, the merciless heath kills both, just like prison guard stops a fugitive with leaden bullets. As it has been mentioned, analyzing the meta-context of the novel, one can understand, that the heath is parallelized to the Tartar, and as one knows from Greek mythology, the Hell is not merely a place, but also a divinity of this place.
Accordingly, Eustacia’s ‘war’ with the heath can be parallelized to the clash between two Greek deities, the imprisoned and the prison-keeper. The woman’s confrontation with the place might also point to her rejection of the local community and the circumstances, by which she is paper encumbered. Purpose! In this sense, “Through the mechanism of allusion, association and thesis metaphor, the psychological passes into the mythical” (Vigar, 1974, p. Need Someone A Research For Me! 263). Eustacia’s dissatisfaction with the place is supplemented and beowulf thesis reinforced by lack of respect for the local inhabitants, who seriously regard her as a witch, so the vandenbossche, heath cannot be accepted as an archetypal and cozy home in any case. Furthermore, “Throughout the course of the story, Eustacia senses that, no matter how she tries to avert it, her end will come as a victory not only for Egdon Heath but also for the community that has imbibed its spirit” (Vigar, 1974, p. 265). Her tragic death in the pool of Shadwater Weir to certain degree supports the claim about research paper, Eustacia’s witch-identity, as seeking to flee the freya vandenbossche thesis, socially-controlled institution of marriage and community life, she sinks in the “boiling caldron” (Vigar, 1974, p. 265), a traditional method of witch identification in the Middle Ages. Although her physical expiration cannot be interpreted as her victory over Egdon Heath, her soul is nevertheless liberated from her existence in the world of interpersonal proximity with complete alienation implied. Some critics (May, 1986; Carpenter, 1964), however, suggest that there exists another hypostasis of Eustacia, an earthy, but romantic girl. As may states, Hardy “was interested in synthesizing the two, so that the reader may have in Eustacia both a naive, romantic nineteen-year-old and a would-be pagan deity. Only her death can resolve this tension between her anomalous natures.
The eternal rigidity of death freezes her into a transitional state between the fervor of her psychological character and paper thesis the resignation of her archetypal position” (May, 1986, p.125). As one can understand, Eustacia’s desire to leave the place can be probably associated with her will to escape from freya herself, her Victorian alter ego, which prescribes that all 19-year-old girls should be romantic and naive and behave just like Thomasin, i.e. reveal no demands and demonstrate submission and fidelity. Due to the fact that this psychological duality is invincible and that it is impossible to escape from oneself, only physical destruction appears a workable solution of Eustacia’s inner problem. To sum up, instead of depicting social struggle as a typical theme of a Victorian novel, Hardy draws the images of almost mythical clash between a Greek goddess, forced to live in the body of Eustacia, and the deity of Tartar, or the heath, in which the former tries to overcome the latter through escaping from the odious place. Moreover, the pagan goddess seeks to separate from her social ‘shell’, the nineteen-year-old idealist, who controls her desires and passions because of the community pressure. Thus, there are two closely interwoven aspects in the central theme of flight; both of beowulf research paper thesis them have the same tragic outcome, inferring that the true freedom comes only after death.
Alcorn, J. The Nature Novel from Hardy to youth Lawrence. MY: Columbia University Press, 1977. Carpenter, R. Thomas Hardy. Beowulf Research! New York: Twayne, 1964. Hardy, T. The Return to the Native.
Available online at: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/122. May, C. “The Magic of Metaphor in the Return to the Native”. Colby Library Quarterly, 1986, 22 (2): 117-135. Mitchell, J. “Hardy’s Female Reader”, in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism, available online at: http://www.enotes.com/twentieth-century-criticism/hardy-thomas/judith-mitchell-essay-date-1993, 1993. Vigar, P. The Novels of Thomas Hardy: Illusion and Reality. London: The Athlone Press, 1974. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order “The Return of the Native” by Thomas Hardy.
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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by beowulf research thesis Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of essay test, IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the paper thesis, memoir of buffet menu, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at paper thesis Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the model english, Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at research paper thesis the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the someone to write a research paper for me, first e-mail, the first typesetting, the research thesis, first networking, the someone paper for me, first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of research paper, it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in essayez buffet menu so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and research I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to to write a research for me work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Beowulf Paper? After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the need someone to write a research paper for me, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to beowulf research paper thesis the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in for managers 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Research Thesis? In particular, at youth least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of beowulf paper, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and freya vandenbossche thesis the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Thesis? I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of someone a research for me, computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.
Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Research Paper Thesis? Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Need Someone To Write? Simon Rackham for beowulf thesis, the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of essay composition, Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from beowulf thesis, 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and essay test for managers miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for research thesis, the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to test for managers Charlotte Moseley for preserving and paper contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and need MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to research the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for thesis, an announcement and research thesis abstract of this site in test for managers their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.
A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in beowulf research paper thesis the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for freya vandenbossche thesis, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for paper, the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to freya this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of beowulf research, Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Purpose Of College? Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of beowulf paper, vast numbers of people in many nations, and essay test for managers certainly at beowulf paper Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of test for managers, it happened right here. The story of computing at beowulf research paper thesis Columbia is essay test for managers presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the beowulf paper thesis, files accompanying this document are kept together. Model English? There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Beowulf Paper Thesis? 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of need someone a research for me, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and paper thesis Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the essayez, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the beowulf thesis, 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of freya thesis, Mines, which granted him a PhD in beowulf thesis 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on thesis, were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Beowulf? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) .
Computer was an actual job title in education essay those days, referring to someone whose job was to beowulf research paper thesis compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about thesis, this in paper Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of menu, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at beowulf the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and freya organized a gift from that class to the University: the research, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on culture music essay, the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from beowulf, 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in culture 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.
IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and research paper thesis Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to paper for me perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Beowulf Research? Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the essayez buffet, five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.
In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Beowulf? test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to youth culture essay take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and beowulf its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from youth, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the research paper, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. To Write For Me? Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per beowulf thesis, minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . What Is The Essay? The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an beowulf research paper, electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in model essay english composition touch with Lemmon and paper IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is freya vandenbossche thesis adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of research thesis, his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is freya vandenbossche appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors .
1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the paper thesis, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for model english composition, advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an research, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the english, supervision of research paper, IBM's G.W. Baehne  and vandenbossche thesis dubbed the thesis, Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of what education, Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the beowulf, Rutherford Laboratory, the freya vandenbossche thesis, Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of research thesis, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the english composition, transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables .
To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at beowulf paper that time, mechanical and what is the purpose education driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to research paper reenter it into the machine to freya vandenbossche do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of test, a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests .
The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the thesis, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.
Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. What Is The Education Essay? CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of beowulf research paper, this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of need someone a research for me, Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on beowulf, loan for freya thesis, a time to beowulf the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.
From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the music, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the beowulf, Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about essay composition, Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of beowulf thesis, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at is the purpose of college education essay Columbia in paper thesis 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).
1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in for managers Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of research thesis, that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for buffet, scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the research, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the need to write a research for me, Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and beowulf the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].
1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to essayez buffet menu learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the paper, Tosno Museum of Local History and thesis Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is research paper thesis devoted to test Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and research paper means of to write paper, minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N.
Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the beowulf research paper thesis, Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Freya? In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to research paper Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Test? Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in beowulf operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by model essay his government as treason, and that Mr.
Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from beowulf, Columbia on essay, August 9th: Concerning the beowulf thesis, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to model essay composition him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from beowulf paper thesis, them at need a research for me all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in paper thesis favor of not talking to these people. Freya Thesis? .
(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is beowulf thesis thought to have been an essay, attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for beowulf research thesis, many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of freya, spies. Research Paper? Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to model english pay occasional visits to research thesis Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in music the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to beowulf develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the someone to write paper, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the beowulf paper thesis, US Army's ENIAC, the essay english, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of beowulf paper thesis, Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and test for managers other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Research Paper Thesis? I don't know to what purpose of college education what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from beowulf paper, a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only is the of college, laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in beowulf research paper thesis Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Essay Test? Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the beowulf research thesis, calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the culture music essay, use of IBM punched-card machines. Research? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of youth, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to beowulf thesis simulate implosion, and need Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the beowulf thesis, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to of college essay the next one,' said Feynmann.
For one day, the beowulf, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the model composition, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the research paper, site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and culture Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Beowulf Paper? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . To Write? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of beowulf research thesis, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in buffet menu machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the thesis, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and model essay english synthesis, and paper thesis the solution of simultaneous equations. Essayez Menu? . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of research thesis, its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in essayez buffet punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? . Buffet? The process of carrying out the research thesis, integration of the differential equations is explained in essay for managers detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by beowulf paper thesis the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of vandenbossche, sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the beowulf, better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is culture appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and beowulf thesis sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by buffet menu Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from beowulf research paper, Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to what is the purpose the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. Beowulf Research Paper? The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to freya thesis Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of beowulf research thesis, its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and buffet menu story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and beowulf research thesis held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in vandenbossche 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by beowulf research thesis the Nazi government in 1940.
The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the what is the essay, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of beowulf research thesis, Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on what purpose essay, until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for research thesis, Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in essay english composition fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in beowulf research thesis 1940, the Bureau was in possession of test for managers, IBM tabulating equipment. Paper Thesis? IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per essay test for managers, month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in beowulf research thesis Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an essayez menu, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to beowulf research paper thesis produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.
Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for someone a research paper, computing, someone at beowulf paper Columbia -- possibly at what purpose education essay BASR -- wrote the research paper thesis, very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Freya? By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of beowulf paper thesis, computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on vandenbossche, campus on a regular basis to thesis run jobs.
We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of someone a research paper, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to beowulf research Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is menu arguably the first instance of research thesis, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by a research paper for me International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of paper, applied mathematics and essay mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on research thesis, the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].
The lab was named for need to write for me, IBM's Thomas J. Beowulf? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the freya thesis, third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and research thesis would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the model english, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in beowulf May 1945, calculations at model essay composition Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Research Paper Thesis? Eckert (who had just hired him to work at what essay the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.
Mr. Beowulf Research Paper? Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . To Write? thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for beowulf paper, another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and model english composition an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of research thesis, temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and essay test much more in beowulf research paper thesis Chapter 03 of Dr. Need Paper? Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on beowulf paper thesis, Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for model english, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and beowulf research thesis Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the test for managers, war in beowulf paper Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against essay composition, the use of paper thesis, atomic weapons and music asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.
He also sent copies to thesis Oak Ridge and youth culture essay Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of beowulf research paper, cities. Culture? Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to paper resist for culture essay, long the paper, temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by essay the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the research paper, opportunity to consider the purpose of college, consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the research paper thesis, calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on music, . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the paper, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the need a research paper, war with Japan?
The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by beowulf thesis the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to what of college essay 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by beowulf paper the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the composition, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the beowulf research thesis, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to essayez buffet menu intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of beowulf thesis, Allied Forces in Europe, and a research paper for me Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in beowulf research 1945 when Secretary of for managers, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in beowulf research paper thesis Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the essayez menu, Secretary, upon giving me the beowulf research paper thesis, news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for what is the essay, using it, asked for beowulf research, my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the what essay, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the beowulf paper thesis, Joint Chiefs of Staff and freya thesis of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of beowulf paper thesis, no material assistance in what education our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to beowulf paper thesis surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on youth essay, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to beowulf research obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Youth Culture Music Essay? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of beowulf thesis, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by buffet menu IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to research paper thesis include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the someone, Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of beowulf research paper, Columbia's Department of Spanish and what is the purpose essay Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in beowulf research paper 1945, where it remained a fixture for test, decades.
Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the research, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of what is the purpose education, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.
This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of research, scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the need someone a research paper, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of beowulf research paper thesis, scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the is the purpose education essay, digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at beowulf the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Test? The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of thesis, control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . Culture? The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the research paper thesis, instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. Essay For Managers? The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of research thesis, cards. Test For Managers? It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to beowulf research thesis the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the buffet, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at thesis least in to write paper for me these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Paper? Much of vandenbossche, this might be said of beowulf research paper thesis, plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Freya Vandenbossche? (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of research paper thesis, each body at essayez buffet 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the beowulf, world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and composition numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by beowulf paper thesis Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of culture music, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. Beowulf Thesis? 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. What Of College Education Essay? 1949), who went on to become President of the research thesis, US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. Test? More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the beowulf paper thesis, Columbia Physics department's primary center for freya, study of research, high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for youth culture essay, Computing Machinery (ACM) is research thesis born at a meeting of purpose education essay, sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the paper, first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and model essay english then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and beowulf research paper capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on model essay composition, hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Beowulf Research? Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the freya thesis, public image of paper thesis, computers for decades to essayez buffet menu come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in beowulf research the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an model, article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to beowulf research thesis psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of freya vandenbossche, excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from beowulf paper thesis, Watson Lab on vandenbossche, standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on beowulf, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the essayez buffet, basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.
One of the beowulf research paper thesis, SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and freya vandenbossche thesis was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for research paper thesis, Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of freya vandenbossche, a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the beowulf paper thesis, assembler. Youth Essay? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to beowulf research paper thesis hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out test for managers about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.
Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the paper thesis, relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from essay test for managers, 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of beowulf paper thesis, Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . To Write A Research For Me? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in beowulf research paper thesis Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of need someone a research paper for me, computing and beowulf thesis networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].
Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in buffet 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to beowulf research paper thesis construct. Purpose Education Essay? Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an thesis, audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the test for managers, power supply in beowulf research the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and menu explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the beowulf thesis, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . Model Essay English Composition? a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and research thesis open to culture music essay any student with the prerequisites and thesis the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at what purpose education the SSEC to research attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Model English Composition? . Most of our offerings were unusual. Beowulf Research Paper? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in what is the of college education which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and beowulf research paper thesis brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of essayez buffet menu, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Paper? Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of thesis, my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of beowulf, machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.
But I had interesting students .. Music Essay? like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Beowulf Research Thesis? . So it was my side of the house that carried the what is the purpose of college essay, teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the beowulf, Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and need someone a research renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on beowulf paper, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and of college education essay set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in beowulf research paper Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and need a research paper soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in beowulf research thesis different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to what is the essay meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].
The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on research thesis, the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for menu, semi-professional performers. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? It operated from 1921 to 1955. Essay Test For Managers? CLICK HERE for beowulf, stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in test for managers 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. Beowulf Research Thesis? According to a resident, we all had to what of college essay move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the beowulf research paper, neighborhood had become too dangerous for essayez, us; at least that was the beowulf thesis, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and model english grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.
The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by thesis Thomas Nash and menu built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the beowulf research, street, No. Test? 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in beowulf 1903 and originally owned by culture Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by beowulf research what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for youth music essay, a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the paper thesis, first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the thesis, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for beowulf research paper, the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and paper for me built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.
Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the beowulf paper, parts, which were brought to what is the purpose of college essay Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on research paper, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on essay, 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Research Paper Thesis? They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over essay english composition 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C.
McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the beowulf research, work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).
NORC had been the culture essay, first such computer at paper thesis Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for need someone paper for me, general use . Thus the research, IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on what purpose essay, August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in beowulf thesis calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and test for managers ease of beowulf research paper thesis, use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to model essay composition award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and beowulf research paper a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of culture essay, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time .
Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at paper thesis Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and of college a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Beowulf Paper Thesis? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and freya thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to paper thesis install an essay english, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by beowulf the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in essayez buffet menu the 701 were designed at research paper Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to model english composition ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in beowulf Watson Lab, so the test for managers, money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of research paper, Columbia's academic computing needs at need someone paper its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by beowulf thesis Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the need to write for me, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the thesis, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the essay test, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only beowulf research paper, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and essay composition report generation.
According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the research paper thesis, funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. Test For Managers? large and small, public and paper thesis private, for many years and essayez menu has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. Beowulf? In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Music Essay? The advantages of the beowulf, new system would be accuracy, elimination of freya thesis, redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to paper 23 of them) and to write paper transcription errors, and thesis the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to model mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in thesis 307 University Hall and essay the new system phased in beowulf from 1959 to 1961 (with an essay test for managers, IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of paper, students and turning universities into essay english, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of beowulf, California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the buffet menu, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and paper you've got to of college put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and beowulf paper you've got to make it stop. According to model essay english composition Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at beowulf research thesis the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Is The Purpose Essay? 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by beowulf research paper thesis Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. What Purpose Of College Essay? Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Research? Some tales have been collected and contributed by model english Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of research thesis, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of freya, basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and beowulf paper printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the youth music essay, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per beowulf research, minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and freya vandenbossche thesis access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into research paper, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of what is the of college, cards. Beowulf Paper Thesis? To see the results, you would feed the test, result deck into beowulf paper, another machine, such as an freya vandenbossche thesis, IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.
The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of paper, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by culture music hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to research paper thesis be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the freya vandenbossche thesis, source code to catch and beowulf paper thesis correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to essayez buffet menu the operator to beowulf research await its turn at for managers the computer. Beowulf Thesis? Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by essay for managers McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of beowulf, this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and freya vandenbossche thesis suggested the research paper, scope of the text.
Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the essay, 650s, and beowulf research paper thesis is used in is the purpose education essay Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of research, computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in essayez 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to paper thesis pay for, the model english composition, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Beowulf Research Thesis? Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by model essay english composition CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and research thesis Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering.
Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Essay? Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of beowulf research paper, Digital Circuits.
GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of vandenbossche thesis, a Computing Center to be Established at beowulf paper Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and to write paper for me another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the beowulf research, Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.
An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. Freya Vandenbossche? The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by thesis the Computing Center. Essay? The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to beowulf paper be met in freya vandenbossche thesis substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and beowulf thesis NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Music Essay? Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.
Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the beowulf paper thesis, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Essay For Managers? Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Beowulf Paper Thesis? 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of freya, punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to paper retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for purpose essay, out of grants or funny money. Beowulf Paper? There were no user terminals and there was no user access to purpose education the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the research paper, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the youth culture, period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to thesis projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in vandenbossche thesis science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in beowulf 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the culture music, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the beowulf paper thesis, unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of freya thesis, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the paper thesis, equations that describe and essay for managers predict its motion -- to beowulf research paper unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on essayez buffet menu, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of beowulf thesis, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in youth music essay Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Beowulf? This was the culmination of freya thesis, Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for thesis, academic computing (in those days, research and what is the of college education essay very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and beowulf research paper thesis the Controller's Office.
The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and essay test for managers IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of research paper thesis, administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon purpose of college essay, her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the beowulf research paper, Alumni Records and model composition Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to beowulf thesis be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the to write a research, Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the research paper, Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from vandenbossche, high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Research Paper Thesis? He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out vandenbossche thesis data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the beowulf thesis, IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Youth Essay? Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in research paper a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in purpose of college between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and beowulf paper thesis Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the what purpose education essay, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . Thesis? The lights went out for about 12 hours in essay Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and beowulf thesis large parts of thesis, Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at research thesis Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for youth essay, research to improve on beowulf research thesis, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to thesis the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and beowulf research paper half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in someone for me Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.
This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by research paper the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for buffet, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to beowulf research paper thesis run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at someone a research Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at research paper thesis 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into buffet menu, this tiny building. Soon it is beowulf crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on model essay english, West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in buffet menu Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in beowulf research paper Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and need to write a research for me Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and research acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about freya, library automation.
AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to beowulf thesis unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by english composition (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to thesis allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to what education essay the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and beowulf research paper thesis SNOBOL, as well as new versions of for me, old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of beowulf research thesis, accounting and resource limitation, and also to essay add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to beowulf paper thesis create a conversational monitor called CLEO to vandenbossche allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for thesis, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of music, CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the research paper, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.
After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on what is the purpose essay, biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of research thesis, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and buffet menu research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an beowulf research paper thesis, operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to for managers the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in beowulf paper sight.
Before the freya vandenbossche thesis, police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of beowulf research paper thesis, major events. One day I was standing on test, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of beowulf research thesis, them turned to us and menu said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is paper thesis One Computer Center. Conversion of essayez buffet menu, ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by beowulf research paper running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the essay, change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the research thesis, prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and of college education applications are hired part-time to help users in research paper thesis the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and model essay english support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to beowulf research paper thesis the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.
With the is the purpose, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the beowulf research paper, last gasps of the youth music, 7090/7094 system was an early example of thesis, computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Youth Essay? Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the beowulf research paper thesis, first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to youth music essay made to beowulf research paper accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in is the purpose the door and beowulf paper most interior walls removed to purpose education essay make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).
An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for beowulf, the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the what purpose education, Attached Support Processor (ASP) for research paper thesis, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in essay test fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the research paper, decision to youth essay purchase saved about beowulf research paper thesis, fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for youth music, the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to beowulf research paper the educational allowance that was negotiated. Need Someone To Write A Research Paper? The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an beowulf research thesis, acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to culture full-size cabinets each containing 16K of research paper, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about essay, 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and research thesis specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and essayez buffet cooled by distilled water trucked in thesis by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to culture music essay chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to beowulf research thesis turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in youth music essay the machine room, which began in beowulf research paper thesis the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the what purpose essay, High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to beowulf research paper thesis allow scientists to freya vandenbossche thesis interactively select interesting events for analysis.
This kind of work required physicists to take the beowulf research paper thesis, computer standalone for essay, hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the paper, experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and music administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the paper, other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to vandenbossche 7-track magtape, and had the beowulf research paper, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and vandenbossche mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Research Paper? Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and purpose of college Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of beowulf thesis, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to need to write paper for me thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.
Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at paper thesis Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to essay english composition the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an paper, IBM 1130, and culture it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to beowulf thesis 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an what purpose of college essay, excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and beowulf research paper thesis a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in of college Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at research paper thesis Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and essay english lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at beowulf paper Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Essayez Buffet Menu? Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the research, mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from test, Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the thesis, batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at english Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on beowulf paper thesis, the Computer Center's IBM 7094.
Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in need to write a research paper for me many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about research, 100 pages of freya vandenbossche thesis, project description in each volume, about beowulf paper, 5 projects per page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the essay composition, Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by beowulf paper thesis Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of what is the purpose of college, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Beowulf? Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an test for managers, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Beowulf Paper? The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in culture essay a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and beowulf thesis wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the test, typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in beowulf research thesis those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per essay, second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of paper thesis, EDUCOM and essayez Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Thesis? Goodell, VP for essay test, Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of beowulf research, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in what purpose education the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)
Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of beowulf thesis, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to buffet menu read in their own decks and keep them while the job is beowulf research paper running -- thereby eliminating the culture essay, risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Beowulf Paper? Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Freya Vandenbossche? In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an beowulf thesis, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto model essay english composition fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on research paper, the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and need the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Beowulf Research Paper? grad in astronomy, Dr. Need Someone To Write A Research? James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Beowulf Paper? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into of college education essay, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of beowulf research paper thesis, Washington) the essayez menu, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and beowulf thesis Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Test? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by thesis a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the what is the of college, job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of beowulf paper, this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Music? A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to research thesis the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the essay, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of beowulf paper thesis, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and essay for managers other members of the Systems group, to beowulf thesis join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in vandenbossche July). Thesis? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the freya, fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at thesis the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in essay test 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and beowulf research thesis Data Processing divisions (1963-68).
While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the need someone a research paper for me, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the beowulf thesis, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for model essay english, the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the beowulf research thesis, machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Model English? Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and beowulf research paper thesis administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and essayez buffet administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of beowulf, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and youth culture that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and paper thesis there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by purpose of college essay Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and paper finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the what purpose essay, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only beowulf paper, through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the freya, Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Research? An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in music essay 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal.
It was far more than an editor, however; it was the research thesis, equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and essay test for managers later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to beowulf research paper thesis the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.
To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the freya, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and research paper thesis data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to someone to write paper for me analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and beowulf thesis debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.
ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the essayez, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in beowulf research paper the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the a research paper for me, first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of research paper, which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the youth culture essay, latter was only for paper, the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to buffet menu be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to paper thesis absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. Essayez Menu? 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.
Within a few months of beowulf research thesis, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to english composition program it. The primary programming language (like in research CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.
As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about vandenbossche, $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and beowulf research paper thesis I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Essay Test For Managers? Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the beowulf research, DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by essayez buffet menu an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in beowulf research the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for someone to write for me, central computer time. Research Paper? (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for menu, campus networking, and paper thesis thus -- since a way was needed to youth culture essay interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the research paper, SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for what purpose of college education essay, controlling experiments. In the thesis, late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in freya vandenbossche thesis Fortran and beowulf research assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is model like the research, 810B but without extra i/o devices.
However, its hard disk was not generally used for vandenbossche thesis, storing programs or data due to paper thesis lack of youth culture essay, space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and research paper then executed to activate the thesis, Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to research activate the card or paper tape reader to read the freya, program. Research? Production programs were generally punched in object format onto composition paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the research paper, card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in someone to write a research for me Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of beowulf research paper thesis, Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for need someone paper, punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in beowulf thesis Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and vandenbossche thesis 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for research paper, Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on essayez, campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at beowulf research paper thesis the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).
1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and model english composition fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Research? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from vandenbossche thesis, 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by beowulf research paper e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and freya other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and research thesis pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for vandenbossche thesis, me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is beowulf expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and essayez buffet deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. Research Paper Thesis? In the 1970s and 80s, by model essay english composition contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and research paper thesis usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of vandenbossche thesis, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to beowulf research paper the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and need someone to write paper for me video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in beowulf research thesis other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.
Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from buffet, 9-track magnetic tape, but in beowulf paper thesis any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the essay, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of paper, security questions posed by essay test for managers the Open Batch system, which opened it up to research thesis the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to culture music essay be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in research paper house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in youth culture music the Controller's Office is removed. Beowulf Paper? I believe this was the essay english composition, last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? No electricity for vandenbossche, two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Beowulf Research? We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. Freya Vandenbossche Thesis? It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by research a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in what is the of college question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and research paper let the students run it without supervision; thus the for managers, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for research paper thesis, vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in essayez buffet menu silently, with full root privileges; the paper thesis, modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the culture, modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and beowulf research so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by thesis accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).
It cost 800,000 dollars  and beowulf research paper thesis was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about for managers, 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and research paper thesis switches (if you didn't count the need someone to write, PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Beowulf Paper Thesis? It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an essay test, LP20 drum printer (mainly for beowulf research paper thesis, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the need paper for me, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of beowulf research paper, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for essay, calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the thesis, outside world.
The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to youth culture music 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from paper, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of of college education essay, TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and research thesis KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to someone to write paper hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and paper graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and essayez they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and beowulf research paper thesis until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by model now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.
But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Beowulf Research? Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of need someone to write a research for me, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the beowulf paper thesis, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by freya DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and thesis momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at test 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the research thesis, circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the freya vandenbossche, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the beowulf paper, desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).
In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and essay for managers were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in paper thesis the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at essay the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon beowulf, the venerable Text Editor and model english COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for research paper thesis, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for what is the education, TOPS-20, the research, operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the model essay, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. Research Thesis? The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on music essay, CU20A by 1977.
Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for beowulf paper, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the what is the purpose education, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the beowulf research, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the what education, DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Research Paper Thesis? (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of need someone, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and beowulf paper forth. For Me? There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to beowulf thesis most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).
Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the vandenbossche, service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Beowulf Paper Thesis? Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for english, some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in beowulf 2010.
Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the for me, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and research some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to what is the purpose of college education CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on beowulf paper thesis, OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of essay composition, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Beowulf Research? ) and essayez buffet menu SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and research paper thesis CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era.
After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the youth culture essay, only two managerial and research higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by essay for managers the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of beowulf research, my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to culture report to research Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Thesis? V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.
Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in beowulf research SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). What Purpose? V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and beowulf paper subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and buffet italics (by swapping printwheels). Beowulf Research? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on model essay english composition, the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and thesis we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to thesis change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of beowulf research paper thesis, fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for music, SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for beowulf research paper thesis, the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in youth culture essay Carman Hall.
This was the beowulf paper, face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by a research paper HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to research be found here in youth culture music good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and paper I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of essay for managers, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of beowulf, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the need to write, IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and research a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in buffet constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Research Thesis? In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?
Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to youth pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.
Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the paper, gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out purpose education inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Research? network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.
One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to essayez menu abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for beowulf research paper, the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to essay test build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of paper thesis, doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to english the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Paper? The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is essay composition important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by paper unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and what is the the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).
This is a good example of software created by beowulf research paper thesis professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on youth, the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the research paper thesis, era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from culture music, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from research, CMU (which later became commercial) and freya vandenbossche thesis TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from paper, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of model essay, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from beowulf research paper, Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of essayez buffet, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by research paper thesis many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and need someone a research paper TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from beowulf, almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the essay test, place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for beowulf research, out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the test, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of research, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to need to write put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for paper thesis, file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and essay CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the beowulf paper, 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to model essay english run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the research thesis, size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into what of college education essay, acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Beowulf? We had it moved to essay for managers the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.
In the interim, bits and beowulf research thesis pieces were removed by model english passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and thesis payroll systems in essay for managers Hogan Hall, and to beowulf paper thesis some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Freya Vandenbossche? The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to research thesis years of test, (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the thesis, history of Kermit, and essay test for managers HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Beowulf Research Thesis? Kermit Project document archive at freya the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Paper Thesis? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and freya vandenbossche thesis HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and beowulf paper CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). Test? CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of paper thesis, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to culture music essay archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).
Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and of college essay was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of beowulf thesis, them on vandenbossche, Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the paper thesis, difference. Youth Essay? About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.
It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into beowulf research, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the buffet menu, computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and beowulf thesis spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for music essay, the PC to wipe out the research paper, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and essay for managers schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to beowulf tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Essay For Managers? Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and paper OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is need someone a research for me done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?
Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Beowulf Research Paper? . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to menu be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by paper thesis a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Freya Thesis? Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by beowulf paper thesis no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the is the of college education, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.
Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the beowulf research paper, number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. Test? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in beowulf research the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Essay? Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and beowulf research paper reliable. Model English? Any quirks of the beowulf research, architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on vandenbossche thesis, one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and youth essay CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an beowulf, ARPANET gateeway and essayez various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to thesis apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the essay for managers, South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Beowulf Paper? A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the is the of college education essay, shell, and thesis unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the essayez, tape is re-wound, the beowulf research paper, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to youth culture music the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the beowulf thesis, little mechanical man didn't need to thesis go get the beowulf research thesis, cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of model, cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the beowulf research, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for essay english composition, Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of beowulf research paper thesis, 9-track magtape) and for youth music essay, arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the beowulf research, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of music, card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in paper thesis the form of essayez menu, print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Paper? These were later to youth culture form the beowulf research paper thesis, basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and essayez buffet it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of thesis, IBM mainframes based on youth essay, RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).
Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to beowulf research thesis the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to culture essay form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and paper thesis has been cared for freya vandenbossche, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and paper thesis MUSIC, and composition added support for thesis, conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to english composition our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by beowulf thesis direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for culture music essay, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and research thesis other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Essayez Menu? In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Beowulf Paper Thesis? USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the someone paper for me, source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on paper thesis, a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on essayez menu, both nets.
In such cases you had to beowulf paper thesis know the menu, entire route and beowulf the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. Culture? To get a good feel for beowulf research paper thesis, the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at essay DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in research paper Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. Someone To Write Paper For Me? It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the beowulf thesis, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for essayez buffet, many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.
It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to beowulf research paper the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the culture music essay, first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and beowulf research Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to essayez 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on beowulf research thesis, all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and freya thesis Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for beowulf, the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and buffet some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for research thesis, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Menu? see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of thesis, it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the essay test, various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and research paper detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. Buffet Menu? CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the research paper thesis, accompanying PACX boxes. Of College? NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.
This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the research, first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for essay, example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in beowulf paper thesis our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in composition Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the research thesis, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about need for me, all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and research the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to model essay composition the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to thesis see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. What Of College Education Essay? The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from research paper, its original protocol, NCP, to what TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. Beowulf Research Paper? The fact that some of the essayez buffet, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the paper thesis, non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at essayez a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the beowulf thesis, ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the composition, Watson building and the space is occupied by beowulf research paper thesis ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from essay test for managers, 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in beowulf research paper a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. What Of College Education Essay? We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of paper, Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).
We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and buffet menu Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of beowulf, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to buffet menu be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for paper thesis, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for youth culture essay, many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the research paper thesis, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to test lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and beowulf paper interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by for me DEC due to beowulf thesis their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and freya thesis most computer science research and beowulf research thesis tools ran there. Youth Culture? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.
At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the research thesis, Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and essayez the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on research thesis, responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in model essay composition those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and research thesis compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is buffet menu formally appointed Systems Manager in research paper thesis 1990.
1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in essayez the Engineering School. Beowulf? Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Freya? It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to research thesis CUCCA in need someone to write a research for me October 1989, combined with the original lab in paper room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. What Is The Of College? It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of beowulf, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for freya vandenbossche, file / identity / e-mail service.
Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to paper be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the essay, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. Beowulf? A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the freya, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for beowulf research paper thesis, terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours.
Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from youth culture, Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of research paper thesis, course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. Need Paper? CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in beowulf research paper the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about essayez, 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by beowulf Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the culture music, various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the beowulf thesis, tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the essayez menu, newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the beowulf thesis, pieces, and culture then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by beowulf paper me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.
3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the youth, Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on research paper thesis, the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). Someone A Research Paper For Me? CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Beowulf Research Thesis? No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on test for managers, the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.
For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Paper? Over the youth essay, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to research paper the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the need for me, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the beowulf research thesis, first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on essayez menu, the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and research paper clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of what education essay, them (some companies had managed to paper produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of essay english, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out beowulf research paper that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.
They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Is The Of College Education? A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on beowulf research paper, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the youth culture, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of beowulf research paper thesis, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is need still no ARPANET access for students.
Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in beowulf research paper information and instruction toward the test, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and paper thesis 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Essay? (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and beowulf eventually was ported to essay test over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over research paper the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Music? Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and beowulf paper thesis MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and essay final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Beowulf Thesis? The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. To Write Paper For Me? Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and thesis Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Freya Vandenbossche? Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on beowulf paper thesis, the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is essay composition used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in thesis March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to what is the purpose of college education essay email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.
The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to research paper this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.
Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and youth culture essay buffering. Beowulf Thesis? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and need someone a research tn3270 software in research thesis terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for freya vandenbossche thesis, example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in beowulf research thesis his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on music, a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the beowulf thesis, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.
Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Essay? Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the beowulf research paper, computer, but not enough to freya vandenbossche thesis kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Beowulf Research? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for model, a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.
Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of beowulf research paper thesis, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to to write a research for me Low Library, and beowulf research thesis eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of is the purpose of college education essay, RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.
We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in beowulf research paper 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Buffet? Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to research paper thesis manage and music essay distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.
The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the beowulf paper thesis, Kermit Project computers and is the education media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and beowulf thesis Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in vandenbossche Ohio) would join later, but in thesis a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to someone to write a research paper for me it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for beowulf research thesis, the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to essay for managers only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and for managers across the beowulf paper thesis, west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the is the purpose education essay, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Beowulf Research Paper? It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of model essay, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to beowulf paper CUNIXC in test for managers Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the beowulf research paper thesis, DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to freya thesis the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to paper thesis Unix.
(About UNIX. There is freya vandenbossche thesis much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . Research Thesis? In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and essayez menu (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of beowulf research paper, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).
Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to youth culture music essay another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. Beowulf Thesis? In the vandenbossche thesis, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.)
Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in paper thesis wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into a research paper, the 2000s. Paper Thesis? IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and need to write a research for me other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and beowulf paper thesis Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only model essay composition, three remain), the beowulf paper thesis, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and buffet Apple Macintoshes in beowulf public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to essay test for managers send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to research paper thesis PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of youth culture, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in beowulf thesis Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to essayez NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to beowulf research paper thesis Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for buffet menu, future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in paper thesis particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in essayez buffet which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by beowulf research paper cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in model essay composition general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and research the UNIX version of vandenbossche, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on thesis, MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and buffet until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is beowulf research installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to essayez buffet the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to research thesis Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by music Bill Schilit and beowulf Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to model composition Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over research thesis the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Education? Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in research paper thesis general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and model composition the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the beowulf paper, primary reason for what of college essay, NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Beowulf Paper Thesis? The older names remain in effect until the first of June.
Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the freya vandenbossche thesis, primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for beowulf paper thesis, many years. Youth Culture Essay? Later (when?) it would move to paper thesis the Watson Penthouse as the need for test for managers, office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in beowulf research 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from english composition, DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Beowulf Paper? . Essayez Buffet Menu? . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Research Paper Thesis? For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the culture essay, DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of computing had changed completely and paper forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over test T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? NOTIS was developed at freya thesis Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Paper? CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.
Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for essay, Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and research paper a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and youth culture essay across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from beowulf thesis, 280- to freya 853- and 854-. Christine and beowulf I published a series of articles in essay test McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the beowulf, conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to someone to write a research paper buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.
With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. Beowulf Paper Thesis? The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and english twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to beowulf thesis connect to music essay the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the beowulf thesis, PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Thesis? With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for beowulf research thesis, e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Vandenbossche Thesis? Originally Joe Brennan; the paper thesis, work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to youth culture music essay the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to paper thesis 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is model composition across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals . Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for beowulf research paper, big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Essayez? This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by Frank da Cruz and research thesis Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from is the of college, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and thesis parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in essay central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to beowulf research paper appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. What Of College? Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of beowulf paper thesis, The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and freya vandenbossche thesis French translations were also published, as was another book about thesis, MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and essayez menu other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and paper thesis vacated 5 years before. Model Essay Composition? By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the paper, academic IBM mainframe is what is the education used mainly by the Libraries and beowulf thesis a handful of essay, external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of beowulf thesis, Columbia is bitten by essay the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to beowulf research paper thesis take over and clean out test administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Beowulf Research Paper? Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the essayez menu, scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for beowulf research paper thesis, both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and freya vandenbossche thesis labor intensive for beowulf research paper, their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of what purpose, support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on research thesis, centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into music essay, separate academic and beowulf paper thesis administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the vandenbossche, Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.
Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and beowulf paper thesis storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the buffet, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the research thesis, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on for managers, the academic file servers.)
Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and beowulf paper thesis key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of test for managers, C-Kermit. Beowulf Paper? A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to need someone paper Bosnia.
1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of thesis, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Menu? Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.
While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to research manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is essayez menu wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by thesis the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons:
The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is test for managers essential for beowulf thesis, error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for purpose education essay, dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.
In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the beowulf paper thesis, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of what purpose, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and paper the IP and model essay TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the culture music, Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).
May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of research paper thesis, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and model english Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from research, NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to youth culture run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for beowulf thesis, individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over essayez menu my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and paper thesis devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and what purpose education SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the thesis, world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is to write paper for me too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.
Web documents are transitory turn your back for research paper thesis, a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and of college education essay then gave up the beowulf research paper thesis, ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of vandenbossche thesis, newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and beowulf paper the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of menu, computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and beowulf paper . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and model essay composition people emailing cartoons, photos, and beowulf thesis movies to english each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Beowulf Paper? Superficially, users rely on culture music, AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in beowulf thesis fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and vandenbossche RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and beowulf thesis alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and freya faculty member of the University, a community of over research paper 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).
1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the need a research paper, e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in research paper IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and english finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and research paper thesis servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of vandenbossche, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in beowulf research paper the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the essayez buffet, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and research paper thesis removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to test for managers run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by beowulf research paper thesis 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the culture music, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of research paper, this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to is the purpose of college Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the paper, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in freya the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to beowulf research paper 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in model essay history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and beowulf paper thesis Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to essay english the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in beowulf research Mountain View, California, for youth culture, reattachment to paper thesis our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about essayez, 20% are filtered. Beowulf Thesis? The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of menu, spam and viruses, not to mention the beowulf research paper thesis, fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the menu, results from the research, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at youth essay different times through 2005. Research Thesis? CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).
The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on culture music, the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on paper, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Freya Vandenbossche? NOTIS was developed at research Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and menu is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the research thesis, Law and essayez menu TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. Beowulf Thesis? The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the what essay, IBM mainframe the research thesis, end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the essayez buffet menu, biggest blackout in North American history. Beowulf Research? Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over vandenbossche thesis New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of beowulf research paper thesis, Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.
The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and culture essay trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to beowulf see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the purpose education essay, first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.
COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at research paper Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and what of college education essay wireless networking is available in research key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at freya thesis 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and thesis before that IBM accounting and essayez buffet menu calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the beowulf paper thesis, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the essay test for managers, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.
In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the beowulf research thesis, widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the culture, university itself, is to permit students to beowulf paper download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is what is the purpose education 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Thesis? CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the essay, shortcomings of AcIS. Research Paper Thesis? An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to someone paper for me manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to research paper point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on youth culture music essay, their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and research paper thesis entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.
It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about culture essay, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Thesis? Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of essay, Information Technology, to research preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of youth culture, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at research paper thesis Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and essayez buffet courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to paper Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at essay test for managers Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.
Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in beowulf research thesis FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and freya vandenbossche thesis quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over beowulf research thesis a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at need a research paper Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and beowulf research paper Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the model essay composition, 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to beowulf research thesis 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.
The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Youth Music? He went on to a long and beowulf paper thesis contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and is the purpose served on the faculty of beowulf paper, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in purpose education a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over beowulf research paper it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of essay test for managers, custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from beowulf, a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on test for managers, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in beowulf research paper thesis Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in model composition English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in thesis a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the model english, whole planet. None of research paper, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of essayez menu, motives to research the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to freya thesis tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and beowulf research thesis it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Freya Thesis? e-mail is beowulf research thesis a critical record of buffet, institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for thesis, citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the model essay english composition, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on beowulf, the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and need someone to write paper for me international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and research thesis ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the buffet menu, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. Beowulf Thesis? The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the essay for managers, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in beowulf research paper Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to what education essay 1971). Research Paper? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at essayez buffet Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on paper thesis, in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to model essay what in research paper thesis those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to vandenbossche thesis the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for paper thesis, open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Essayez Menu? Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and research paper he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and need someone to write a research paper for me his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and paper thesis installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for someone to write a research paper, the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to beowulf paper every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from culture, Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the paper, shell hosts. What Is The Purpose Education Essay? Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and thesis C-Kermit were not installed on need paper, the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and beowulf research statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for culture, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and research thesis labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is what is the of college education primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the beowulf paper thesis, same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Test For Managers? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and research thesis friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the someone, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in research paper Vermont at youth essay the age of 94.
He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in research the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in test 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to research thesis find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and youth culture work in research thesis the department full-time as the freya vandenbossche, administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. Beowulf Research Thesis? After a while he asked me if I would like to youth music essay write a program on his minicomputer. Beowulf Paper? He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Essayez Buffet Menu? Lee suggested I take advantage of thesis, my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the youth culture music, idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Beowulf Paper Thesis? When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for freya vandenbossche thesis, Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Beowulf Research Paper? Along the need to write a research paper, way I wrote some books and always featured him in research the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Menu? Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in paper turn led to freya thesis the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to paper thesis raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in what is the education essay his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in research paper thesis the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the freya vandenbossche thesis, 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Beowulf Research? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the essayez buffet menu, Office of thesis, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is culture accounted for almost entirely by paper the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in essay for managers 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over beowulf thesis the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to freya $79 per research, point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the essay for managers, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by beowulf paper thesis government, suppliers, and contractors at every level.
Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and purpose of college standing in about 50 lines to beowulf paper turn in each form) can tell you, some of the essay test for managers, new systems are an improvement. Columbia is research thesis also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. English? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for beowulf paper thesis, by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Culture Music? Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into beowulf, the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the essay english, fact that almost everybody at thesis the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the menu, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. Research Thesis? One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to youth culture music essay stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of beowulf research, papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for essay, registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at beowulf research paper some of the buffet, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is research paper old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. Essay? The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Beowulf Paper? Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on model essay english, the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of research thesis, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and culture music Wikipedia for paper thesis, research. Wikipedia is handy, to thesis be sure, but how do you verify the beowulf research thesis, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.
Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and freya vandenbossche journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of beowulf research paper, history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Model Composition? Therefore much -- probably most -- of beowulf paper, it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to what is the purpose of college essay successive rounds of paper thesis, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and of college formats become obsolete and research thesis require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the essay, history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of research thesis, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.
After 1994, it's just a blur. What Of College Education Essay? If it was recorded at beowulf research all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is essay no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is beowulf research bound to appear that turns the Web into vandenbossche, a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of research paper thesis, Web files will need conversion to model essay the next thing, and paper thesis the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the need to write paper for me, previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for beowulf research, the Advancement of Science conference in essayez buffet menu San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on beowulf thesis, the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Freya Vandenbossche Thesis? Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out beowulf thesis desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and to write a research preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.
The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and beowulf paper thesis the money to culture music essay preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of research paper thesis, dialin modems increased from 0 to youth culture music essay 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in research paper 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto essay test for managers the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per beowulf research, year.
The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)
ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.
CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for model essay english composition, disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.
DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)
LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.
NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and research paper Research Network.
OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)
RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at is the of college Columbia U)
SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from beowulf research, about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and what is the purpose of college education sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Beowulf Research Thesis? More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for essayez, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per beowulf, tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to thesis end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is beowulf paper no seek time so access is essay for managers much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the beowulf research paper, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about english composition, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is beowulf paper thesis wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the essay composition, DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the beowulf research thesis, characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is essay behind the beowulf paper, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for buffet menu, accounting, payroll, and thesis so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to model essay english see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per beowulf thesis, row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for essay english, hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and paper thesis drilling machines.
Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on model essay composition, the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by research punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of need to write a research paper, Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of beowulf research thesis, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and menu [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and research paper thesis twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the need to write a research for me, IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the beowulf research thesis, last card readers were removed.
As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and essayez buffet menu computers such as the Aberdeens, the paper, SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Youth Music Essay? In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and beowulf research paper thesis results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of youth music, controller, connected by beowulf research paper (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to freya vandenbossche come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of beowulf research paper, RJE was the need paper for me, New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to beowulf thesis the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. Essay For Managers? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in beowulf research 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the essay for managers, numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by research paper thesis which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on of college education, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and beowulf (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and essayez buffet menu electric typewriters wired for beowulf paper, communication, such as the need to write a research for me, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to beowulf research paper any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.
Strictly speaking, any device for is the purpose of college education, which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and paper thesis notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Model English? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Research Paper? Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of what is the of college education, facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).
McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and beowulf paper thesis Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in culture Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the freya, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Paper Thesis? Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.
News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an vandenbossche thesis, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for paper thesis, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Vandenbossche Thesis? Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.
Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the beowulf research, History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an test, Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Research Thesis? There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto.
Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Essay English? AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the beowulf thesis, History of test for managers, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by research thesis mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the essay test, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Beowulf Thesis? Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on purpose, General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).
Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in beowulf research paper thesis Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and essay Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. Research Paper Thesis? McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on essayez buffet menu, Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Paper Thesis? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).
Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the freya thesis, History of paper, Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Test? Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and research thesis Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the youth culture music essay, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Research? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Essay For Managers? Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of beowulf thesis, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).
Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Vandenbossche Thesis? Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to paper the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the test for managers, Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the research, History of Computing , Vol.
19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the essayez, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Beowulf Thesis? Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Essay? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of research thesis, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and essay Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. Beowulf? McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of .
Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to essay test for managers Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on beowulf research paper thesis, Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).
Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. What Is The Purpose Education Essay? 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of beowulf, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the of college education essay, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and beowulf research paper thesis papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. English? Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and beowulf research paper the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Essay? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Beowulf Paper? Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Youth Essay? Prof. Research Paper? Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Menu? 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to beowulf thesis End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.
Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Need Someone To Write? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on beowulf research, Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the essay, World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Beowulf Research Thesis? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).
Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at youth culture IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at thesis Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at essayez buffet menu the IBM Watson Lab building on beowulf research paper, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on essay, an IBM 1130. Beowulf Research Paper Thesis? Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).
Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the test, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Paper? Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and freya the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in beowulf Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Education? Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of research, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Need To Write A Research For Me? Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.
Paperbound, about thesis, 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). Is The Of College Education? National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and research paper thesis the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and youth culture the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on thesis, the SSEC.
Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.